Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Spittal, Patricia M.; Craib, Kevin J.P.; Teegee, Mary; Baylis, Catherine; Christian, Wayne M.; Moniruzzaman, A.K.M.; Schechter, Martin T.; Project Partnership, for the Cedar (2007)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Aboriginal; AIDS; Canada; drug use; gender; HCV; hepatitis C; HIV; injection
INTRODUCTION: During the past decade, the number of Aboriginal people diagnosed with HIV in Canada has grown more than any other ethnicity. Whereas the majority of infections are related to injection drug use, factors that explain elevated risk and transmission of HIV among Aboriginal young people who use illicit drugs are not well understood. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: The Cedar Project is an observational study of Aboriginal youth living in Vancouver and Prince George, BC. Eligibility criteria include age (14-30 years) and self-reported use of non-injection or injection drugs at least once in the month before enrolment. Between October 2003 and April 2005, 512 participants were recruited and completed a questionnaire administered by an Aboriginal interviewer. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the independent association of demographic and behavioural variables of individuals with HIV infection. RESULTS: Of the participants, 235 resided in Prince George and 277 in Vancouver. Among the 276 participants that used injection drugs, HIV prevalence was significantly higher in Vancouver (17% vs. 7%) but HCV prevalence was higher in Prince George (62% vs. 57%). In Vancouver, 40% of injectors reported daily heroine use compared with 12% in Prince George. In contrast, Prince George participants were more likely to report daily injection of cocaine compared with those in Vancouver (37% vs. 21%). A higher percentage of Prince George participants reported having difficulty accessing clean syringes (22% vs. 8%). History of non-consensual sex, residing in Vancouver and duration of injection drug use were independent factors associated with increased risk of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: HIV and HCV prevalence are elevated in young Aboriginal drug users residing in Vancouver and Prince George. Heterogeneity exists in these locations with respect to drug of choice and access to clean syringes. Prevention and treatment programs are urgently required in this population.Keywords: Aboriginal; AIDS; Canada; drug use; gender; HCV; hepatitis C; HIV; injection(Int J Circumpolar Health 2007; 66(3):226-240)
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. O'Neil J. Research on HIV/AIDS in Aboriginal people: a background paper. Ottawa: Medical Services Branch, Health Canada 1998. p. 4-41.
    • 2. Canadian Public Health Association. Situational analysis: a background paper on HIV/AIDS and Aboriginal people. Ottawa: Special Working Group on Aboriginal Issues, Ministerial Council on HIV/AIDS; 2001 [cited 2007 Mar 13]. Available from: http:// pubs.cpha.ca/PDf /P7/18997.pdf.
    • 3. PHAC. HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal peoples in Canada: a continuing concern. HIV/AIDS Epi Update. Ottawa: Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada; 2006.
    • 4. f irst Nations Information Governance Committee. f irst Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS) 2002-2003: our voice, our survey, our future; 2004 [cited 14 Mar 2007]. Available from: http:// www.naho.ca/firstnations/english/regional_health. php.
    • 5. Miller CL, Spittal PM, Laliberte N et al. f emales experiencing sexual and drug vulnerabilities are at elevated risk for HIV infection among youth who use injection drugs. JAIDS 2002;30:335-341.
    • 6. Craib KJP, Spittal PM, Wood E et al. Risk factors for elevated HIV incidence among Aboriginal injection drug users in Vancouver. CMAJ 2003;168(1):19-24.
    • 7. Vernon I. Killing us quietly: Native Americans and HIV/AIDS. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press; 2002. p.60-81.
    • 8. f ournier S. HIV rates in northern BC worrisome. The Province 2004 Dec 1;A26.
    • 9. The Government of British Columbia. Statistical profile of Aboriginal peoples 2001: with emphasis on children, labour market and post-secondary issues; 2002 [cited 18 Mar 2007]. Available from: http:// www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/ DATA/cen01/abor/CR08. pdf.
    • 10. Spittal PM, Craib KJP, Wood E et al. Risk factors for elevated HIV incidence rates among female injection drug users in Vancouver. CMAJ 2002;166(7):894- 899.
    • 11. Efron B, Tibishirani R. An introduction to the bootstrap. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1993. p. 1- 204.
    • 12. Tyndall MW, Currie S, Spittal P.M. et al. Intensive injection cocaine use as a primary risk factor in the HIV-1 epidemic in Vancouver. AIDS 2001;17(6):887- 893.
    • 13. O'Neil J. The politics of health in the fourth world: a northern Canadian example. Human Organ 1986;45:119-128.
    • 14. O'Neil J, Reading J, Leader AC. Changing the relations of surveillance: the Development of a discourse of resistance in Aboriginal epidemiology. Human Organ 1998;57(2): 230-237.
    • 15. Browne A. Smye V, Varcoe C. The relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives in Aboriginal health. Can J Nurs Res 2005;37(4):16-37.
    • 16. Walters K, Simoni J. Reconceptualizing Native Women's health: an Indigenist stress coping model. Am J Public Health 2002;92(4):520-524.
    • 17. f ournier S, Crey E. Stolen from our embrace: the abduction of f irst Nation's children and the restoration of Aboriginal communities. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre; 1997. p. 111-224.
    • 18. Horton R. Indigenous peoples: time to act now for equity and health. Lancet 2006; 367(9524):1705- 1707.
    • 19. Pointe S. Our nations on the edge of a new century: B.C. f irst Nations Regional Health Survey; 2000 [cited 18 Mar 2007]. Available from: www.nearbc.ca/ documents.rhs.pdf.
    • 20. Adelson N. The embodiment of inequity: health disparities in Aboriginal Canada. Can J Public Health 2005;96(S2):S45-S60.
    • 21. Waldram, J, Herring AD, Kue Young T. Aboriginal health in Canada: historical, cultural and epidemiological perspectives. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 1997. p. 66-96.
    • 22. BC Aboriginal AIDS Taskforce. The redroad: pathways to wholeness: an Aboriginal strategy for HIV/ AIDS in BC; 2002 [cited 25 Nov 2006]. Available from: www.healthservices.gov.bc.ca/cpa/publications/redroad.pdf.
    • 23. Barlow JK. Examining HIV and AIDS among the Aboriginal population in Canada: in the post residential school era. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing f oundation; 2003 [cited 15 Mar 2007]. Available from: http:// www.ahf.ca/publications/research-series.
    • 24. Kue Young T, Katz A. Survivors of sexual abuse: clinical, lifestyle and reproductive consequences. CMAJ 1998;159(4):329-334.
    • 25. Wyatt G, Myers J, Williams K. Does a history of trauma contribute to HIV risk for women of color? Implications for prevention. Am J Public Health 2002;92(4):660-666.
    • 26. Duran B, Walters K. Prevention in “Indian Country”: current practice, Indigenist etiology models, and post colonial approaches to change. AIDS Educ Prev 2004;16(3):187-201.
    • 27. Majumdar B, Chambers T, Roberts J. Community based, culturally sensitive HIV/AIDS education for Aboriginal adolescents: implications for nursing practice. J Transcult Nurs 2004;15(1):187-201.
    • 28. Patrick DM, Cornelisse PG, Sherlock CH et al. Incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users during an outbreak of HIV infection. CMAJ 2001;165(7):889-895.
    • 29. Miller CL, Johnston C, Spittal PM et al. Opportunities for prevention: hepatitis C prevalence and incidence in a cohort of young injection drug users. Hepatology 2002; 36(3):737-742.
    • 30. Doherty MC, Garfein RS, Monterroso E et al. Correlates of HIV infection among young adult shortterm injection drug users. AIDS 2000;14(6):717- 726.
    • 31. Harris R, Tobias M, Jeffries M et al. Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Maori health and inequalities in New Zealand: a cross sectional study. Lancet 2006;367:2005-2009.
    • 32. Browne A, f iske J. f irst Nations women's encounters with mainsteam healthcare services. West J Nurs Res 2001;23(2):126-147.
    • 33. Gibson DR, f lynn MN, McCarthy JJ. Effectiveness of methadone treatment in reducing HIV risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among injecting drug users [editorial]. AIDS 1999;13(14):1807-1818.
    • 34. Walters K, Simoni J, Evans Campbell T. Substance use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: incorporating culture in an Indigenist stress coping paradigm. Public Health Reports 2002;117(Supp1 1): S104-S117.
    • 35. Magnani R, Sabin K, Saidel T et al. Review of sampling hard to reach populations. AIDS 2005;19(Suppl 2):S67-S72.
    • 36. Simoni J, Sehgal S, Walters K. Urban American Indian women's sexual trauma, injection drug use and HIV sexual risk behaviors. AIDS and Behaviour 2004;8(1):33-45.
    • 37. Wright M, Giele C, Dance PR et al. f ulfilling prophe - cy? Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Indigenous people in Western Australia. MJA 2005;183:124- 128.
    • 38. Matiation S. HIV/AIDS and Aboriginal people: problems of jurisdiction and funding. Toronto: Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network; 1999 [cited 21 Mar 2007]: [p. 49]. Available from: http://www.aidslaw.ca/EN/publications/index.html.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from