Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Kolltveit, Kristin M.; Geiran, Odd; Tronstad, Leif; Olsen, Ingar (2011)
Publisher: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Journal: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Languages: English
Types: Article
Calcific aortic valve stenosis affects an increasing number of elderly patients and causes considerable morbidity. The etiology of this disease is unclear. Lately, the issue has been raised that its pathogenesis may be linked to chronic in ammation caused by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate if bacteria are present in calcific stenotic aortic valves. Tissue specimen s were collected from 19 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic valve stenosis and from ten patients with regurgitant aortic valves or clinically healthy valves from explanted hearts (controls). Specimens were sectioned and subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy, as well as to anaerobic culturing. Bacteria of various morphologies (cocci, rods, spiral and crescent forms) were detected in 16 of the 19 patients with valve stenosis. Twelve of these patients yielded positive cultures and 12 were positive assessed by electron microscopy. The bacteria were present in fibrous tissue in the thickened areas of the valve and in lacunae of calcified nodules. Bacteria seemingly undergoing cell division were observed. Macrophage digestion of bacteria was also noticed. No bacteria were detected in the valves from the control group except in one patient. Bacteria of different morphologies were observed in calcific stenotic aortic valves. It appear s likely that the bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of acquired, calcific aortic valve stenosis.Keywords: heart valve diseases, cardiac surgical procedures, bacteria, aerobic, bacteria, anaerobic.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Wierzbick i A, Shetty C. Aortic stenosis: an atherosclerotic disease? J H eart Valve D is 1999; 8: 416 - 23.
    • 2. Scannapieco F A. Position paper of The American Academy of Periodontology: periodonta l disease as a potential risk factor for systemic diseases. J Periodonto l 1998; 69: 841 - 50.
    • 3. M etha JL, Saldeen TG , R and K . Interactive role of infection , in ammation and traditional risk factors in atherosclerosis and coronar y artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31: 1217 - 25.
    • 4. D anesh J, Collins R , Peto R . Chronic infection s and coronar y heart disease: is there a link? Lancet 1997; 350: 430 - 6.
    • 5. R oss R . Atherosclerosis - an in ammatory disease. N ew Engl J M ed 1999; 340: 115 - 26.
    • 6. Saikku P, Leinonen M , M attila K , et al. Serologica l evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronar y heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1988; 2: 983 - 6.
    • 7. Wanishsawa d C, Zhou YF , Epstein SA. Chlamydia pneumo - niae -induced transactivation of the major immediate early promoter of cytomegalovirus: potential synergy of infectiou s agent s in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. J Infect D is 2000; 181: 787 - 90.
    • 8. Li X, K olltveit K M , Tronstad L, Olsen I. Systemic diseases caused by oral infection . Clin Microbio l R ev 2000; 13: 547 - 58.
    • 9. Campbell WN , Tsai W, M ispireta LA. Evaluation of the practice of routine culturing of native valves during valve replacemen t surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69: 548 - 50.
    • 10. G iladi M , Szold O, Elami A, Bruckner D , Johnson BJ. M icrobiologica l cultures of heart valves and valve tags are not valuable for patients without infective endocarditis who are undergoin g valve replacement . Clin Infect D is 1997; 24: 884 - 8.
    • 11. Chuard C, Antley CM , Reller LB. Clinical utility of cardiac valve G ram stain and culture in patients undergoin g native valve replacement . Arch Pathol Lab M ed 1998; 122: 412 - 5.
    • 12. Juvonen J, Laurila A, Juvonen T, et al. D etection of Chlamy - dia pneumoniae in huma n nonrheuma tic stenotic aortic valves. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29: 1054 - 9.
    • 13. N ystrøm-R osander C, Thelin S, H jelm E, Lindquist O, P aÊhlson C, F riman G . H igh incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in sclerotic heart valves of patients undergoin g aortic valve replacement . Scand J Infect D is 1997; 29: 361 - 5.
    • 14. D rangsholt M T. Association of denta l procedures and infective endocarditis: a meta-analysis. Thesis. U niversity of Washington , Seattle, 1992; 43.
    • 15. Apfalter P, Blasi F , Boman J, et al. M ulticenter comparison trial of D N A extraction methods and PCR assays for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in endarterectomy specimens. J. Clin. M icrobiol. 2001; 39: 519 - 24.
    • 16. F assel TA, Edmiston CE. Ruthenium red and the bacterial glycocalyx. Biotech H istochem 1999; 74: 194 - 212.
    • 17. K oneman EW, Allen SD , Jand a WM , Schreckenberge r PC, Winn WC Jr. Color atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology, 5th edn. Philadelphia , PA: Lippincott, 1997: 542.
    • 18. Seifert H , K altheuner M , Perdreau-Remingto n F . Micrococcus luteus endocarditis: case report and review of the literature. Zentralbl Bakteriol 1995; 282: 431 - 5.
    • 19. F elner JM . Infective endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria. In: Balows A, D e-H aan R M , D owell VR Jr, G uze LB, eds. Anaerobic bacteria -role in disease. Spring eld: Charles C Thomas, 1974: 345 - 52.
    • 20. F elner JM , D owell VR . Anaerobic bacterial endocarditis. N ew Engl J Med 1970; 283: 1188 - 92.
    • 21. M un˜oz Sanz A, G arcia de la Llana F , F erna´ndez M ora G , Blanco Palenciano J. Endocard itis y bacteriemia por Enterobacter agglomerans. M ed Cl´õn (Barc) 1991; 96: 436 - 7.
    • 22. H rabinska-Zachwieja J, K rukowski J, Tubek S, Zeljas A. Bakteryjne zapalenie wsierdzia wywolan e przez Enterobacter agglomerans u chorego z wypadaniem platka zastawk i dwudzielnej. Wiad Lek 1989; 42: 453 - 5.
    • 23. Wall TC, Peyton RB, Corey G R. G onococca l endocarditis: a new look at an old disease. M edicine (Baltimore) 1989; 68: 375 - 80.
    • 24. Brouqui P, Raoult D . Endocarditis due to rare and fastidious bacteria. Clin M icrobio l Rev 2001; 14: 177 - 201.
    • 25. Alavarez-Elcor o S, Sifuentes-Osorio J. Clostridium perfringens bacteremia in prosthetic valve endocarditis. D iagnosis by periphera l blood smear. Arch Intern M ed 1984; 144: 849 - 50.
    • 26. Cutrona AF , Watanakunak orn C, Schaub CR , Jagetia A. Clostridium innocuum endocarditis. Clin Infect D is 1995; 21: 1306 - 7.
    • 27. K olander SA, Cosgrove EM, M olavi A. Clostridial endocarditis. Repor t of a case caused by Clostridium bifermentans and a review of the literature. Arch Intern M ed 1989; 149: 455 - 6.
    • 28. Spyrou N , Anderso n M , F oale R. Listeria endocarditis: current managemen t and patient outcom e -world literature review. H eart 1997; 77: 380 - 3.
    • 29. Zambon JJ, H araszthy VI, G rossi S, G enco RJ. Identi cation of periodontal pathogen s in atheroma tous plaques. J D ent Res 1997;76:408 , abstract 3159.
    • 30. Chiu B. Multiple infections in carotid atherosclero tic plaques. Am H eart J 1999; 138 (Suppl): S534 - 6.
    • 31. M arcus LC, Steere AC, D uray PH , Anderso n AE, M ahoney EB. F atal pancarditis in a patient with coexisten t Lyme disease and babesiosis. D emonstration of spirochetes in the myocardium. Ann Intern M ed 1985; 103: 374 - 6.
    • 32. Loesch e W. The spirochetes. In: N isengard R J, N ewman M G , eds. Oral M icrobiology and Immunology, 2nd edn . Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1994: 228 - 36.
    • 33. Streckfuss JL, Smith WN, Brown LR , Campbell M M . Calci - cation of selected strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. J Bacteriol 1974; 120: 502 - 6.
    • 34. M cLean R J, N ickel JC, Beveridge TJ, Costerton JW. Observations of the ultrastructure of infected kidney stones. J M ed M icrobiol 1989; 29: 1- 7.
    • 35. Stewart BF , Siscovick D , Lind BK , et al. Clinical factors associated with calci c aortic valve disease. Cardiovascular H ealth Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29: 630 - 4.
    • 36. Otto CM , K uusisto J, R eichenbach D D , G own AM , O'Brien K D . Characterization of the early lesion of ''degenerative'' valvula r aortic stenosis. H istological and immunohisto chemical studies. Circulation 1994; 90: 844 - 53.
    • 37. N geh J, G upta S. C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis: causal or coincidenta l link? ASM N ews 2000; 66: 732 - 7.
    • 38. Lederber g J. Infectiou s agents, hosts in a constan t ux. ASM N ews 1998; 64: 18 - 22.
    • 39. Crawford C, K napp JS, H ale J, H olmes K K . Asymptomat ic gonorrhea in men : caused by gonococc i with unique nutritional requirements. Science 1977; 196: 1352 - 3.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from