Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Qian, Yun; Leung, L. Ruby; Ghan, Steven J.; Giorgi, Filippo (2011)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
We present regional simulations of aerosol properties, direct radiative forcing and aerosol climatic effects over China, and compare the simulations with observed aerosol characteristics and climatic data over the region. The climate simulations are performed with a regional climate model, which is shown to capture the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of temperature and precipitation. Aerosol concentrations are obtained from a global tracer-transport model and are provided to the regional model for the calculation of radiative forcing. Different aerosols are included: sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt and MSA particles. Generally, the aerosol optical depth is well simulated in both magnitude and spatial distribution. The direct radiative forcing of the aerosol is in the range –1 to –14 W m−2 in autumn and summer and −1 to –9 W m−2 in spring and winter, with substantial spatial variability at the regional scale. A strong maximum in aerosol optical depth and negative radiative forcing is found over the Sichuan Basin. The negative radiative forcing of aerosol induces a surface cooling in the range –0.6 to –1.2 °C in autumn and winter, –0.3 to –0.6 °C in spring and 0.0 to –0.9 °C in summer throughout East China. The aerosol-induced cooling is mainly due to a decrease in daytime maximum temperature. The cooling is maximum and is statistically significant over the Sichuan Basin. The effect of aerosol on precipitation is not evident in our simulations. The temporal and spatial patterns of the temperature trends observed in the second half of the twentieth century, including different trends for daily maximum and minimum temperature, are at least qualitatively consistent with the simulated aerosol-induced cooling over the Sichuan Basin and East China. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed temperature trends during the latter decades of the twentieth century, especially the cooling trends over the Sichuan Basin and some parts of East China, are at least partly related to the cooling induced by increasing atmospheric aerosol loadings over the region.DOI: 10.1046/j.1435-6935.2003.00070.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Barrie, L. A., Yi, Y., Leaitch, W. R. and coauthors. 2001. A comparison of large-scale atmospheric sulphate aerosol models (COSAM): overview and highlights. Tellus 53B, 615-645.
    • Benkovitz, C. M., Berkowitz, C. M., Easter, R. C., Nemesure, S., Wagener, R. and Schwartz, S. E. 1994. Sulfate over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions: Evaluation for October and November, 1986, using a three-dimensional model driven by observationderived meteorology. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20 725- 20 756.
    • Briegleb, B. P. 1992. Delta-eddington approximation for solar radiation in the NCAR community climate model. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7603-7612.
    • Chamedies, W. L., Yu, H. B., Liu S. C. and coauthors. 1999. A case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: An opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. 96, 13 626-13 633.
    • Chen, F., Mitchell, K., Schaake, J., Xue, Y. K., Pan, H. L., Koren, V., Duan, Q. Y. and Betts, A. 1996. Modeling of land-surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7251-7268.
    • Chung, E. C., Ramanathan, V. and Kiehl, J. K. 2002. Effects of the South Asia absorbing haze on the Northeast monsoon and surface-air heat exchange. J. Climate 15, 2462-2476.
    • Ghan, S. J., Easter, R. C., Chapman, E., Abdul-Razzak, H., Zhang, Y., Leung, R., Laulainen, N., Saylor, R. and Zaveri, R. 2001a. A physically based estimate of radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol. J Geophys. Res. 106, 5279-5293.
    • Ghan, S. J., Laulainen, N., Easter, R. C., Wagener, R., Nemesure, S., Chapman, E., Zhang, Y. and Leung, R. 2001b. Evaluation of aerosol direct radiative forcing in MIRAGE. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5295-5316.
    • Ghan, S.J., Easter, R. C., Hudson, J. and Breon, F. M. 2001c. Evaluation of aerosol indirect radiative forcing in MIRAGE. J Geophys. Res. 106, 5317-5334.
    • Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M. R. and Bates, G. T. 1993a. Development of a second generation regional climate model (RegCM2). Part I: Boundary-layer and radiative transfer processes. Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 2794-2813.
    • Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M. R., Bates, G. T. and De Canio, G. 1993b. Development of a second generation regional climate model (RegCM2). Part II: Convective processes and assimilation of lateral boundary conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 2814-2832.
    • Giorgi, F., Bi, X. Q. and Qian, Y. 2002. Direct radiative forcing and regional climate effects of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia: a regional coupled climatechemistry/aerosol model study. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4439, 10.1029/2001JD001066.
    • Giorgi, F., Bi, X. Q. and Qian, Y. 2003. Indirect vs. direct effects of anthropogenic sulfate on the climate of East Asia as simulated with a regional coupled climatechemistry/aerosol model. Clim. Change, 58, 345-376.
    • Grell, G., Dudhia, J. and Stauffer, D. R. 1993. A description of the fifth generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note, NCAR/TN-398+IA, Natl. Center for Atmos. Res., Boulder, CO, USA.
    • Hack, J. J., Boville, B. A., Briegleb, B. P., Kiehl, J. T., Rasch, P. J. and Williamson, D. L. 1993. Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-382+STR, Natl. Center for Atmos Res., Boulder. Co, USA, 108 pp.
    • Harvey, L. D. 1995. Warm days, hot nights. Nature 377, 15- 16.
    • Hayami, H. and Ichikawa, Y. 1995. Development of hybrid LRT model to estimate sulfur deposition in Japan. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85, 2015-2020.
    • Haywood, J. and Ramaswamy, V. 1998. Global sensitivity studies of the direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate and black carbon aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6043-6058.
    • Haywood, J. M., Roberts, D. L., Slingo, A., Edwards, J. M. and Shine, K. P. 1997. General circulation model calculations of the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and fossil-fuel soot aerosol. J. Climate 10, 1562- 1577.
    • He K. B., Yang, F., Ma, Y., Zhang, Q., Yao, X., Chan, C. K., Cadle, S., Chan, T. and Mulawa, P. 2001. The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. Atmos. Environ. 35, 4959-4970.
    • Hong, S. Y. and Pan, H. L. 1996. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 124, 2322-2339.
    • IPCC : Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), (eds. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogure, P. J. van der Linden and X. Dai, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
    • Kaiser, D. P. and Qian, Y. 2002. Decreasing trends in sunshine duration over China for 1954 -1998: Indication of increased haze pollution? Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2042, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016057.
    • Karl, T. R., Jones, P. D., Knight, R. W., Kukla, G., Plummer, N., Razuvayev, V., Gallo, K. P., Lindseay, J., Charlson, R. J. and Peterson, T. C. 1993. A new perspective on recent global warming: Asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature. Bull. Am. Meteorol Soc. 74, 1007-1023.
    • Kiehl, J. T. and Rodhe, H. 1995. Modeling geographic and seasonal forcing due to aerosols, In: Aerosol forcing of climate. (eds. R. J. Charlson and J. Heintzenberg), John Wiley, New York, 281-296.
    • Kiehl, J. T., Hack, J. J., Bonan, G. B., Boville, B. A., Briegleb, B. P., Williamson, D. L. and Rasch, P. J. 1996. Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). NCAR Tech. Note, NCAR/TN-420+STR, Nalt. Center for Atmos. Res.,Boulder, Co, USA,152 pp.
    • Kiehl, J. T., Schneider, T. L., Rasch, P. J., Barth, M. C. and Wong, J. 2000. Radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosols from simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 3. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 1441-1457.
    • Leung, L. R., Qian, Y. and Bian, X. 2003a. Hydroclimate of the western United States based on observation and regional climate simulation of 1981-2000. Part I: Seasonal statistics. J. Climate, 16, 1892-1911.
    • Leung, L. R., Qian, Y., Bian, X. and Hunt, A. 2003b. Hydroclimate of the western United States based on observation and regional climate simulation of 1981-2000. Part II: Mesoscale ENSO anomalies. J. Climate, 16, 1912-1928.
    • Li, X. W., Zhou, X. J. and Li, W. L. 1995. The cooling of Sichuan province in recent 40 years and its probable mechanism. Acta Meteorol. Sin. 9, 57-68.
    • Liousse, C., Penner, J. E., Chuang, C., Walton, J. J., Edelman, H. and Cachier, H. 1996. A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19 411-19 432.
    • Luecken D. J., Berkowitz, C. M. and Easter, R. C. 1991. Use of a three-dimensional clod-chemistry model to study the transatlantic transport of soluble sulfur species. J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22 477-22 490.
    • Luo, C., John, J. C., Zhou, X., Lam, K. S., Wang, T. and Chameides, W. L., 2000a. A nonurban ozone air pollution episode over eastern Asia: Observations and model simulations. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 1889-1908.
    • Luo, Y. F., Lu, D. R. and He, Q. 2000b. Characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical depth variation over China in recent 30 years. Chinese Science Bulletin. 45, 1328- 1334.
    • Luo, Y. F., Lu, D. R., Zhou, X. J., Li, W. L. and He, Q. 2001. Characteristics of the spatial distribution and yearly variation of aerosol optical depth over China in last 30 years. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14 051-14 513.
    • Menon, S., Hansen, J., Nazarenko, L. and Luo, Y. F. 2002. Climate effects of balck carbon aerosols in China and India. Science 297, 2250-2253.
    • Middleton, W. E. K. 1954. Vision through the atmosphere. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, 250 pp.
    • New, M. G., Hulme, M. and Jones, P. D. 2000. Representing twentieth-century space time climate variability. Part II: Development of a 1961-1996 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J. Climate 13, 2217-2238.
    • Phadnis, M. J., Carmichael, G. R., Ichikawa, Y. and Hayami, H. 1998. Evaluation of long-range transport models for acidic deposition in East Asia. J. App. Meteorol. 37, 1127- 1142.
    • Penner, J. E. 2001. Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects. Chapter 5 in Climate Change 2001, The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J.Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden and X. Dai), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
    • Qian, Y., Fu, C. B., Hu, R. M. and Wang, Z. F. 1996. Effects of industrial SO2 emission on temperature variation in China and East Asia. Clim. Environ. Res. 2, 143-149.
    • Qian, Y. and Giorgi, F. 1999. Interactive coupling of regional climate and sulfate aerosol models over eastern Asia. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6477-6499.
    • Qian, Y. and Giorgi, F. 2000. Regional climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols? The case of Southwestern China. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3521-3524.
    • Qian, Y., Fu, C. B. and Wang, S. Y. 1999. Mineral dust and climate change. Adv. Earth Sci. 14, 391-394 (in Chinese).
    • Qian, Y., Giorgi, F., Huang, Y., Chameides, W. L. and Luo, C. 2001. Regional simulation of anthropogenic sulfur over East Asia and its sensitivity to model parameters. Tellus. 53B, 171-191.
    • Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Kiehl, J. T. and Rosenfeld, D. 2001. Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science 292, 2119-2124.
    • Ramaswamy, V. 2001. Radiative forcing of climate change. Chapter 6 in Climate Change 2001, The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden and X. Dai), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
    • Reisner, J., Rasmusseb, R. J. and Bruintjes, R. T. 1998. Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124B, 1071-1107.
    • Ren, Z. H., Jiang, Z. Y., Yang, X. X. and Gao, Q. X. 1997. Research on the atmospheric transportaion, deposition and mutual influence of interprovince of acid materials over China. Acid rain and its control issue in China. China Center of Advanced Science and Technology, World Laboratory Workshop Series: 78, 75-96.
    • Riches, M. R., Wang, W. C., Chen, P., Tao, S., Zhou, S. and Ding, Y. 2000. Recent Progress in the Joint Agreements on “Global and Regional Climate Change” Studies between the United States and the People's Republic of China. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 491-500.
    • Rodhe, H. 1999. Human impact on the atmospheric sulfur balance. Tellus 51A-B, 110-122.
    • Streets, D. G. and Waldhoff, S. T. 2000. Present and future emissions of air pollutants in China: SO2, NOx, and CO. Atmos. Environ. 34, 363-374.
    • Su, W. H., Zhang, Q. P., Song, W. Z., Luo, C. and Siu, Y. F. 1989. Problems of soot pollution and environmentaleffects in northern China. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 10, 231- 235.
    • Troen, I. and Mahrt, L. 1986. A simple-model of the atmospheric boundary-layer-sensitivity to surface evaporation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 37, 129-148.
    • Wang, W. X. 1997. The problems of environment acidification in China. Acta Sci. Circum. 17 (in Chinese).
    • Wei, F. S. 1995. Investigation of China SO2 quality and emission standard. China Environ. Monit. 11, 22-28 (in Chinese).
    • Xu, Q. 2001. Abrupt change of the mid-summer climate in central east China by the influence of atmospheric pollution. Atmos. Environ. 35, 5029-5040.
    • Zhou, X. J., Li, W. L. and Luo, Y. F. 1998. Numerical simulation of the aerosol radiative forcing and regional climate effect over China. Sci. Atmos. Sin. 22, 418-427.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from