Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Van Saene, H. K. F.; Panders, A. K.; Vermey, A. (2011)
Publisher: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Journal: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Languages: English
Types: Article
The constancy of oropharyngeal flora in healthy people is based on intact defence against colonisation. Conditions which can interfere with this defence are underlying disease and medical interventions, and may be associated with alterations in the oropharyngeal flora. The oral flora was assessed by means of a modified oral rinse method based on pre-enrichment in nutrient medium. The colonisation index of the oral cavity was defined as the sum of the log10 of the concentrations of a particular microorganism isolated from one ml of oropharyngeal washing specimens, divided by the number of oral washings. This index was evaluated as an indicator of (decreased) colonisation defence by comparing a group of healthy volunteers with a group of post-surgery head and neck oncology patients. Oral colonisation indices for Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Acinetobacter spp. as well as for Staphylococcus epidermidis were statistically significantly higher in the patient group compared to the volunteers. This clear reduction in colonisation defence, resulting in a high carriage rate of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli, may be a result of the combination of underlying disease (cancer) and surgical intervention (debulking or radical resection of tumor).Keywords: Oropharynx; Colonisation index; Colonisation defence; Oral rinse method; Head and neck cancer
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Barlow AJE, Chattaway FW. (1969). Observations on the carriage of Candida albicans in man. British Journal of Dermatology 81, 103-106.
    • 2. Bloomfield AL. (1919). The fate of bacteria introduced into the upper air passages. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 30,3 17-322.
    • 3. Chapman GH. (1944). The comparative value of human plasma and human whole blood for testing the coagulation power of staphylococci. Journal of Bacteriology 47,211-212.
    • 4. Commission on acute respiratory diseases (1948). Problems in determining the bacterial flora of the pharynx. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 69,45-52.
    • 5. Dreizen S, Gilley EJ, Spies TD. (1956). A comparison of the prevailing cell types in saliva of persons with and without periodontal disease. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology 9,278-283.
    • 6. Edginton ES. (1980). Randomization tests. Marcel Dekker, New York.
    • 7. Fuxench-Lopez Z , Ramirez-Ronda CH. (1978). Pharyngeal flora in ambulatory alcoholic patients. Archives of Internal Medicine 138, 1815-1816.
    • 8. Harvey RWS, Price TH. (1981). Comparison of Selenite F, Miiller-Kauffmann tetrathionate and Rappaport's medium for Salmonella isolation from chicken giblets after pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water. Journal of Hygiene 87,219-224.
    • 9. Hawkey PM, Potten MR, Stephens M. (1982). The use of pre-enrichment for the isolation of small numbers of gentamicin-resistant Providencia stuartii from faeces. Journal of Hospital Infection 3, 369-374.
    • 10. Johanson WG, Pierce AK, Sanford JP. (1969). Changing pharyngeal bacterial flora of hospitalized patients. New England Journal of Medicine 281, 1137-1140.
    • 1 1 . Johanson WG, Pierce AK, Sanford JP. (1969). An area sampling device for quantitative pharyngeal cultures. Applied Microbiology 18,276-277.
    • 12. Johnston DA, Bodey GP. (1970). Semiquantitative oropharyngeal culture technique. Applied Microbiology 20,218-233.
    • 13. Johnston DA, Bodey GP. (1972). Oropharyngeal cultures of patients in protected environment units: Evaluation of semiquantitative technique during antibiotic prophylaxis. Applied Microbiology 23, 846-85 1 .
    • 14. Jordan GW, Wong GA, Hoeprich PD. (1976). Bacteriology of the lower respiratory tract as determined by fiber-optic bronchoscopy and transtracheal aspiration. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 134,428435.
    • 15. Kaplan SM, Larkin B, Hotz A. (1957). Amethod for estimating the bacterial population of the oropharynx. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 50, 33G334.
    • 16. LaForce FM, Hopkins J, Trow R, Wang WLL. (1976). Human oral defences against Gram-negative rods. American Review of Respiratory Disease 114, 929-9 35.
    • 17. Lear CSC, Flanagan JB, Moorrees CFA. (1965). The frequency of deglutition in man. Archives of Oral Biology 10,83-99.
    • 18. MacFarlaneTW, MasonDK.(1972).Localenvironmental factors in the host resistance to the commensal microflora of the mouth. In: MacPheeT (ed) Host resistance to commensal bacteria. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, pp. 64-75.
    • 19. MacFarlane TW, Mason DK. (1974). Changes in the oral flora in Sjogren's syndrome. Journal of Clinical Pathology 27,4 16-419.
    • 20. MacFarlane TW. (1975). Defence mechanisms of the mouth. In: Lavelle CLB, et al. (eds) Applied physiology of the mouth. John Wright and Sons, Bristol, pp. 180-190.
    • 21. Mackenzie DWR. (1962). Serum tube identification of Candida albicans. Journal of Clinical Pathology 15,563-565.
    • 22. Mackowiak PA, Martin RM, Jones SR, Smith JW. (1978). Pharyngeal colonization by Gram-negative bacilli in aspiration-prone persons. Archives of Internal Medicine 138, 12241227.
    • 23. Mackowiak PA, Martin RM, Smith JW. (1979). The role of bacterial interference in the increased prevalence of oropharyngeal Gram-negative bacilli among alcoholics and diabetics. American Review of Respiratory Disease 120,589-593.
    • 24. Murray PR. (1 978). Standardization of the analytab enteric (API 20E) system to increase accuracy and reproducibility of the test for biotype characterization of bacteria. Journal of Ctinical Microbiology 8, 4 w 9 .
    • 25. Redman L R , Lockey E. (1 967). Colonisation of the upper respiratory tract with Gram-negative bacilli after operation, endotracheal intubation and prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Anaesthesia 22, 22CL227.
    • 26. Remington JS, SchimpffSC.(198 1). Please don't eat the salads. New England Journal of Medicine 304, 433435.
    • 27. Rosebury Th (ed). (1962). Microorganisms indigenous to man. McGraw-Hill, New York.
    • 28. Rosenthal S, Tager IB. (1975). Prevalence of Gramnegative rods in the normal pharyngeal flora. Annals of Internal Medicine 83,355-357.
    • 29. Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW, Lamey PJ, Ferguson MM. (1986). A comparison of oral rinse and imprint sampling techniques for the detection of yeast, coliform and Staphylococcus aureus carnage in the oral cavity. Journal of Oral Pathology 15, 386-388.
    • 30. Sprunt K, Redman W. (1968). Evidence suggesting importance of role of interbacterial inhibition in maintaining balance of normal flora. Annals of Internal Medicine 68,579-590.
    • 31. Sutter VL, Hurst V, Landucci AOJ. (1966). Pseudomonads in human saliva. Journal of Dental Research 45,1800-1803.
    • 32. Taylor J. (1962). The estimation of numbers of bacteria by tenfold dilution series. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 25,5461.
    • 33. Uffelen R van, SaeneH K F van, Fidler V, Lowenberg A. (1984). Oropharyngealfloraasasourceofbacteria colonizing the lower airways in patients on artificial ventilation. Intensive Care Medicine 10,233-237.
    • 34. Wheat LJ, Kohler RB, White AL, White A. (1 98 1). Effect of Rifampin on nasal carriers of coagulasepositive staphylococci. Journal of Infectious Diseases 144,177.
    • 35. Williams RC, Gibbons RJ. (1972). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by secretory immunoglobulin A: A mechanism of antigen disposal. Science 177, 697-699.
    • 36. Young G, Resca HG, Sullivan MT. (1951). The yeasts of the normal mouth and their relation to salivary acidity. Journal of Dental Research 30, 426430.
    • 37. Yourassowsky E, Van der Linden MP, Pardaens Y, Crockaert F, Glupczynski Y. (1987). Selection and counting of aerobic Gram-negative bacilli in saliva by the spiral system. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 6, 634-636.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from