Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Doherty, Owen M.; Riemer, Nicole; Hameed, Sultan (2014)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Meteorology. Climatology, QC851-999, meteorology; aerosol science; climate dynamics, ITCZ, West Africa, Saharan mineral dust, interannual variability, climate, mineral dust; emission; transport; ITCZ, Centres of Action
During summer, large amounts of mineral dust are emitted and transported from North Africa over the tropical North Atlantic towards the Caribbean with the exact quantity varying greatly from year to year. Much effort has been made to explain the variability of summer season mineral dust load, for example, by relating dust variability to teleconnection indices such as ENSO and the NAO. However, only weak relationships between such climate indices and the abundance of mineral dust have been found. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the near-surface convergence zone over West Africa in controlling dust load and transport of mineral dust. We apply the ‘Center of Action’ approach to obtain indices that quantify the movement and strength of the convergence zone using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. The latitudinal position of the convergence zone is significantly correlated with the quantity of mineral dust at Barbados over the period 1965–2003 (r=−0.47). A southward displacement of the convergence zone is associated with both increased near-surface flow and decreased precipitation over the dust source regions of the southern Saharan desert, Sahel and Lake Chad. This in turn reduces soil moisture and vegetation, furthering the potential for dust emission. In contrast, the intensity of the convergence zone is not correlated with dust concentration at Barbados. We conclude that the coupling of changes in near-surface winds with changes in precipitation in source regions driven by a southward movement of the convergence zone most directly influence dust load at Barbados and over the tropical North Atlantic during summer.Keywords: Saharan mineral dust, ITCZ, West Africa, interannual variability, climate, Centres of Action(Published: 23 July 2014)Citation: Tellus B 2014, 66, 23191, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23191
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P.-P. and co-authors. 2003. The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979 present). J. Hydrometeorol. 4, 1147.
    • Albrecht, B. A. 1989. Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science. 245(4923), 1227 1230.
    • Andreae, M. 1996. Raising dust in the greenhouse. Nature. 380, 389 390.
    • Baker, A., Jickells, T., Witt, M. and Linge, K. 2006. Trends in the solubility of iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphorus in aerosol collected over the Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem. 98(1), 43 58.
    • Bou Karam, D., Flamant, C., Knippertz, P., Reitebuch, O., Pelon, J. and co-authors. 2008. Dust emissions over the Sahel associated with the West African monsoon Intertropical discontinuity region: a representative case-study. Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 134(632), 621 634.
    • Braun, S. A. 2010. Reevaluating the role of the Saharan air layer in Atlantic tropical cyclogenesis and evolution. Mon. Weather Rev. 138, 2007 2037.
    • Cakmur, R., Miller, R. and Tegen, I. 2001. A comparison of seasonal and interannual variability of soil dust aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean as inferred by the TOMS AI and AVHRR AOT retrievals. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18287 18303.
    • Carlson, T. N. and Benjamin, S. G. 1980. Radiative heating rates for Saharan dust. J. Atmos. Sci. 37(1), 193 213.
    • Chiapello, I. and Moulin, C. 2002. TOMS and METEOSAT satellite records of the variability of Saharan dust transport over the Atlantic during the last two decades. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1176. DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013767.
    • Chiapello, I., Moulin, C. and Prospero, J. M. 2005. Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport across the Atlantic as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D9), D18S10.
    • Chiapello, I., Prospero, J., Herman, J. and Hsu, N. 1999. Detection of mineral dust over the North Atlantic Ocean and Africa; with the Nimbus 7 TOMS. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9277 9291.
    • Cowie, S. M., Knippertz, P. and Marsham, J. H. 2013. Are vegetation-related roughness changes the cause of the recent decrease in dust emission from the Sahel? Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(9), 1868 1872.
    • Dai, A., Trenberth, K. E. and Qian, T. 2004. A Global dataset of palmer drought severity index for 1870 2002: relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J. Hydrometeorol. 5, 1117.
    • De Graaf, M., Tilstra, L., Aben, I. and Stammes, P. 2010. Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa related to the monsoon rainfall, 1995 2008. Atmos. Environ. 44(10), 1274 1283.
    • Doherty, O., Riemer, N. and Hameed, S. 2008. Saharan mineral dust transport into the Caribbean: observed atmospheric controls and trends. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D12), D07211.
    • Doherty, O., Riemer, N. and Hameed, S. 2012. Control of Saharan mineral dust transport to Barbados in winter by the Intertropical convergence zone over West Africa. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos (1984 2012). 117(D19), D19117.
    • Dunion, J. and Velden, C. 2004. The impact of the Saharan air layer on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 353 365.
    • Dunion, J. P. and Marron, C. S. 2008. A reexamination of the Jordan mean tropical sounding based on awareness of the Saharan air layer: results from 2002. J. Clim. 21(20), 5242 5253.
    • Eklundh, L. and Olsson, L. 2003. Vegetation index trends for the African Sahel 1982 1999. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(8), 080000 1.
    • Engelstaedter, S. and Washington, R. 2007b. Atmospheric controls on the annual cycle of North African dust. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112, 3103.
    • Engelstaedter, S., Washington, R. and Mahowald, N. 2009. Impact of changes in atmospheric conditions in modulating summer dust concentration at Barbados: a back-trajectory analysis. J. Geophy. Res. Atmos (1984 2012). 114(D17), D17111.
    • Evan, A. T., Dunion, J., Foley, J. A., Heidinger, A. K. and Velden, C. S. 2006a. New evidence for a relationship between Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and African dust outbreaks. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(19), L19813. DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026408.
    • Evan, A. T., Foltz, G. R., Zhang, D. and Vimont, D. J. 2011. Influence of African dust on ocean-atmosphere variability in the tropical Atlantic. Nat. Geosci. 4(11), 762 765.
    • Evan, A. T., Heidinger, A. K. and Knippertz, P. 2006b. Analysis of winter dust activity off the coast of West Africa using a new 24-year over-water advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite dust climatology. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 12210.
    • Evan, A. T. and Mukhopadhyay, S. 2010. African dust over the northern tropical Atlantic: 1955 2008. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 49(11), 2213 2229.
    • Fiedler, S., Schepanski, K., Heinold, B., Knippertz, P. and Tegen, I. 2013. Climatology of nocturnal low-level jets over North Africa and implications for modelling mineral dust emission. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(12), 6100 6121.
    • Folland, C., Owen, J., Ward, M. and Coleman, A. 1991. Prediction of seasonal rainfall in the Sahel region using empirical and dynamical methods. J. Forecasting. 10(1 2), 21 56.
    • Fontaine, B., Roucou, P., Gaetani, M. and Marteau, R. 2011. Recent changes in precipitation, ITCZ convection and northern tropical circulation over North Africa (1979 2007). Int. J. Climatol. 31(5), 633 648. intensive observation period. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(10), 4069 4089.
    • Marsham, J. H., Knippertz, P., Dixon, N. S., Parker, D. J. and Lister, G. 2011. The importance of the representation of deep convection for modeled dust-generating winds over West Africa during summer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38(16), L16803.
    • Miller, R., Perlwitz, J. and Tegen, I. 2004. Feedback upon dust emission by dust radiative forcing through the planetary boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24209. DOI: 10.1029/ 2004JD004912.
    • Moulin, C., Lambert, C., Dulac, F. and Dayan, U. 1997. Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature. 387, 691 694.
    • Muhs, D. R., Budahn, J. R., Prospero, J. M. and Carey, S. N. 2007. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida. J. Geophys. Res-Earth. 112, 2009.
    • Nakamae, K. and Shiotani, M. 2013. Interannual variability in Saharan dust over the North Atlantic ocean and its relation to meteorological fields during northern winter. Atmos. Res. 122, 336 346.
    • Nicholson, S. E. 2009a. A revised picture of the structure of the ''monsoon'' and land ITCZ over West Africa. Clim. Dynam. 32, 1155 1171.
    • Nicholson, S. E., Tucker, C. J. and Ba, M. B. 1998. Desertification, drought, and surface vegetation: an example from the West African Sahel. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 815 829.
    • Olsson, L., Eklundh, L. and Ard, J. 2005. A recent greening of the Sahel trends, patterns and potential causes. J. Arid Environ. 63(3), 556 566.
    • Parker, D. J., Burton, R. R., Diongue-Niang, A., Ellis, R. J., Felton, M. and co-authors. 2005. The diurnal cycle of the West African monsoon circulation. Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2839 2860.
    • Prospero, J., Ginoux, P., Torres, O., Nicholson, S. and Gill, T. 2002. Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product. Rev. Geophys. 40, 1002. DOI: 10.029/2000RG000095.
    • Prospero, J. and Lamb, P. 2003. African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications. Science. 302, 1024 1027.
    • Prospero, J. and Nees, R. 1986. Impact of the North African drought and El Nino on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds. Nature. 320, 735 738.
    • Prospero, J. M., Blades, E., Naidu, R., Mathison, G., Thani, H. and Lavoie, M. C. 2008. Relationship between African dust carried in the Atlantic trade winds and surges in pediatric asthma attendances in the Caribbean. Int. J. Biometeorol. 52, 823 832.
    • Prospero, J. M. and Carlson, T. N. 1980. Saharan air outbreaks over the tropical North Atlantic. Pure Appl. Geophys. 119, 677 691.
    • Prospero, J. M. and Nees, R. T. 1977. Dust concentration in the atmosphere of the equatorial North Atlantic: possible relationship to the Sahelian drought. Science. 196, 1196 1198.
    • Ridley, D., Heald, C. and Ford, B. 2012. North African dust export and deposition: a satellite and model perspective. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos (1984 2012). 117(D2), D02202.
    • Ridley, D., Heald, C. and Prospero, J. 2014. What controls the recent changes in African mineral dust aerosol across the Atlantic? Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discus. 14(3), 3583 3627.
    • Riemer, N., Doherty, O. and Hameed, S. 2006. On the variability of African dust transport across the Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(13), L13814.
    • Rydell, H. S. and Prospero, J. M. 1972. Uranium and thorium concentrations in wind-borne Saharan dust over the Western Equatorial North Atlantic Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 14, 397.
    • Savoie, D. L., Prospero, J. M. and Nees, R. T. 1987. Frequency distribution of dust concentration in Barbados as a function of averaging time. Atmos. Environ. 21(7), 1659 1663.
    • Schepanski, K., Tegen, I. and Macke, A. 2012. Comparison of satellite based observations of Saharan dust source areas. Rem. Sens. Environ. 123, 90 97.
    • Schepanski, K., Tegen, I., Todd, M., Heinold, B., Bo¨ nisch, G. and co-authors. 2009. Meteorological processes forcing Saharan dust emission inferred from MSG-SEVIRI observations of subdaily dust source activation and numerical models. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos (1984 2012). 114(D10), D10201.
    • Schwanghart, W. and Schu¨ tt, B. 2008. Meteorological causes of Harmattan dust in West Africa. Geomorphology. 95, 412 428.
    • Sokolik, I. and Toon, O. 1996. Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols. Nature. 381, 681 683.
    • Sultan, B., Janicot, S. and Diedhiou, A. 2003. The West African monsoon dynamics. Part I: documentation of intraseasonal variability. J. Clim. 16, 3389 3406.
    • Swap, R., Garstang, M., Greco, S., Talbot, R. and Kallberg, P. 1992. Saharan dust in the Amazon basin. Tellus B. 44, 133 149.
    • Tegen, I. and Fung, I. 1994. Modeling of mineral dust in the atmosphere: sources, transport, and optical thickness. Geophys. Res. Lett. 99, 22897.
    • Tegen, I., Lacis, A. and Fung, I. 1996. The influence of climate forcing of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils. Nature 380, 419 422.
    • Todd, M., Allen, C. T., Bart, M., Bechir, M., Bentefouet, J. and co-authors. 2013. Meteorological and dust aerosol conditions over the western Saharan region observed at fennec supersite-2 during the intensive observation period in June 2011. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(15), 8426 8447.
    • Trapp, J. M., Millero, F. J. and Prospero, J. M. 2010. Temporal variability of the elemental composition of African dust measured in trade wind aerosols at Barbados and Miami. Mar. Chem. 120(1 4), 71 82.
    • Tucker, C., Pinzon, J., Brown, M., Slayback, D., Pak, E. and co-authors. 2005. An extended AVHRR 8-km NDVI dataset compatible with MODIS and SPOT vegetation NDVI data. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 26, 4485 4498.
    • Twomey, S. 1977. The influence of pollution on the shortwave Albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149 1154.
    • Wang, C., Dong, S., Evan, A. T., Foltz, G. R. and Lee, S.-K. 2012. Multidecadal covariability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature, African dust, Sahel rainfall, and Atlantic hurricanes. J. Clim. 25(15), 5404 5415.
    • Wang, K.-Y. 2010. Profiles of the atmospheric temperature response to the Saharan dust outbreaks derived from formosat-3/cosmic and {OMI} {AI}. Atmos. Res. 96(1), 110 121.
    • Washington, R., Todd, M., Middleton, N. and Goudie, A.G. 2003. Dust-storm source areas determined by the Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer and surface observations. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 93, L17701. DOI: 10.1029/2005GL023597.
    • Washington, R., Todd, M. C., Engelstaedter, S., Mbainayel, S. and Mitchell, F. 2006. Dust and the low-level circulation over the Bode´ l e´ Depression, Chad: observations from BoDEx 2005. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 3201.
    • Wilcox, E. M., Lau, K. M. and Kim, K.-M. 2010. A northward shift of the North Atlantic Ocean Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to summertime Saharan dust outbreaks. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L0480.
    • Zender, C. S., Bian, H. and Newman, D. 2003. Mineral dust entrainment and deposition (DEAD) model: description and 1990s dust climatology. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 4416.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article