Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
GRøNÅS, S.; FOSS, A.; LYSTAD, M. (2011)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Tellus A
Languages: English
Types: Article
A high resolution version of an operational weather prediction model has been developed. An explicit time integration scheme is used on a limited area polar stereographic grid. The physical parameterization of surface fluxes, fluxes in the free atmosphere, stratiform and convective precipitation are relatively simple and no radiation processes are involved. Simulations are presented for six synoptic situations when polar lows occurred in The Norwegian Sea. Analyses from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF) are used as initial analyses. The simulations are verified against published subjective analyses. In one case, analyses from detailed aircraft measurements were available. In most cases the horizontal grid distance has been 50 km; in one case 25 km resolution was used. The integrations started before any polar low was observed and lasted for 36 or 48 hours. The model creates polar low disturbances at approximately the right position at the right time. The predicted intensity is, however, generally too weak. All the simulated polar lows show an initial phase where a baroclinic development takes place in a reversed shear flow. Usually the structure is relatively shallow. The low-level trough or low is found to be warm, and conditional vertical instability is connected to it. In this way, a synoptic situation is prepared which is favourable for some CISK-like mechanism which sometimes further develop the polar low. The model does not handle this rapid growth properly, probably due to lack of resolution or incomplete parameterization of convection. In all cases, cross-sections perpendicular to the trough-like disturbance show a warm occlusion, or a double-front system. The front also exists when precipitation processes are excluded in the model; however, release of latent heat strengthens the vertical circulations generally connected to each branch of the occlusion. A rapid development of a polar low might be connected to locally descending air in between the two circulations; satellite pictures indeed show a cloud-free eye in some cases.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.1987.tb00312.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Anthes, R.A. and Warner, T. T. 1978. Development of hydrodynamic models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies. Mon. Wea. Rev. 106, 1045-1078.
    • Anthes, R. A. 1982. Tropical cyclones. Their evolution, structure and effects. Meteorol. Monorg. 19, American Meteorological Society.
    • Bratseth, A. 1982. A simple and efficient approach to the initialization of weather prediction models. Tellus 34, 352-357.
    • Bratseth, A. 1983. Some economical, explicit finitedifference schemes for the primitive equations. Mon. Weu. Rev.111, 663468.
    • Bratseth, A. 1985. A note on CISK in polar air masses. Tellus 37A, 4 0 3 4 0 6 .
    • Brown, J . A. and Campana, K. A. 1978. An economical time-differencing system for numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev. 106, 1125-1136
    • Davies, H. C. 1976. A lateral boundary formulation for multilevel prediction models. Q.J. R . Mereorol. Soc. 102,405418.
    • Duncan, C. N. 1977. A numerical investigation of polar lows. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 103, 255-268.
    • Duncan, C. N. 1978. Baroclinic instability in ii reversed shear flow. Meteorol. Mag. 107, 17-23.
    • Grenas, S. and Hellevik, 0. E. 1982. A limited area prediction model at the Norwegian Meteorological Insritute. Techn. Rep. No. 61, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Grenas, S., Foss, A. and Lystad, M. 1986. Numerical simulations of polar lows in the Norwegian Sea. Part I : The model and simulations of the polar low 26-27 February 1984. Polar Lows Project. Technical Report No. 5 . The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Grenhs, S. and Midtbe, K. H. 1986. Four-dimensional data assimilation at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Techn. Rep. No. 66, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Harrold, T. W. and Browning, K. A. 1969. The polar low as a baroclinic disturbance. Q.J. R . Meteorol. SOC.95, 71@-723.
    • Haugen, J. E. (1986). Numerical simulations with an idealized model. Proceedings of the Intcmational Conference on Polar Lows. Oslo, Norway, 20-23 May 1986. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Hoem, V., Hoppestad, S. and Rabbe, A. 1984. Polar low case studies. I . December 1982-December 1985. Techn. rep. no. 3, Polar Lows Project, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
    • Hoem, V. 1985. Polar low case studies II 1982-85. Techn. rep. no. 6, Polar Lows Project, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
    • Hoem, V . and Hoppestad, S. 1986. Polar low case studies 111 1982-1985. Techn. rep. no. 12, Polar Lows Project, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Hoskins, B. J. and Bretherton, F. P. 1972. Atmospheric Frontogenesis Models. Mathematical Formulation and Solution. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 11-37.
    • Janjic, 2 . 1977. Pressure gradient force and advection scheme used for forcasting with steep and small scale topography. Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 50, 186199.
    • Kristoffersen, D. R. 1985. Polar lows observed during winter 1983184 in the adjacent seas of Norway. Tech rep. no. 9, Polar Lows Project, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Kallberg, P. 1977. Test of a lateral boundary relaxation scheme. ECMWF Research Department, Internal Report No 3, Febr. 1977.
    • Louis, J-F. 1979. A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Boundary Luyer Meteorol. 17, 187-202.
    • Mansfield, D. A. 1974. Polar lows: The development of baroclinic disturbances in cold air outbreaks. Q. J. R . Meteorol. SOC.100, 541-544.
    • Mesinger, F. and Arakawa, A. 1976. Numerical methods used in atmospheric models. GARP Publ. Ser., No. 17, WMO, Geneva, 64 pp.
    • Nordeng, T. E. 1986. Parameterization of physical processes in a three dimensional numerical weather prediction model. Techn. Rep. No. 65, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Okland, H. 1976. An example of air-mass transformation in the arctic and connected disturbances of the wind field. Report DM-20 Department of Meteorology, University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    • Okland, H. 1977. On the intensification of small-scale cyclones formed in very cold air mosses heated by the ocean. Institute report series No. 26. Department of Geophysics, University of Oslo, Norway.
    • Okland, H. 1978. On formation of fronts by differential heating of the atmosphere. Institute report series No. 38. Department of Geophysics, University of Oslo, Norway.
    • Pettersen, S., Bradbury, D. L. and Pedersen, K. 1962. The Norwegian cyclone models in relation to heat and cold sources. Geophysica Noruegica 24. Special Issue in memory of Vilhelm Bjerknes on the 100th anniversary of his birth.
    • Rabbe, A. 1987. A Polar Low over the Norwegian Sea, 29 February-I March 1984. Tellus 39A, 326333.
    • Rasmussen. E. 1979. The polar low as an extratropical CISK-disturbance. Q.J. R . Meteorol. SOC.105, 531- 549.
    • Rasmussen, E. 1981. An investigation of a polar low with a spiral cloud structure. J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1785- 1792.
    • Rasmussen, E. 1985. A polar low development over the Barents sea. Techn. rep. no. 7, Polar Lows Project, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    • Sardie, J. M. and Warner, T. T . 1983. On the mechanism for the development of polar lows. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 869-88 1.
    • Sardie, J . M. and Warner, T. T. 1985. A numerical study of the development mechanism of polar lows. Tellus 37A, 460-477.
    • Seaman, N. L., Otten, H. and Anthes, R. A. 1982. A rapid developing polar low in the North Sea on 2 January 1979. Preprint Volume, First Intern. Conference on Met. and Air/Sea Interaction of the Coastal Zone, The Hague, Netherland.
    • Shapiro, R. 1970. Smoothing, filtering, and boundary effects. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 8, 359-387.
    • Shapiro, M. et al. (19871, personal communication.
    • Wilhelmsen, K. 1985. Climatological study of galeproducing polar lows near Norway. Tellus 37A, 451- 459.
    • Wilhelmsen, K. 1986. Climatological study of polar lows near Norway. Part I. Techn. rep. no. 4, Polar Lows Project, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from