Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Leavitt, Steven W.; Long, Austin (2011)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
An accurate reconstruction of past 13C/12C ratios of atmospheric CO2 may provide key constraints on the historical activity of the biosphere as CO2 source or sink. Tree rings appear to be a repository of this information but there is much noise in the collection of previous reconstructions, presumably associated with site selection, radial variability. choice of representative wood chemical constituent, and subtle effects of climate on fractionation. This study attempts to avoid these pitfalls and develop a 50-yr 13CATM, record from juniper trees (genus Juniperus), in fact, by taking advantage of the influence of climate on fractionation. Trees were harvested from suitable sites in close proximity to weather stations with monthly records of temperature and precipitation, and ring material was separated from the sections in 5-year intervals around their full circumference. From each interval, relationships of δ13C of the cellulose fraction with mean December temperature or precipitation of the respective sites emerged, showing nearly constant slopes from one interval to the next (averaging -0.27‰ C-1 for temperature and -0.04‰ mm-1 for precipitation) but with different intercepts. The separation of these regression lines of different intervals is interpreted as the response of the trees to the changing δ13C of atmospheric CO2 so that δ13CATM curves are constructed from this spacing. The shape of the best-fit reconstruction suggests the biosphere has acted as a CO2 source to about 1965 but has become a sink afterward. Although there are several recent studies whose results are compatible with this interpretation, the assumptions and statistical considerations in this study would still allow an exponentially decreasing curve through the data points from 1930- 1979 and therefore, other interpretations are not excluded.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00013.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adams. J. A. S.. Mantovani. M. S. M. and Lmdell. L. L. 1977. Wood versus fossil fuel as a source of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: a preliminary report. Scieirce 196, 54-56.
    • Armentano. T. V . and Ralston. C. W. 1980'.The role of temperate zone forests in the global carbon cycle. Cuii. J . For. Res. 10.53-60.
    • Arnold. L. D. 1979. The climatic response in the partitioning of the stable isotopes of carbon in juniper trees from Arizona. Ph.D. Dissertation, IJniversity of Arizona, Tucson. 194 pp.
    • Bohn. H. L. 1978. On organic soil carbon and CO,. Tellus 30.472-475.
    • Bolin. B. 1977. Changes in land biota and their importance for the carbon cycle. Scietrcr~196. h 13- 615.
    • Broecker. W. S.. Takahashi.T.. Simpson. H. J . and Peng. T.-H. 1979. Fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and the global carbon budget. Scietrce 206.409-4 18.
    • Craig. H. 1954. Carbon-13 variations in Sequoia rings and the atmosphere. Science 119. 141-141.
    • Craig. H. 1957. Isotopic standards for carbon and oxygen and correction factors for mass~speclrometric analysis of CO,. Georhiiir. Cosrnocliit~i.Acra 12. 133-149.
    • Delcourt. H. R. and Harris. W. F. 1980. Carbon budget of the Southeaste-n U.S. biota: analysis of historical change in trend from source to sink. Scieiice 210. 32 1-323.
    • Dequasie. H. L. and Grey. D. C. 1971. Stable isotopes applied to pollution studies. Iiriernarional Lab. 21 (Sep/Oct). 20-27.
    • Farmer. J . G. 1979. Problems in interpreting tree-ring 6°C records. Narure 279. 229-23 I .
    • Farmer, J. G. and Baxter. M. S . 1974. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as indicated by the stable isotope record in wood. Nature 247.273-275.
    • Francey. R . J. 1981a. Tasmanian tree rings belie suggested anthropogenic "C/'*C trends. Naiure ?90. 232-235.
    • Francey. R. J . 1981b. Recent l J C / l z C trends in atmospheric CO, and tree rings-Reply. Na/ure 293. 680.
    • Freyer. H . ~ D .1979a. On the "C record in tree rings. Part 1. variations in northern hemispheric trees duringthelast 150years. Tr//us31.124-137.
    • Freyer. H. D. IY79b. On the record in tree rings. Part 11. Registration of microenvironmental CO, and anomalous pollution effect. Tellus 31. 308-3 12.
    • Freyer. H.-D. 1 9 7 9 ~ A.tmospheric CO, content. I n The global carhot? r.vcle (eds. B. Bolin. E. T. Degens. S. Kempe and P. Ketner). New York: John Wiley and Sons. 79- 100.
    • Fritts, H. C. 1976. 7ree r i q s and cliiirure. New York: Academic Press.
    • Galimov. E . M. 1976. Variations of the carbon cycle at present and in the geological past. In E~iriroirnreiiial biogeorhemisrr).. c'ol. I (ed. J. 0. Nriagu). A n n Arbor. Mich.: A n n Arbor Science Publishers. 3-1 1.
    • Green. J. W. 1963. Wood cellulose. I n Methods oJ carbohydrate chemistry I11 (ed. R. L. Whistler). New York: Academic Press, 9-2 1.
    • Grinsted, J. M. 1977. A study of the relationship between climate and stable isotope ratios in tree rings. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Waikato, New Zealand, 237 pp.
    • Harkness, E. D. and Miller, B. F. 1980. Possibility of climatically induced variations in the ”C and 14C enrichment patterns as recorded by 300-yr-old Norwegian pine. Radiocarbon 22, 291-298.
    • Keeling, C. D. 1979. The Suess Effect: I3CarbonI'Carbon interrelations. Environ. Inf.2,229-300.
    • Keeling, D. C., Bacastow, R. B. and Tans, P. P. 1980. Predicted shift in the ”C/”C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 505-508.
    • Keeling, C. D., Mook, W. G. and Tans, P. P. 1979. Recent trends in the 13C/12Cratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature 277, 121-123.
    • Killough, G . G. and Emanuel, W. R. 1981. A comparison of several models of carbon turnover in the ocean with respect to their distributions of transit time and age, and responses to atmospheric CO, and I T c . Tellus 33,274-290.
    • Lerman, J. C. 1974. Isotopic “paleothermometers” on continental matter: assessment. In Les Methodes Quantitives d'Etude des Variarions du Climate au Cows du Pleistocene. Paris: Int'l C N R S 219, 163- 19 1.
    • Lerman, J. C. and Long, A. 1980. Carbon-13 in tree rings: local or canopy effect. In Proc. of the Ini'l Meeting on Stable Isotopes in the Tree-Ring Research, 22-25 May 1979, New Paltz. NY. New York: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, 22- 34.
    • Libby, L. M. and Pandolfi. L. J. 1974. Temperature dependence of isotope ratios in tree rings. Proc. Nai. Acad. Sci. 71.2482-2486.
    • Long. A. 1982. Stable isotopes in tree rings. In Climate from tree rings (eds. M. K . Hughes. P. M. Kelly. J. R. Pilcher and V. C. LaMarche). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 12- 18.
    • Mazany, T., Lerman, J. C. and Long, A. 1980. Carbon- 13 in tree-ring cellulose as an indicator of past climates. Nature 287,432-435.
    • Mulholland, R. J . 1979. The interpretation of tree-ring 613C records. Nature 282, 757.
    • Oeschger, H., Siegenthaler, V., Schotterer, U. and Gugelmann, A. 1975. A box diffusion model to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature. Tellus 27, 168-192.
    • Pankrath, J. 1979. The global carbon cycle and possible disturbances due to man's interventions. Enoiron. Int. 2.357-377.
    • Pearman, G. I., Francey, R. J. and Fraser, P. J. B. 1976. Climatic implications of stable carbon isotopes in tree rings. Nature 260, 77 1-773.
    • Pearman. G. 1. and Hyson, P. 1981. The annual variation of atmospheric CO, concentration observed in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9839-9843.
    • Rebello, A. and Wagener. K. 1976. Evaluation of ”C and data on atmospheric CO, on the basis of a diffusion model for oceanic mixing. In Environmental biogeochemistry, Yol. I (ed. J. 0.Nriagu). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 13-23.
    • Stuiver, M. 1978. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon reservoir changes. Science 199, 253-258.
    • Tans, P. P. 1978. Carbon-13 and carbon-I4 in trees and the atmospheric CO, increase. Ph.D. Thesis, State University of Groningen, Netherlands, 99 pp.
    • Tans, P. P. and Mook. W. G . 1980. Past atmospheric CO, levels and the 13C/1zCratios in tree rings. Tellus 32,268-283.
    • Woodwell, G . M.. Whittaker, R. H.. Reiners, W. A., Likens, G. E., Delwiche, C. C.. and Botkin, D. B. 1978. The biota and the world carbon budget. Science 199, 141-146.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from