Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Bentes de Azevedo, Ricardo; Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre (2014)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Nano Reviews
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: photodynamic therapy; skin cancer; melanoma; nanoparticles; nanotechnology
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and has been traditionally considered difficult to treat. The worldwide incidence of melanoma has been increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Early detection, surgery, and adjuvant therapy enable improved outcomes; nonetheless, the prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Several therapies have been investigated for the treatment of melanoma; however, current treatment options for patients with metastatic disease are limited and non-curative in the majority of cases. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as a promising minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that employs three essential elements to induce cell death: a photosensitizer, light of a specific wavelength, and molecular oxygen. However, classical PDT has shown some drawbacks that limit its clinical application. In view of this, the use of nanotechnology has been considered since it provides many tools that can be applied to PDT to circumvent these limitations and bring new perspectives for the application of this therapy for different types of diseases. On that ground, this review focuses on the potential use of developing nanotechnologies able to bring significant benefits for anticancer PDT, aiming to reach higher efficacy and safety for patients with malignant melanoma.Keywords: photodynamic therapy; skin cancer; melanoma; nanoparticles; nanotechnologyResponsible Editor: Russ Algar, University of British Columbia, Canada.(Published: 1 September 2014)Citation: Nano Reviews 2014, 5: 24381 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/nano.v5.24381
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Baldelli FB, Webster CA, Moncrieff M, Sherwood V. The scope of nanoparticle therapies for future metastatic melanoma treatment. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: e22 32.
    • 2. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics 2014. CA: A Cancer J Clin 2014; 64: 9 29.
    • 3. Globocan 2012. Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. Available from: http://globocan. iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx [cited 15 January 2014].
    • 4. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures 2013. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2013.
    • 5. Jhappan C, Noonan FP, Merlino G. Ultraviolet radiation and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Oncogene 2003; 22: 3099 112.
    • 6. Gray-Schopfer V, Wellbrock C, Marais R. Melanoma biology and new targeted therapy. Nature 2007; 445: 851 7.
    • 7. Slominski A, Tobin DJ, Shibahara S, Wortsman J. Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation. Physiol Rev 2004; 84: 1155 228.
    • 8. Chen KG, Leapman RD, Zhang G, Lai B, Valencia JC, Cardarelli CO, et al. Influence of melanosome dynamics on melanoma drug sensitivity. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101: 1259 71.
    • 9. Kawczyk-Krupka A, Bugaj AM, Latos W, Zaremba K, Siero´ n A. Photodynamic therapy in treatment of cutaneous and choroidal melanoma. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2013; 10: 503 09.
    • 10. Singh AD, Damato BE, Pe'er J, Murphree AL, Perry JD. Clinical ophthalmic oncology. Chapter 35. Uveal malignant melanoma: epidemiologic aspects. Philadelphia: Saunders-Elsevier; 2007.
    • 11. Mihajlovic M, Slobodan Vlajkovic S, Jovanovic P, Stefanovic V. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2012; 5: 739 53.
    • 12. Saldanha G, Potter L, DaForno P, Pringle JH. Cutaneous melanoma subtypes show different BRAF and NRAS mutation frequencies. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12: 4499 505.
    • 13. Forman SB, Ferringer TC, Peckham SJ, Dalton SR, Sasaki GT, Libow LF, et al. Is superficial spreading melanoma still the most common form of malignant melanoma? J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 58: 1013 20.
    • 14. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Chapter 30. Melanocytic Nevi and Neoplasms. In: Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, Clinical Dermatology. 11th Edition. USA: Saunders-Elsevier; 2011.
    • 15. Koch SE, Lange JR. Amelanotic melanoma: the great masquerader. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42: 731 4.
    • 16. Borisova E, Mantareva V, Bliznakova I, Angelov I, Avramov L, Pavlova E. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic therapy of cutaneous melanoma. Chapter 7. In: Cao MY, editor. Current Management of Malignant Melanoma. Croatia: IntechOpen; 2011. p. 141 56.
    • 17. Boyle GM. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: an overview and update. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2011; 11: 725 37.
    • 18. Katipamula R, Markovic SN. Emerging therapies for melanoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2008; 8: 553 60.
    • 19. Mouawad R, Sebert M, Michels J, Bloch J, Spano JP, Khayat D. Treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma: old drugs and new strategies. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2010; 74: 27 39.
    • 20. Bajetta E, Del Vecchio M, Bernard-Marty C, Vitali M, Buzzoni R, Rixe O, et al. Metastatic melanoma: chemotherapy. Semin Oncol 2002; 29: 427 45.
    • 21. Atallah E, Flaherty L. Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2005; 6: 185 93.
    • 22. Chen J, Shao R, Zhang XD, Chen C. Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics. Int J Nanomedicine 2013; 8: 2677 88.
    • 23. Xie T, Nguyen T, Wel ML. Multidrug resistance decreases with mutations of melanosomal regulatory genes. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 992 9.
    • 24. Ding B, Zhang W, Wu X, Wang X, Wei F, Gao S, et al. Biodegradable methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide) nanoparticles for controlled delivery of dacarbazine: preparation, characterization and anticancer activity evaluation. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2011; 5: 1369 1377.
    • 25. Tagne JB, Kakumanu S, Nicolosi RS. Nanoemulsion preparations of the anticancer drug dacarbazine significantly increase its efficacy in a xenograft mouse melanoma model. Mol Pharm 2008; 5: 1055 63.
    • 26. Kakumanu S, Tagne JB, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RS. A nanoemulsion formulation of dacarbazine reduces tumor size in a xenograft mouse epidermoid carcinoma model compared to dacarbazine suspension. Nanomedicine 2011; 7: 277 83.
    • 27. Woodburn KW, Fan Q, Kessel D, Luo Y, Young SW. Photodynamic therapy of B16F10 murine melanoma with lutetium texaphyrin. J Invest Dermatol 1998; 110: 746 51.
    • 28. Fritsch C, Lang K, Neuse W, Ruzicka T, Lehmann P. Photodynamic diagnosis and therapy in dermatology. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 1998; 11: 358 73.
    • 29. Konan YN, Gurny R, Alle´mann E. State of the art in the delivery of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 2002; 66: 89 106.
    • 30. Davids LM, Kleemann B. Combating melanoma: the use of photodynamic therapy as a novel, adjuvant therapeutic tool. Cancer Treat Rev 2011; 37: 465 75.
    • 31. Roozeboom MH, Aardoom MA, Nelemans PJ, Thissen MR, Kelleners-Smeets NW, Kuijpers DI, et al. Fractionated 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy after partial debulking versus surgical excision for nodular basal cell carcinoma: a randomized controlled trial with at least 5-year follow-up. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 69: 280 7.
    • 32. Bechet D, Couleaud P, Frochot C, Viriot ML, Guillemin F, Barberi-Heyob M. Nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of photodynamic therapy agent. Trends Biotechnol 2011; 26: 612 21.
    • 33. Gholam P, Weberschock T, Denk K, Enk A. Treatment with 5-aminolaevulinic acid methylester is less painful than treatment with 5-aminolaevulinic acid nanoemulsion in topical photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. Dermatology 2011; 222: 358 62.
    • 34. Paszko E, Ehrhardt C, Senge MO, Kelleher DP, Reynolds JV. Nanodrug applications in photodynamic therapy. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2011; 8: 14 29.
    • 35. Jia X, Jia L. Nanoparticles improve biological functions of phthalocyanine photosensitizers used for photodynamic therapy. Curr Drug Metab 2012; 13: 1119 22.
    • 36. Huang YY, Sharma SK, Dai T, Chung H, Yaroslavsky A, Garcia-Diaz M, et al. Can nanotechnology potentiate photodynamic therapy? Nanotechnol Rev 2012; 1: 111 46.
    • 37. Mroz P, Yaroslavsky A, Kharkwal GB, Hamblin MR. Cell death pathways in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Cancers 2011; 3: 2516 39.
    • 38. Cui S, Chen H, Zhu H, Tian J, Chi X, Qian Z, et al. Amphiphilic chitosan modified upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo photodynamic therapy induced by near-infrared light. J Mater Chem 2012; 22: 4861 73.
    • 39. Castano AP, Mroz P, Wu MX, Hamblin MR. Photodynamic therapy plus low-dose cyclophosphamide generates antitumor immunity in a mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2008; 105: 5495 500.
    • 40. Ormond AB, Freeman HS. Dye sensitizers for photodynamic therapy. Materials 2013; 6: 817 40.
    • 41. Yano S, Hirohara S, Obata M, Hagiya Y, Ogura S, Ikeda A, et al. Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy. J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev 2011; 12: 46 67.
    • 42. O'Connor AE, Gallagher WM, Byrne AT. Porphyrin and nonporphyrin photosensitizers in oncology: preclinical and clinical advances in photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol 2009; 85: 1053 74.
    • 43. Lovell JF, Liu TW, Zheng G. Activatable photosensitizers for imaging and therapy. Chem Rev 2010; 110: 2839 57.
    • 44. Gray J, Fullarton G. The current role of photodynamic therapy in oesophageal dysplasia and cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2007; 4: 151 9.
    • 45. Kato H, Harada M, Ichinose S, Usuda J, Tsuchida T, Okunaka T. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of lung cancer: experience of the Tokyo Medical University. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2004; 1: 49 55.
    • 46. Allison RR, Cuenca RE, Dowie GH, Camnitz P, Brodish B, Sibata CH. Clinical photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancers A review of applications and outcomes. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2005; 2: 205 22.
    • 47. Tapajo´ s ECC, Longo JP, Simioni AR, Lacava ZGM, Santos MF, Morais PC, et al. In vitro photodynamic therapy on human oral keratinocytes using chloroaluminumphthalocyanine. Oral Oncol 2008; 44: 1073 9.
    • 48. Longo JPF, Lozzi SP, Simioni AR, Morais PC, Tedesco AC, Azevedo RB. Photodynamic therapy with aluminum-chlorophthalocyanine induces necrosis and vascular damage in mice tongue tumors. J Photoch Photobio B 2009; 94: 143 6.
    • 49. Bicalho LS, Longo JPF, Cavalcanti CEO, Simioni AR, Bocca AL, Santos MF, et al. Photodynamic therapy leads to complete remission of tongue tumors and inhibits metastases to regional lymph nodes. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2013; 9: 811 18.
    • 50. Souza CS, Felicio LB, Ferreira J, Kurachi C, Bentley MV, Tedesco AC, et al. Long-term follow-up of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy diode laser single session for non-melanoma skin cancer. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2009; 6: 207 13.
    • 51. Allison RR, Sheng C, Cuenca R, Bagnato VS, Austerlitz C, Sibata CH. Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2010; 7: 115 19.
    • 52. Guyon L, Ascencio M, Collinet P, Mordon S. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2012; 9: 16 31.
    • 53. Mitra A, Stables GI. Topical photodynamic therapy for noncancerous skin conditions. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2006; 3: 116 27.
    • 54. Kim SA, Lee KS, Cho JW. Photodynamic therapy combined with cryotherapy for the treatment of nodular basal cell carcinoma. Oncol Lett 2013; 6: 939 41.
    • 55. Shokrollahi K, Javed M, Aeuyung K, Ghattaura A, O'Leary B, et al. Combined carbon dioxide laser with photodynamic therapy for nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma: almost scarless cure with minimal recurrence. Ann Plast Surg 2013. [Ahead of print].
    • 56. Nighswander-Rempel SP, Riesz J, Gilmore J, Bothma JP, Meredith P. Quantitative fluorescence excitation spectra of synthetic eumelanin. J Phys Chem B 2005; 109: 20629 35.
    • 57. Ma LW, Nielsen KP, Iani V, Moan J. A new method for photodynamic therapy of melanotic melanoma-effects of depigmentation with violet light photodynamic therapy. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2007; 26: 165 72.
    • 58. Sharma KV, Bowers N, Davids LM. Photodynamic therapyinduced killing is enhanced in depigmented metastatic melanoma cells. Cell Biol Int 2011; 35: 939 44.
    • 59. Sharma KV, Davids LM. Depigmentation in melanomas increases the efficacy of hypericin-mediated photodynamicinduced cell death. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2012; 9: 156 63.
    • 60. Zhao B, Yin JJ, Bilski PJ, Chignell CF, Roberts JE, He YY. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 241: 163 72.
    • 61. Peeva M, Shopova M, Stoichkova N, Michailov N, Wohrle D, Muller S. Comparative photodynamic therapy of B16 pigmented melanoma with different generations of sensitizers. J Porphyr Phthalocyanines 1999; 3: 380 7.
    • 62. Soncin M, Busetti A, Biola R, Jori G, Kwag G, Li YS, et al. Photoinactivation of amelanotic and melanotic melanoma cells sensitized by axially substituted Si-naphthalocyanines. J Photochem Photobiol B 1998; 42: 202 10.
    • 63. Burda C, Chen X, Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA. Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes. Chem Rev 2005; 105: 1025 102.
    • 64. Neuberger T, Sch o¨pf B, Hofmann H, Hofmann M, Rechenber B. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system. J Magn Magn Mater 2005; 293: 483 96.
    • 65. Cheon J, Lee JH. Synergistically integrated nanoparticles as multimodal probes for nanobiotechnology. Acc Chem Res 2008; 41: 1630 40.
    • 66. Singh R, Lillard JW. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery. Exp Mol Pathol 2009; 86: 215 23.
    • 67. Monge-Fuentes V, Garcia MP, Tavares MC, Valois CR, Lima EC, Teixeira DS, et al. Biodistribution and biocompatibility of DMSA-stabilized maghemite magnetic nanoparticles in nonhuman primates (Cebus spp.). Nanomedicine 2011; 6: 1529 44.
    • 68. Drugs approved for melanoma. Available from: http://www. cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/melanoma [cited 22 November 2013].
    • 69. FDA News Release. FDA approves Zelboraf and companion diagnostic test for late-stage skin cancer. Available from: http:// www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm 268241.htm [cited 22 November 2013].
    • 70. Monzon JG, Dancey J. Targeted agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. OncoTargets Ther 2012; 5: 31 46.
    • 71. Robert C, Dummer R, Gutzmer R, Lorigan P, Kim KB, Nyacas M, et al. Selumetinib plus dacarbazine versus placebo plus dacarbazine as first-line treatment for BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma: a phase 2 double-blind randomised study. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14: 733 40.
    • 72. FDA News Release. FDA approves two drugs, companion diagnostic test for advanced skin cancer. Available from: http:// www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ ucm354199.htm [cited 22 November 2013].
    • 73. FDA News Release. FDA approves Mekinist in combination with Tafinlar for advanced melanoma. Available from: http:// www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ ucm381159.htm [cited 15 January 2014].
    • 74. Barbugli PA, Siquiera-Moura MP, Espreafico EM, Tedesco AC. In vitro phototoxicity of liposomes and nanocapsules containing chloroaluminium phtalocyanine on human melanoma cell line. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2010; 10: 569 73.
    • 75. McCarthy J, Perez JM, Bruckner C, Weissleder R. Polymeric nanoparticle preparation that eradicates tumors. Nano Lett 2005; 5: 2552 56.
    • 76. Skidan I, Dholakia P, Torchilin V. Photodynamic therapy of experimental B-16 melanoma in mice with tumor-targeted 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphirin-loaded PEG-PE micelles. J Drug Target 2008; 16: 486 93.
    • 77. Vivero-Escoto JL, Slowing II, Trewyn BG, Lin VSY. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for intracellular controlled drug delivery. Small 2010; 6: 1952 67.
    • 78. Camerin M, Magaraggia M, Soncin M, Jori G, Moreno M, Chambrier I, et al. The in vivo efficacy of phthalocyanine nanoparticle conjugates for the photodynamic therapy of amelanotic melanoma. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46: 1910 18.
    • 79. Liang JJ, Zhou YY, Wu J, Ding Y. Gold nanoparticle-based drug delivery platform for antineoplastic chemotherapy. Curr Drug Metab 2014. [Ahead of print].
    • 80. Navarro JR, Lerouge F, Cepraga C, Micouin G, Favier A, Chateau D, et al. Nanocarriers with ultrahigh chromophore loading for fluorescence bio-imaging and photodynamic therapy. Biomaterials 2013; 34: 8344 51.
    • 81. Idris NM, Gnanasammandhan MK, Zhang J, Ho PC, Mahendran R, Zhang Y. In vivo photodynamic therapy using upconversion nanoparticles as remote-controlled nanotransducers. Nat Med 2012; 18: 1580 5.
    • 82. Shi J, Yu X, Wang L, Liu Y, Gao J, Zhang J, et al. PEGylated fullerene/iron oxide nanocomposites for photodynamic therapy, targeted drug delivery and MR imaging. Biomaterials 2013; 34: 9666 77.
    • 83. Mbakidi JP, Drogat N, Granet R, Ouk TS, Ratinaud MH, Riviere E, et al. Hydrophilic chlorin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles- potential anticancer agent for the treatment of melanoma by PDT. Bioorg Med Lett 2013; 23: 2486 90.
    • 84. Laurent S, Saei AA, Behzadi S, Panahifar A, Mahmoudi M. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents: opportunities and challenges. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2014; 29: 1 22.
    • 85. Siqueira-Moura MP, Primo FL, Espreafico EM, Tedesco AC. Development, characterization, and phototoxicity assessment on human melanoma of chloroaluminium phtalocyanine nanocapsules. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2013; 33: 1744 52.
    • 86. Mora-Huertas CE, Fessi H, Elaissari A. Polymer-based nanocapsules for drug delivery. Int J Pharm 2010; 385: 113 42.
    • 87. Vrignaud S, Benoit JP, Saulnier P. Strategies for the nanoencapsulation of hydrophilic molecules in polymer-based nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2011; 32: 8593 604.
    • 88. Otake E, Sakuma S, Torii K, Maeda A, Ohi H, Yano S, et al. Effect and mechanism of a new photodynamic therapy with glyconjugated fullerene. Photochem Photobiol. 2010; 86: 1356 63.
    • 89. Anilkumar P, Lu F, Cao L, Luo PG, Liu JH, Sahu S, et al. Fullerenes for applications in biology and medicine. Curr Med Chem 2011; 18: 2045 59.
    • 90. Muehlmann LA, Ma BC, Longo JPF, Almeida Santos MF, Azevedo RB. Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride associated to poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles as a new third-generation photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy. Int J Nanomedicine 2014; 9: 1199 213.
    • 91. Brasseur F, Couvreur P, Kante B, Deckers-Passau L, Roland M, Deckers C, et al. Actinomycin D adsorbed on polymethylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles: increased efficiency against an experimental tumor. Eur J Cancer (1965) 1980; 16: 1441 5.
    • 92. Couvreur P, Grislain L, Lenaerts V, Brasseur F, Gulot P, Biernackl A. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug carrier for antitumor agents. Polymeric Nanoparticles and Microspheres. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1986, p. 27 93.
    • 93. Kreute J. Nanoparticles a historical perspective. Int J Pharm 2007; 331: 1 10.
    • 94. Torchilin VP. Targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers for cancer therapy and imaging. AAPS J 2007; 92: E128 47.
    • 95. Yuan F, Dellian M, Fukurama D, Leunig M, Berk DA, Torchilin VP, et al. Vascular permeability in a human tumor xenograft: molecular size dependence and cutoff size. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 3752 6.
    • 96. Kano A, Taniwaki Y, Nakamura I, Shimada N, Moriyama K, Maruyama A. Tumor delivery of Photofrin† by PLL-g-PEG for photodynamic therapy. J Control Release 2013; 167: 315 21.
    • 97. Master AM, Qi Y, Oleinick NL, Gupta AS. EGFR-mediated intracellular delivery of Pc 4 nanoformulation for targeted photodynamic therapy of cancer: in vitro studies. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology. Biol Med 2012; 8: 655 64.
    • 98. Brannon-Peppas L, Blanchette JO. Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy. Adv Drug Deliver Rev 2004; 56: 1649 59.
    • 99. Chatterjee DK, Zhang Y. Upconverting nanoparticles as nanotransducers for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells. Nanomedicine 2008; 3: 73 82.
    • 100. Bugaj AM. Targeted photodynamic therapy a promising strategy of tumor treatment. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2011; 10: 1097 109.
    • 101. Heukers R, Henegouwen PMPB, Oliveira S. Nanobody photosensitizer conjugates for targeted photodynamic therapy. Nanomedicine 2014. [Ahead of print].
    • 102. Huang P, Xu C, Lin J, Wang C, Wang X, Zhang C, et al. Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide loaded with photosensitizers for targeting photodynamic therapy. Theranostics 2011; 1: 240 50.
    • 103. Yoon HY, Koo H, Choi KY, Lee SJ, Kim K, Kwon IC, et al. Tumor-targeting hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for photodynamic imaging and therapy. Biomaterials 2012; 33: 3980 9.
    • 104. Ling D, Bae B, Park W, Na K. Photodynamic efficacy of photosensitizers under an attenuated light dose via lipid nano-carrier-mediated nuclear targeting. Biomaterials 2012; 33: 5478 86.
    • 105. Chan W, Marshall JF, Lam GY, Hart IR. Tissue uptake, distribution, and potency of the photoactivatable dye chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine in mice bearing transplantable tumors. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 3040 4.
    • 106. Chan W, Marshall JF, Svensen R, Bedwell J, Hart IR. Effect of sulfonation on the cell and tissue distribution of the photosensitizer aluminum phthalocyanine. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 4533 8.
    • 107. Crnolatac I, Huygens A, Agostinis P, Kamuhabwa AR, Maes J, van Aerschot A, et al. In vitro accumulation and permeation of hypericin and lipophilic analogues in 2-D and 3-D cellular systems. Int J Oncol 2007; 30: 319 24.
    • 108. Theodossiou TA, Hothersall JS, De Witte PA, Pantos A, Agostinis P. The multifaceted photocytotoxic profile of hypericin. Mol Pharm 2009; 6: 1775 89.
    • 109. Ho YF, Wu MH, Cheng BH, Chen YW, Shih MC. Lipidmediated preferential localization of hypericin in lipid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1788: 1287 95.
    • 110. Lima AM, Pizzol CD, Monteiro FBF, Creczynski-Pasa TB, Andrade GP, Ribeiro AO, et al. Hypericin encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles: phototoxicity and photodynamic efficiency. J Photochem Photobiol B 2013; 125: 146 54.
    • 111. Qian HS, Guo H, Ho P, Mahendran R, Zhang Y. Mesoporoussilica coated up-conversion fluorescent nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy. Small 2009; 5: 2285 90.
    • 112. Guo H, Qian H, Idris NM, Zhang Y. Singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis of cancer cells using upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles as a carrier of photosensitizer. Nanomedicine 2010; 6: 486 95.
    • 113. Wang C, Cheng L, Liu Z. Drug delivery with upconversion nanoparticles for multi-functional targeted cancer cell imaging and therapy. Biomaterials 2011; 32: 1110 20.
    • 114. Jacques SL, Prahl SA. Modeling optical and thermal distributions in tissue during laser irradiation. Laser Surg Med 1987; 6: 494 503.
    • 115. Dougherty TJ, Gomer CJ, Henderson BW, Jori G, Kessel D, Korbelik M, et al. Photodynamic therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 889 905.
    • 116. Wang C, Cheng L, Liu Z. Upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy and other cancer therapeutics. Theranostics 2013; 3: 317.
    • 117. Tian G, Ren W, Yan L, Jian S, Gu Z, Zhou L, et al. Upconversion: red-emitting upconverting nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells under near-infrared excitation. Small 2013; 9: 1929e38.
    • 118. Wang C, Cheng L, Liu Y, Wang X, Ma X, Deng Z, et al. Imaging-guided pH- sensitive photodynamic therapy using charge reversible upconversion nanoparticles under nearinfrared light. Adv Func Mater 2013; 23: 3077e86.
    • 119. Chen Q, Wang C, Cheng L, He W, Cheng Z, Liu Z. Protein modified upconversion nanoparticles for imaging-guided combined photothermal and photodynamic therapy. Biomaterials 2014; 35: 2915 23.
    • 120. Chen G, Qiu H, Prasad PN, Chen X. Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics. Chem Rev 2014; 114: 5161 214.
    • 121. Information on clinical trials was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov website. With the search criteria ''melanoma and photodynamic therapy'' and ''melanoma and nanoparticles.'' Available from: www.clinicaltrials.gov [cited 15 January 2014].
    • 122. Wang C, Tao H, Cheng L, Liu Z. Near-infrared light induced in vivo photodynamic therapy of cancer based on upconversion nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2011; 32: 6145 54.
    • 123. Sahu A, Choi WI, Lee JH, Tae G. Graphene oxide mediated delivery of methylene blue for combined photodynamic and photothermal therapy. Biomaterials 2013; 34: 6239 48.
    • 124. Macaroff PP, Primo FL, Azevedo RB, Lacava ZGM, Morais PC, Tedesco AC. Synthesis and characterization of a magnetic nanoemulsion as a promising candidate for cancer treatment. IEEE Trans Magn 2006; 42: 3596 98.
    • 125. Primo FL, Macaroff PP, Lacava ZGM, Azevedo RB, Morais PC, Tedesco AC. Binding and photophysical studies of biocompatible magnetic fluid in biological medium and development of magnetic nanoemulsion: a new candidate for cancer treatment. J Magn Magn Mater 2007; 310: 2838 40.
    • 126. Primo FL, Rodrigues MM, Simioni AR, Lacava ZG, Morais PC, Tedesco AC. Photosensitizer-Loaded Magnetic Nanoemulsion for Use in Synergic Photodynamic and Magnetohyperthermia Therapies of Neoplastic Cells. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2008; 8: 5873 7.
    • 127. Jang B, Park JY, Tung CH, Kim IH, Choi Y. Gold nanorodphotosensitizer complex for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photodynamic/photothermal therapy in vivo. ACS Nano 2011; 5: 1086 94.
    • 128. Tian B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng L, Liu Z. Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. ACS Nano 2011; 5: 7000 9.
    • 129. De Paula LB, Primo FL, Jardim DR, Morais PC, Tedesco AC. Development, characterization, and in vitro trials of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine-magnetic nanoemulsion to hyperthermia and photodynamic therapies on glioblastoma as a biological model. J Appl Phys 2012; 111: 07B307 3.
    • 130. Ferreira DM, Saga YY, Aluicio-Sarduy E, Tedesco AC. Chitosan nanoparticles for melanoma cancer treatment by photodynamic therapy and electrochemotherapy using aminolevulinic acid derivatives. Curr Med Chem 2013; 20: 1904 11.
    • 131. Chatterjee DK, Diagaradjane P, Krishnan S. Nanoparticlemediated hyperthermia in cancer therapy. Ther Deliv 2011; 8: 1001 14.
    • 132. Laurent S, Dutz S, Hafeli UO, Mahmoudi M. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia: focus on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2011; 166: 8 23.
    • 133. Shah J, Park S, Aglyamov S, Larson T, Ma L, Sokolov K, et al. Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy. J Biomed Opt 2008; 13: 034024.
    • 134. Escoffre JM, Rols MP. Electrochemotherapy: progress and prospects. Curr Pharm Design 2012; 18: 3406 15.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from