Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Alonso Perez, Silvia; Cuevas, Emilio; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Querol, Xavier; Baldasano Recio, José María; Draxler, R; de Bustos, J.J (2011)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: :Desenvolupament humà i sostenible [Àrees temàtiques de la UPC], Meteorologia, Meteorology, African dust intrusions, Marine boundary layer, :Enginyeria agroalimentària::Ciències de la terra i de la vida::Climatologia i meteorologia [Àrees temàtiques de la UPC], Contaminantes atmosféricos, Partículas inorgánicas, Human health
African dust intrusions in the marine mixing layer of the Eastern North Atlantic subtropical region (23.5°N to 35°N) are favoured in winter when the eastern edge of the Azores High covers Southwestern Europe and North Africa. In situ ground pressure observations and reanalysis from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) indicate that the Azores High has strengthened and shifted eastward in winter over the last three decades. This is evidenced by the increase over time of the Madrid–Tenerife Index which is defined as the geopotential height anomaly difference at 1000 mb between Tenerife (28.5°N; 16.3°W) and Madrid (40.5°N; 3.5°W) in winter and of the African Index which is defined as the residence time over Africa of air mass trajectories entering the subtropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Barcelona Supercomputing Center/Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (BSC-DREAM) dust regional model simulations from 1958 to 2006 were performed, assuming that the soil characteristics of dust sources remained unchanged over time. Simulated winter dust concentration levels are well correlated (0.67) with the available background observations for the 1998–2004 period. The model results show a two-fold increase in winter dust concentrations over the 1980–2006 period with respect to the 1958–1979 period, corresponding to the strengthening and eastward shift of the Azores High.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00524.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Aitken, J. 1880. On dust, fogs and clouds. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh 30, 337-368.
    • Alonso-Pe´rez, S. 2008. Caracterizacio´n de las intrusiones de polvo africano en Canarias. PhD Thesis at the La Laguna University (Tenerife); Centro de Publicaciones de la Secretar´ıa General Te´cnica del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid, Spain. ISBN: 978-84-8320-473-3.
    • Alonso-Pe´rez, S., Cuevas, E., Querol, X., Viana, M. and Guerra, J. C. 2007. Impact of the Saharan dust outbreaks on the ambient levels of total suspended particle (TSP) in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) of the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Atmos. Environ. 41/40, 9468-9480, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.08.049.
    • Anuforom, A. C., Akeh, L. E., Okeke, P. N. and Opara, F. E. 2007. Inter-annual variability and long-term trend of UV-absorbing aerosols during Harmattan season in sub-Saharan West Africa. Atmos. Environ. 41, 1550-1559.
    • Buishand, T. A. 1982. Some methods for testing the homogeneity of rainfall records. J. Hydrol. 58, 11-27.
    • Carlson, T. N. and Prospero, J. M. 1972. The large scale movement of Saharan air outbreaks over the northern ecuatorial Atlantic. J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 283-297.
    • Chiapello, I., Bergametti, G., Gomes, L., Chatenet, B., Dulac, F. and co-authors. 1995. An additional low layer transport of Sahelian and Saharan dust over the North-Eastern Tropical Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(23), 3191-3194.
    • Chiapello, I. and Moulin, C. 2002. TOMS and METEOSAT satellite records of the variability of Saharan dust transport over the Atlantic during the last two decades (1979-1997). Geopys. Res. Lett. 29, 17-20.
    • Chiapello, I., Moulin, C. and Prospero, J. M. 2005. Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport across the Atlantic as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness. J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S10, doi:10.1029/2004JD005132.
    • Consejo Econo´mico y Social de Canarias. 1999. Informe anual 1999 del Consejo Econo´mico y Social sobre la situacio´n econo´mica, social y laboral de Canarias en 1998. Available at: http://www. cescanarias.org/publicaciones/informes/infor_1998.html. Last accessed 7 January 2011.
    • Darwin, C. 1846. An account of this fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic Ocean. Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 2, 26-30.
    • Dayan, U., Ziv, B., Shoob, T. and Enzel, Y. 2008. Suspended dust over southeastern Mediterranean and its relation to atmospheric circulations. Int. J. Climatol. 28, 915-924.
    • De Angelis, M. and Gaudichet, A. 1991. Saharan dust deposition over Mont Blanc (French Alps) during the last 30 years. Tellus 43B, 61-75.
    • DeMott, P. J., Sassen, K., Poellot, M. R., Baumgardner, D., Rogers, D. C. and co-authors. 2003. African dust aerosols as atmospheric ice nuclei. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14), 1372, doi:10.1029/2003GL017410.
    • Doherty, O. M., Riemer, N. and Hameed, S. 2008. Saharan mineral dust transport into the Caribbean: observed atmospheric controls and trends. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009171.
    • Dorta, P. 1995. Algunos efectos de las advecciones de aire ca´lido sahariano en Canarias. In: Proceedings of the VI Coloquio Ibe´rico de Geograf´ıa. Universidad de Oporto. 833-839.
    • Draxler, R. R. and Hess, G. D. 1998. An overview of the HYSPLIT_4 modelling system for trajectories, dispersion and deposition. Aust. Met. Mag. 47, 295-308.
    • Duce, R. A., Liss, P. S., Merrill, J. R., Atlas, E. L., Buat-Menard, P. and co-authors. 1991. The atmospheric input of trace species to the world ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 5(3), 193-259.
    • Evan, A. T., Heidinger, A. K. and Knippertz, P. 2006. Analysis of winter dust activity off the coast of West Africa using a new 24-year overwater advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite dust climatology. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12210, doi:10.1029/2005JD006336.
    • Foltz, G. R. and McPhaden, M. J. 2008. Trends in Saharan dust and tropical Atlantic climate during 1980-2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20706, doi:10.1029/2008GL035042.
    • Ganor, E., Osetinsky, I., Stupp, A. and Alpert, P. 2010. Increasing trend of African dust, over 49 years, in the eastern Mediterranean. J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07201, doi:10.1029/2009/2009JD012500.
    • Ginoux, P., Propero, J. M., Torres, O. and Chin, M. 2004. Long-term simulation of global dust distribution with the GOCART model: correlation with North Atlantic Oscillation. Environ. Model. Softw 19, 113-128.
    • Haustein, K., Pe´rez, C., Baldasano, J. M., Mu¨ller, D., Tesche, M. and co-authors. 2009. Regional dust model performance during SAMUM 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L03812, doi:10.1029/2008GL036463.
    • Hurrell, J. 1995. Decadal trend in the North Atlantic oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269, 676-679.
    • Husar, R. B, Prospero, J. M. and Stowe, L. L. 1997. Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer aerosol optical thickness operational product. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16 889-16 910.
    • IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. IPPC Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York.
    • IPCC. 2007. In: Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ed. Solomon, S.). Cambridge University Press, New York.
    • Ito, K., De Leon, S., Lippmann, M., Nadas, A. and Thurston, G. D. 1999. Final report: an evaluation of confounders in PM10/Mortality associations. Available at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/ fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/689/report/F. Last accessed 7 January 2011.
    • Janowiak, J. 1988. An investigation of interannual rainfall variability in Africa. J. Clim. 1, 240-255.
    • Jickells, T. D., An, Z. S., Andersen, K. K., Baker, A. R., Bergametti, G. and co-authors. 2005. Global Iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science 308(5718), 67-71, doi:10.1126/Science.1105959.
    • Jones, P., Ju¨nsson, T. and Wheeler, D. 1997. Etensions to the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and south-west Iceland. Int. J. Climatol. 17, 1433-1450.
    • Mahowald, N. M., Zender, C., Luo, C., Savoie, D., Torres, O. and coauthors. 2002. Understanding the 30-year Barbados deset dust record. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4561, doi:10.1029/2002JD002097.
    • Mahowald, N. M., Kloster, S., Engelstaedter, S., Moore, J. K., Mukhopadhyay, S. and co-authors. 2010. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10, 12 585-12 628, doi:10.5194/acpd-10- 12585-2010.
    • Manly, B. F. J. 2001. Statistics for Environmental Science and Management, Chapman & Hall/CRC, London. ISBN: 1-58488-029-5.
    • Mann, H. B. and Whitney, D. R. 1947. On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger that the other. Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50-60.
    • Maring, H., Savoie, D. L., Izaguirre, M. A., Custals, L. and Reid, J. S. 2003. Mineral dust aerosol size distribution change during atmospheric transport. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 8592, doi:10.1029/2002JD002536.
    • Meng, Z. and Lu, B. 2007. Dust events as a risk factor for daily hospitalization for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Minquin, China. Atmos. Environ. 41, 7048-7058.
    • Middleton, N. 1985. Effect of drought on dust production in the Sahel. Nature 316, 431-434.
    • Middleton, N., Yiallouros, P., Kleanthous, S., Kolokotroni, O., Schwartz, J. and co-authors. 2008. A 10-year time-series analysis of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity in Nicosia, Cyprus: the effect of shortterm changes in air pollution and dust storms. Environ. Health 7, 39, doi:10.1186/1476-069X-7-39.
    • Moulin, C., Lamber, C. W., Dulac, F. and Dayan, U. 1997. Control of atmospheric exports of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic oscillation. Nature 387, 691-694.
    • Moulin, C. and Chiapello, I. 2004. Evidence of the control of summer atmospheric transport of African dust over the Atlantic by Sahel sources from TOMS satellite (1979-2000). Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L02107, doi:10.1029/2003GL018931.
    • Nickovic, S., Kallos, G., Papadopoulos, A. and Kakaliagou, O. 2001. A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18 113-18 129.
    • Page, E. S. 1954. Continuous inspection scheme. Biometrica 41(1/2), 100-115.
    • Perez, C., Nickovic, S., Baldasano, J. M., Sicard, M., Rocadenbosch, F. and co-authors. 2006a. A long Saharan dust event over the western Mediterranean: Lidar, Sun photometer observations, and regional dust modeling. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15214, doi:10.1029/2005JD006579.
    • Perez, C., Nickovic, S., Pejanovic, G., Baldasano, J. M. and O¨ zsoy, E. 2006b. Interactive dust-radiation modeling: a step to improve weather forecasts. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006717.
    • Perez C., Jimenez, P., Jorba, O., Baldasano, J. M., Cuevas, E. and co-authors. 2007. Long-term simulations (1958-2006) of Saharan dust over the Mediterranean and the Eastern North Atlantic with the DREAM regional dust model, at IUGG 2007 Perugia, In: Proceedings of the Session of MS004 Mineral Dust Cycle and its Impact on Clouds and Radiation (ICCP), Perugia, Italy, 2-13, July.
    • Prospero, J. M. and Nees, R. T. 1986. Impact of the North African drought and El Nino on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds. Nature 320, 735-738.
    • Prospero, J. M. 1999. Long-term measurements of the transport of African mineral dust to the South eastern United States: implications for regional air quality. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15 917-15 927.
    • Prospero, J. M., Ginoux, P., Torres, O., Nicholson, S. E. and Gill, T. E. 2002. Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the nimbus 7 total ozonoe mapping sceptrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product. Rev. Geophys. 40(1), 1002, doi:10.1029/2000RG000095.
    • Prospero, J. M. and Lamb, P. J. 2003. African droughts and dust transport to the caribbean: climate change implications. Science 302(7), 1024-1027.
    • Riemer, N., Doherty, O. M. and Hameed, S. 2006. On the variability of African dust transport across the Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L13814, doi:10.1029/2006GL026163.
    • Rolph, G. D. 2003. Real-Time Environmental Applications and Display System (READY). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory. Silver Spring, MD. Available at: http://www.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php. Last accessed 7 January 2011.
    • Shinn, E. A., Smith, G. W., Prospero, J. M., Betzer, P., Hayes, M. L. and co-authors. 2000. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(19), 3029-3032.
    • Siegel, S. and Castellan, N. J. 1988. Non-Parametric Statistics for the Behavioural Science. McGraw-Hill. New York, USA.
    • Student. 1908. The probable error of a mean. Biometrika 6, 1-25.
    • Sultan, B., Labadi, K., Gue'gan, J. F. and Janicot, S. 2005. Climate drives the Meningitis epidemics onset in West Africa. PloS Med. 2, 44-49.
    • Torres-Padro´n, M. E., Gelado-Caballero, M. D., Collado-Sa´nchez, C., Siruela-Matos, V. F., Cardona-Castellano, P. J. and co-authors. 2002. Variability of dust inputs to the CANIGO zone. Deep Sea Res. II 49, 3455-3464.
    • Viana M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Cuevas, E. and Rodr´ıguez, S. 2002. Influence of African dust on the levels of atmospheric particulates in the Canary Islands air quality monitoring network. Atmos. Environ. 36, 5861-5875.
    • Wang, N. 2005. Decrease trend of dust event frequency over the past 200 years recorded in the Malan ice core from the northern Tibetan Plateau. Chin. Sci. Bull. 50(24), 2866-2871.
    • Wang, X., Huang, J., Ji, M. and Higuchi, K. 2008. Variability of East Asia dust events and their long-term trend. Atmos. Environ. 42, 3156- 3165.
    • WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2002. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in the Eight Major Italian Cities. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.
    • WHO. 2003. Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide. World Health Organization. Bonn, Germany.
    • Worsley, K. J. 1979. On the Likelihood Ratio test for a shift in location of normal populations. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 74(366), 365-367, doi:10.2307/2286336.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.