Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hartley, M. Gillian; El-Maaytah, M. A.; McKenzie, C.; Greenman, J. (2011)
Publisher: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Journal: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: stomatognathic diseases
The tongue bacterial microbiota of 50 individuals was identified and enumerated to group or genus level. Possible relationships between these data and the oral malodour status of each individual were explored. When subjects were grouped into low or high odour producers, significant increases in the total bacterial load and key bacterial groups, namely gram-negative anaerobes, which include Porphyromonas/Prevotella species and fusiforms, were related to high odour. However, on an individual basis the extensive variation between subjects reduced the correlation between bacterial groups and odour. Two phenotypic characteristics of the microbiota, volatile sulphur production and proteolytic activity, were also assessed. These were strongly associated with odour; in particular, the proportions of hydrogen sulphide producing organisms were significantly related to the odour levels of the individuals, despite the interpersonal variation. Thus it appears that it is the metabolic activity of the mixed microbiota rather than the bacterial load, or genus types present, that most contributes to oral malodour.Keywords: oral malodour, tongue microbiota, oral bacteria, sulphide production, proteolytic activity.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Cowan ST, Steel KJ. (1974). Manual for Ident$cation of Medical Bacteria, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • 2. Coykendall AL. (1995). A method t o quantitate the tongue flora. Journal of Dental Research 74, special issue, AADR abstract no. 924, 127.
    • 3. De Boever EH, Loesche WJ. (1995). Strategies to identify the main microbial contributors t o oral malodor. In: Rosenberg M (ed.) Bad Breath: Research Perspectives. Tel Aviv University, Israel, pp. 41-54.
    • 4. De Boever EH, Loesche WJ. The tongue flora and tongue surface characteristics contribution to oral . malodour. Proceedings of the Second International World Workshop on Oral Malodour. Leuven, Belgium 1995. Accepted for publication.
    • 5. Frisken K, Tagg J, Laws A, Orr M. (1987). Suspected periodontal microorganisms and their oral habitats in young children. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 5 , 4 3 4 5 .
    • 6. Gordon DF, Gibbons RJ. (1966). Studies of the predominant cultivable micro-organisms from the human tongue. Archives in Oral Biology 11, 627-632.
    • 7. Hartley MG, El-Maaytah MA, McKenzie C, Greenman J. (1996). Assessment of an impressed toothbrush as a method of sampling tongue microbiota. In: Bad Breath: A multidisciplinary approach, Chapter 10 pp. 131-144. Edited by van Steenberghe D. & Rosenberg M. Leuven University Press, Leuven, Belgium.
    • 8. Hartley MG, Hudson MJ, Swarbrick ET, Hill MJ, Gent AE, Hellier MD, Grace RH. (1992). The rectal mucosa-associated microflora in patients with ulcerative colitis. Journal of Medical Microbiology 36, 96-103.
    • 9. Holdeman LV, Cat0 EP, Moore WEC (eds). (1977). Anaerobe Laboratory Manual 4th edn (plus updates). Blacksburg VA, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    • 10. Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PH, Staley JT, Williams ST.(1994). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 9th edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.
    • 11. Kozlovsky A,, Gordon D, Gelernter I, Loesche WJ, Rosenberg M. (1994). Correlation between the BANA test and oral malodor parameters. Joirrnnl of Dentaf Research 73, 10361042.
    • 12. McNamara T F , Alexander JF, Lee M, Plains M. (1972). The role of microorganisms in the production of oral malodor. Oral Surgery 34, 4 1 4 8 .
    • 13. Milnes AR, Bowden GH, Gates D, Tate R. (1993). Predominant cultivable microorganisms on the tongue of pre-school children. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 6, 229-235.
    • 14. Moncla BJ, Braham P, Rabe LK, Hillier SL. (1991). Rapid presumptive identification of blackpigmented gram-negative anaerobic bacteria by using 4-methylumbelliferone derivates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 29(9), 1955-1958.
    • 15. Moore WEC. (1987). Microbiology of periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontal Research 22, 335- 341.
    • 16. Moore WEC, Holdeman LV, Cat0 EP, Smibert RM, Burmeister JA, Ranney RR. (1983). Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans. Infection and Immunity 42, 510-515.
    • 17. Nyvad B, Kilian M. (1990). Comparison of the initial streptococcal microflora on dental enamel in caries-active and caries-inactive individuals. Cciries Research 24, 267-272.
    • 18. Persson S, Edlund MB, Claesson R, Carlsson J. (1990). The formation of hydrogen sulphide and methylmercaptan by oral bacteria. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 5, 195-20 1.
    • 19. Rosenberg M, McCulloch CA. (1992). Measurements of oral malodor: current methods and future prospects. Journal of Periodontology 63, 776-782.
    • 20. Scully C, Porter S, Greenman J. (1994). What to d o about halitosis. British Medical Journal 308, 217-2 18.
    • 21. Socransky S S , Haffajee AD. (1992). The bacterial aetiology of destructive periodontal disease: current concepts. Journal of Periodontology 63, 322- 331.
    • 22. Solis-Gaffar MC, Fischer TJ, G a f a r A. (1979). Instrumental evaluation of odor produced by specific oral microorganisms. Journal for the Society of Cosmetic Chemistry 30, 241-242.
    • 23. Theilade E, Theilade J. (1984). Formation and ecology of plaque at different locations in the mouth. Scandinaviun Journal of Dental Research 93, 90-95.
    • 24. Tonzetich J. (1971). Direct gas chromatographic analysis of sulphur compounds in mouth air in man. Archives in Oral Biology 16, 587-597.
    • 25. Tonzetich J. (1977). Production and origin of oral malodor: a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis. Journal of Periodontology 48, 13-20.
    • 26. Tonzetich J, Ng SK. (1976). Reduction of malodor by oral cleansing procedures. Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Surgery 42, 172-1 81.
    • 27. Turng B, Minah G , Zhang M. (1995). Evaluation of bacterial culture media for oral odor-producing species. Journal of Dental Research 74, special issue, IADR abstract no. 1492, 587.
    • 28. Van Winkelhoff AJ, Van der Velden U, Clement M, de Graaff J. (1988). Intra-oral distribution of black-pigmented Bncteroides species in periodontitis patients. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 3, 83-85.
    • 29. Yaegaki K, Sanada K. (1992). Volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air from clinically healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontal Research 27, 233-238.
    • 30. Zambon JJ, Reynolds HS, Slots J. (1981). Black pigmented Bacteroides spp. in the human oral cavity. Infection and Immunity 32, 198-203.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from