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Starr Malkus, Joanne; Ronne, Claude (2011)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Tellus A
Languages: English
Types: Article
Some extremely large oceanic trade-wind cumulonimbus clouds extending upwards of 40,000 ft into a region of strong winds and intense vertical shear have been studied by means of time-lapse photography. A simultaneous still picture of the clouds taken a known distance and direction away from the motion pictures permits triangulation upon the clouds and calculation of the vertical and horizontal motions of several of the individual towers. By means of a nearby radiosonde observation, it is established that the air forming the strongest of these towers must have risen from near cloud base with little or no dilution of its buoyancy by mixing with the clear-air surroundings. The model of Malkus and Scorer (1955) concerning the erosion of cumulus towers is reviewed and tested upon these towers with satisfactory results. A minimum horizontal cloud dimension is apparently required for the production of undiluted towers. The horizontal motion of the clouds relative to the air is also estimated from the model and tested by the observations and the net upward transport of latent heat in water vapor is calculated approximately.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1954.tb01130.x
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    • DAVIESR, . M., and TAYLORG, . I., 1950: The mechanics of large bubbles rising through extended liquids and through liquids in tubes. Proc. Roy. Soc., London, A, ZOO: 375 - 390.
    • MALKUSJ,. S., 1949: Effects of wind shcar on soinc aspects of convection. Tmrrs. Am. Givphys. Utr., 3 0 : 19-25.
    • MALKUSJ., S., 1952: The slopes of cumulus clouds in relation to external wind shear. Q. J . Roy. Mef. Soc., 7 8 : 5 3 0 ~ 542.
    • MALKUSJ,. S., 1954: Some results of a tradc cumulus cloud invcstigation. /. &f(,teor.,I I : 220 - 237.
    • MALKUSJ., S., and SCORERR,. S., 1955: The erosion of cumulus towers. J. Meteor. In press.
    • RIEHL,H., 1950: O n the role of the tropics in the general circulation. Tellits, 2: I - 17.
    • RIEHL,H., YEH, T . C., MALKUSJ,. S., and LA SEUR, N. E . , 1951 : The north-east trade of the Pacific Ocean. Q. J . Roy. Met. Soc., 77: $98 - 626.
    • SCORERR,. S., and LUDLAMF,. H., 1 9 5 3 : Bubble thcory of penetrative convcction. Q.J. Roy. Mef.Soc., 7 9 : 94 - 103.
    • STOMMELH,., 1947: Entrainnlent of air into a c u l ~ ~ u l u s cloud. J . Meteor., 4: 91 -94.
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