Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Henningsson, Åsa; Björck, Inger; Nyman, Margareta (2001)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Food & Nutrition Research
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: food and beverages, digestive, oral, and skin physiology
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetic, propionic and butyric acid) are formed during bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates in the colon. The interest in SCFA production is related to an increasing body of knowledge of the physiological effects of these acids. SCFAs are important anions in the colonic lumen and serve locally as nutrients for the mucosa cells, stimulating mucosal proliferation and blood flow. Especially butyric acid has been emphasized. It is the main energy substrate for the colonocytes and has been suggested to play a role in the prevention and treatment of diseases of the colonic mucosa, such as distal ulcerative colitis and cancer. SCFA production decreases the luminal pH, and may thereby stimulate mineral absorption and reduce secondary bile acid formation in the colon. Colonic generation of SCFAs has also been related to systematic and metabolic effects, e.g. SCFAs may influence the motility along the gastrointestinal tract and propionic acid has been suggested to inhibit the cholesterol synthesis from acetic acid in the liver. The SCFA formed at fermentation is quantitatively and qualitatively influenced by the type and amount of carbohydrate substrate. Further, certain combinations of carbohydrates may have synergistic effects on the SCFA pattern and may also shift the site of fermentation. This opens possibilities to design foods with tailored features regarding SCFA release in the human colon with potential health implications. There is a potential that in the future it will be possible to control SCFA production in the colon regarding pattern and place for release. Keywords: Carbohydrates, dietary fibre, fermentation, SCFA, resistant starch
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT: The control and consequences of bacterial fermentation in the human colon. J Appl Bacteriol 1991;70:443-59.
    • Moore WE, Cato EP, Holdeman LV: Some current concepts in intestinal bacteriology. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:S33-42.
    • Ruppin H, Bar-Meir S, Soergel KH, Wood CM, Schmitt MG, Jr.: Absorption of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. Gastroenterology 1980;78: 1500-17.
    • McNeil NI: The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:338-42.
    • Clausen MR, Mortensen PB: Kinetic studies on the metabolism of shortchain fatty acids and glucose by isolated rat colonocytes. Gastroenterology 1994;106:423-32.
    • Remesy C, Demigne C, Morand C: Metabolism and utilization of short chain fatty acids produced by colonic fermentation. In: Schweizer TF, Edwards CA, eds. Dietary Fibre- A Component of Food, Springer, London, UK 1992; 137-50.
    • Wolever TMS (1995) Short-chain fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism.
    • Scheppach W, Pomare EW, Elia M, Cummings JH: The contribution of the large intestine to blood acetate in man. Clin Sci 1991;80:177-82.
    • Thorburn A, Muir J, Proietto J: Carbohydrate fermentation decreases hepatic glucose output in healthy subjects. Metabolism 1993;42:780-5.
    • Anderson JW, Bridges SR: Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of plant fiber affect glucose metabolism of isolated rat hepatocytes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1984;177:372-6.
    • Chen WJ, Anderson JW, Jennings D: Propionate may mediate the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain soluble plant fibers in cholesterolfed rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1984;175:215-8.
    • Bach Knudsen KE, Canibe N: Changes in pig plasma lipids to dietary cholesterol, source and level of dietary fibre and caecal infusion of propionate. Mechanisms of action of dietary fibre cholesterol on lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In: Lairon D. Ed. COST 92 Metabolic and physiological aspects of dietary fibre in food. Commission of the European communities, Carry le Rouet-Marseille, France, 1993:123-30.
    • Beaulieu KE, McBurney MI: Changes in pig serum lipids, nutrient digestibility and sterol excretion during cecal infusion of propionate. J Nutr 1992;122:241-5.
    • Wolever TM, Spadafora P, Eshuis H: Interaction between colonic acetate and propionate in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:681-7.
    • Roediger WE: Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colon. Gastroenterology 1982;83:424-9.
    • Scheppach W: Effects of short chain fatty acids on gut morphology and function. Gut 1994;35:S35-8.
    • Cummings JH: Short-chain fatty acid enemas in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastoenterol Hepatol 1997;9:149-53.
    • Scheppach W, Bartram HP, Richter F: Role of short-chain fatty acids in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer 1995;31A:1077-80.
    • Roediger WE: The colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis: an energydeficiency disease? Lancet l980;2:7 12-5.
    • Breuer RI, Buto SK, Christ ML, Bean J, Vernia P, Paoluzi P, Di Paolo MC, Caprilli R: Rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids for distal ulcerative colitis. Preliminary report. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:185-7. cont.
    • 21. Vernia P, Marcheggiano A, Caprilli R, Frieri G, Corrao G, Valpiani D, Di Paolo MC, Paoluzi P, Torsoli A: Short-chain fatty acid topical treatment in distal ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995;9:309-13.
    • 22. Scheppach W, Sommer H, Kirchner T, Paganelli GM, Bartram P, Christ1S, Richter F, Dusel G, Kasper H: Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1992;lO3:51-6.
    • 23. Steinhart AH, Hiruki T, Brzezinski A, Baker JP: Treatment of left-sided ulcerative colitis with butyrate enemas: a controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996;10:729-36.
    • 24. Whitehead RH, Young GP, Bhathal PS: Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line (LIM 1215). Gut l986;27: 1457-63.
    • 25. Barnard JA, Warwick G: Butyrate rapidly induces growth inhibition and differentiation in HT-29 cells. Cell Growth Differ 1993;4:495-501.
    • 26. Hague A, Elder DJ, Hicks DJ, Paraskeva C: Apoptosis in colorectal tumour cells: induction by the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate and acetate and by the bile salt deoxycholate. Int J Cancer 1995;60:400-6.
    • 27. McIntyre A, Gibson PR, Young GP: Butyrate production from dietary fibre and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. Gut 1993;34:386-91.
    • 28. Perrin P, Pierre F, Patry Y, Champ M, Berreur M, Pradal G, Bornet F, Meflah K, Menanteau J: Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Gut 2001;48:53-61.
    • 29. Zoran DL, Turner ND, Taddeo SS, Chapkin RS, Lupton JR: Wheat bran diet reduces tumor incidence in a rat model of colon cancer independent of effects on distal luminal butyrate concentrations.J Nutr 1997;l27:2217-25.
    • 30. Mortensen FV, Nielsen H, Mulvany MJ, Hessov I: Short chain fatty acids dilate isolated human colonic resistance arteries. Gut 1990;31:1391-4.
    • 31. Coudray C, Bellanger J, Castiglia-Delavaud C, Remesy C, Vermorel M, Rayssignuier Y: Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibres supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in healthy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:375-80.
    • 32. Younes H, Demigne C, Remesy C: Acidic fermentation in the caecum increases absorption of calcium and magnesium in the large intestine of the rat. Br J Nutr 1996;75:301-14.
    • 33. Macdonald IA, Singh G, Mahony DE, Meier CE: Effect of pH on bile salt degradation by mixed fecal cultures. Steroids 1978;32:245-56.
    • 34. Cherbut C, Aube AC, Blottiere HM, Galmiche JP: Effects of short-chain fatty acids on gastrointestinal motility. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1997;222:58-61.
    • 35. Moore WE, Holdeman LV: Human fecal flora: the normal flora of 20 Japanese-Hawaiians. Appl Microbiol 1974;27:961-79.
    • 36. Holdeman LV, Cato EP, Moore WEC: Anaerobic Laboratory Manual. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blackburg, Virginia, USA 1977.
    • 37. Nyman M, Asp NG: Fermentation of dietary fibre components in the rat intestinal tract. Br J Nutr 1982;47:357-66.
    • 38. Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH: Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992;46 Suppl 2:S33-50.
    • 39. McBurney MI, Cuff DJ, Thompson LU: Rates of fermentation and short chain fatty acid and gas production of six starches by human faecal microbiota. J Sci Food Agric 1990;50:79-88.
    • 40. SchulzAG, Van Amelsvoort JM, Beynen AC: Dietary native resistant starch but not retrograded resistant starch raises magnesium and calcium absorption in rats. J Nutr 1993;123:1724-31.
    • 41. Biiller HA, Grand RJ: Lactose intolerance. Annu Rev Med 1990;41:141-8.
    • 42. Mortensen PB, Holtug K, Rasmussen HS: Short-chainfatty acid production from mono- and disaccharides in a fecal incubation system: implications for colonic fermentation of dietary fiber in humans. J Nutr 1988;118:321-5.
    • 43. Cummings JH, Edwards C, Gee JM, Nagengast FM, Mathers JC: Physiological effects of resistant starch in the large bowel. In: Asp N-G, van Amelsvoort JMM, Hautvast JGAJ, eds. Concluding plenary meeting of EURESTA: including the final reports of the working groups. EURESTA, Wageningen 1994;38-55.
    • 44. Mitsuoka T, Kaneuchi C: Ecology of the bifidobacteria. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30:1799-1810.
    • 45. Martin LJM, Dumon HJW, Champ MMJ: Production of short-chain fatty acids from resistant starch in a pig model. J Sci Food Agric 1998;77:71-80.
    • 46. Nyman M, Asp NG, Cummings J, Wiggins H: Fermentation of dietary fibre in the intestinal tract: comparison between man and rat. Br J Nutr 1986;55:487-96.
    • 47. Barry JL, Hoebler C, Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S, Mathers JC, Reed KA, Mortensen PB, Nordgaard I, Rowland IR, Rumney CJ: Estimation of the fermentability of dietary fibre in vitro: a European interlaboratory study. Br J Nutr 1995;74:303-22.
    • 48. Berggren AM, Bjorck IM, Nyman EM, Eggum BO: Short-chain fatty acid content and pH in caecum of rats given various sources of carbohydrates. J Sci Food Agric 1993;63:397-406.
    • 49. Casterline JLJ, Oles CJ, Ku Y In vitro Fermentation of Various Food Fiber Fractions. J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:2463-7.
    • 50. Englyst HN, Hay S, Macfarlane GT: Polysaccharide breakdown by mixed population populations of human faecal bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 1987;45:163-71.
    • 51. McBurney MI, Thompson LU: Effect of human faecal inoculum on in vitro fermentation variables. Br J Nutr 1987;58:233-43.
    • 52. Bradburn DM, Mathers JC, Gunn A, Burn J, Chapman PD, Johnston ID: Colonic fermentation of complex carbohydrates in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Gut 1993;34:630-6.
    • 53. Weaver GA, Tangel CT, Krause JA, Parfitt MM, Jenkins PL, Rader JM, Lewis BA, Miller TL, Wolin MJ: Acarbose enhances human colonic butyrate production. J Nutr 1997;127:717-23.
    • 54. Le Blay G, Michel C, Blottiere HM, Cherbut C: Enhancement of butyrate production in the rat caecocolonic tract by long-term ingestion of resistant potato starch. Br J Nutr 1999;82:419-26.
    • 55. De Schrijver R, Vanhof K, Vande Ginste J: Effect of enzyme resistant starch on large bowel fermentation in rats and pigs. Nutr Res 1999;19:927-6.
    • 56. Berggren AM, Bjorck IM, Nyman EM, Eggum BO: Short-chain fatty acid content and pH in caecum of rats fed various sources of starch. J Sci Food Agric 1995;68:241-8.
    • 57. Bird AR, Hayakawa T, Marsono Y, Gooden JM, Record IR, Correll RL, Topping DL: Coarse brown rice increases fecal and large bowel short-chain fatty acids and starch but lowers calcium in the large bowel of pigs. J Nutr 2000;130:1780-17.
    • 58. Brown I, Warhurst M, Arcot J, Playne M, Illman RJ, Topping DL: Fecal numbers of bifidobacteria are higher in pigs fed Bifidobacterium longum with a high amylose cornstarch than with a low amylose cornstarch. J Nutr l997;127: 1822-7.
    • 59. Holtug K, Clausen MR, Hove H, Christiansen J, Mortensen PB: The colon in carbohydrate malabsorption: short-chain fatty acids, pH, and osmotic diarrhoea. Scand J Gastroenterol 1992;27:545-52.
    • 60. Saunders DR, Wiggins HS: Conservation of mannitol, lactulose, and raffinose by the human colon. Am J Physiol 1981;24l:G397-402.
    • 61. Morita T, Kasaoka S, Hase K, Kiriyama S: Psyllium shifts the fermentation site of high-amylose cornstarch toward the distal colon and increases fecal butyrate concentration in rats. J Nutr 1999;129:2081-7.
    • 62. Bufill JA: Colorectal cancer: evidence for distinct genetic categories based on proximal or distal tumor location. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:779-88.
    • 63. Brighenti F, Testolin G, Canzi E, Ferrari A, Wolever TMS, Ciappellano S, Porrini M, Simonetti P: Influence of long-term feeding of different purified dietary fibers on the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile, pH and fiberdegrading activity of the cecal contents in rats. Nutr Res 1989;9:761-72.
    • 64. Vince AJ, McNeil NI, Wager JD, Wrong OM: The effect of lactulose, pectin, arabinogalactan and cellulose on the production of organic acids and metabolism of ammonia by intestinal bacteria in a faecal incubation system. Br J Nutr l990;63: 17-26.
    • 65. Roland N, Nugon-Baudon L, Andrieux C, Szylit 0 : Comparative study of the fermentative characteristics of inulin and different types of fibre in rats inoculated with a human whole faecal flora. Br J Nutr 1995;74:239-49.
    • 66. Karppinen S, Liukkonen K, Aura A-M, Forssell P, Poutanen K: In vitro fermentation of polysaccharides of rye, wheat and oat brans and inulin by human faecal bacteria. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80: 1469-76.
    • 67. Hara H, Haga S, Kasai T, Kiriyama S: Fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber by cecal bacteria lower plasma cholesterol concentration in rats. J Nutr 1998;128:688-93.
    • 68. Lu ZX, Gibson PR, Muir JG, Fielding M, O'Dea K: Arabinoxylan fiber from a by-product of wheat flour processing behaves physiologically like a soluble, fermentable fiber in the large bowel of rats. J Nutr 2000;130:1984-90.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from