Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Y. Kanaya; Y. Kanaya; X. Pan; X. Pan; T. Miyakawa; T. Miyakawa; Y. Komazaki; F. Taketani; F. Taketani; I. Uno; Y. Kondo (2016)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Chemistry, QD1-999, Physics, QC1-999
Long-term (2009–2015) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were performed using a continuous soot-monitoring system (COSMOS) at Fukue Island, western Japan, to provide information on wet removal rate constraints and the emission strengths of important source regions in East Asia (China and others). The annual average mass concentration was 0.36 µg m−3, with distinct seasonality; high concentrations were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring and were caused by Asian continental outflows, which reached Fukue Island in 6–46 h. The observed data were categorized into two classes, i.e., with and without a wet removal effect, using the accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) for the last 3 days as an index. Statistical analysis of the observed ΔBC ∕ ΔCO ratios was performed to obtain information on the emission ratios (from data with zero APT only) and wet removal rates (including data with nonzero APTs). The estimated emission ratios (5.2–6.9 ng m−3 ppb−1) varied over the six air mass origin areas; the higher ratios for south-central East China (30–35° N) than for north-central East China (35–40° N) indicated the relative importance of domestic emissions and/or biomass burning sectors. The significantly higher BC ∕ CO emission ratios adopted in the bottom-up Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2 (8.3–23 ng m−3 ppb−1) over central East China and Korea needed to be reduced at least by factors of 1.3 and 2.8 for central East China and Korea, respectively, but the ratio for Japan was reasonable. The wintertime enhancement of the BC emission from China, predicted by REAS2, was verified for air masses from south-central East China but not for those from north-central East China. Wet removal of BC was clearly identified as a decrease in the ΔBC ∕ ΔCO ratio against APT. The transport efficiency (TE), defined as the ratio of the ΔBC ∕ ΔCO ratio with precipitation to that without precipitation, was fitted reasonably well by a stretched exponential decay curve against APT; a single set of fitting parameters was sufficient to represent the results for air masses originating from different areas. An accumulated precipitation of 25.5 ± 6.1 mm reduced the TE to 1∕e. BC-containing particles traveling to Fukue must have already been converted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic particles, because the behavior of TE against APT was similar to that of PM2.5, the major components of which are hydrophilic. Wet loss of BC greatly influenced interannual variations in the ΔBC ∕ ΔCO ratios and BC mass concentrations. This long-term data set will provide a benchmark for testing chemical transport/climate model simulations covering East Asia.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • AMAP: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP Assessment 2015: Black carbon and ozone as Arctic climate forcers, Oslo, Norway, vii C, 116 pp., 2015.
    • Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J.-H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697, 2004.
    • Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Karcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K., Sarofim, M. C., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M., Venkataraman, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Bellouin, N., Guttikunda, S. K., Hopke, P. K., Jacobson, M. Z., Kaiser, J. W., Klimont, Z., Lohmann, U., Schwarz, J. P., Shindell, D., Storelvmo, T., Warren, S. G., and Zender, C. S.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 5380-5552, doi:10.1002/Jgrd.50171, 2013.
    • China Statistical Yearbook 2014: National Bureau of Statistics of China, China Statistics Press, Beijing, 937 pp., ISBN-13: 978- 7503772801, 2014.
    • Chuang, M-T., Lee, C-T., Chou, C. C-K., Lin, N-H., Sheu, G-R., Wang, J-L., Chang, S-C., Wang, S-H., Chi, K. H., Young, CY., Huang, H., Chen, H-W., Weng, G-H., Lai, S-Y., Hsu, S-P., Chang, Y-J., Chang, J-H., and Wu, X-C.: Carbonaceous aerosols in the air masses transported from Indochina to Taiwan: Longterm observation at Mt. Lulin, Atmos. Environ., 89, 507-516, 2014.
    • Draxler, R. R. and Rolph, G. D.: HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website, available at: http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ HYSPLIT.php (last access: 8 August 2016), NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, College Park, MD, 2013.
    • Emmons, L. K., Walters, S., Hess, P. G., Lamarque, J.-F., Pfister, G. G., Fillmore, D., Granier, C., Guenther, A., Kinnison, D., Laepple, T., Orlando, J., Tie, X., Tyndall, G., Wiedinmyer, C., Baughcum, S. L., and Kloster, S.: Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 43-67, doi:10.5194/gmd3-43-2010, 2010.
    • Feng, J.: A 3-mode parameterization of below-cloud scavenging of aerosols for use in atmospheric dispersion models, Atmos. Environ., 41, 6808-6822, 2007.
    • Ikeda, K., Yamaji, K., Kanaya, Y., Taketani, F., Pan, X., Komazaki, Y., Kurokawa, J., and Ohara T.: Sensitivity analysis of source regions of PM2:5 concentration at Fukue Island, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 64, 445-452, 2014.
    • IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2013.
    • Irwin, M., Kondo, Y., and Moteki, N.: An empirical correction factor for filter-based photo-absorption black carbon measurements, J. Aerosol Sci., 80, 86-97, 2015.
    • Jacobson, M. Z.: Short-term effects of controlling fossil-fuel soot, biofuel soot and gases, and methane on climate, Arctic ice, and air pollution health. J. Geophys. Res. 115, D14209, doi:10.1029/2009JD013795, 2010.
    • JAMSTEC: Observational data of Atmospheric Chemistry, available at: https://ebcrpa.jamstec.go.jp/atmoscomp/obsdata/, last access: 14 August 2016.
    • Janssen, N. A. H., Gerlofs-Nijland, M. E., Lanki, T., Salonen, R. O., Cassee, F., Hoek, G., Fischer, P., Brunekreef, B., Krzyzanowski, M.: Health effects of black carbon, The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn, Germany, World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 86 pp., ISBN-13: 978 92 890 0265 3, 2012.
    • Kanaya, Y., Komazaki, Y., Pochanart, P., Liu, Y., Akimoto, H., Gao, J., Wang, T., and Wang, Z.: Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7637-7649, doi:10.5194/acp-8-7637-2008, 2008.
    • Kanaya, Y., Taketani, F., Komazaki, Y., Liu, X., Kondo, Y., Sahu, L. K., Irie, H., and Takashima, H.: Comparison of black carbon mass concentrations observed by Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) and Continuous Soot-Monitoring System (COSMOS) on Fukue Island and in Tokyo, Japan, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 47, 1-10, 2013a.
    • Kanaya, Y., Akimoto, H., Wang, Z.-F., Pochanart, P., Kawamura, K., Liu, Y., Li, J., Komazaki, Y., Irie, H., Pan, X.-L., Taketani, F., Yamaji, K., Tanimoto, H., Inomata, S., Kato, S., Suthawaree, J., Okuzawa, K., Wang, G., Aggarwal, S. G., Fu, P. Q., Wang, T., Gao, J., Wang, Y., and Zhuang, G.: Overview of the Mount Tai Experiment (MTX2006) in central East China in June 2006: studies of significant regional air pollution, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8265-8283, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8265-2013, 2013b.
    • Kanaya, Y., Tanimoto, H., Yokouchi, Y., Taketani, F., Komazaki, Y., Irie, H., Takashima, H., Pan, X., Nozoe, S., and Inomata, S.: Diagnosis of Photochemical Ozone Production Rates and Limiting Factors in Continental Outflow Air Masses Reaching Fukue Island, Japan: Ozone-Control Implications, Aerosol Air Quality Res., 16, 430-441, 2016.
    • Kondo, Y.: Effects of Black Carbon on Climate: Advances in Measurement and Modeling, Monogr. Environ. Earth Planets, 3, 1- 85, 2015.
    • Kondo, Y., Komazaki, Y., Miyazaki, Y., Moteki, N., Takegawa, N., Kodama, D., Deguchi, S., Nogami, M., Fukuda, M., Miyakawa, T., Morino, Y., Koike, M., Sakurai, H., and Ehara, K.: Temporal variations of elemental carbon in Tokyo, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006257, 2006.
    • Kondo, Y., Sahu, L., Kuwata, M., Miyazaki, Y., Takegawa, N., Moteki, N., Imaru, J., Han, S., Nakayama, T., Hu, M., Kim, Y. J., and Kita, K.: Stabilization of the mass absorption cross section of black carbon for filter-based absorption photometry by the use of a heated inlet, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 43, 741-756, 2009.
    • Kondo, Y., Sahu, L., Moteki, N., Khan, F., Takegawa, N., Liu, X., Koike, M., and Miyakawa, T.: Consistency and traceability of black carbon measurements made by laser-induced incandescence, thermal-optical transmittance, and filter-based photoabsorption techniques, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 45, 295-312, doi:10.1080/02786826.2010.533215, 2011a.
    • Kondo, Y., Oshima, N., Kajino, M., Mikami, R., Moteki, N., Takegawa, N., Verma, R. L., Kajii, Y., Kato, S., and Takami, A.: Emissions of black carbon in East Asia estimated from observations at a remote site in the East China Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D16201, doi:10.1029/2011JD015637, 2011b.
    • Kurokawa, J., Ohara, T., Morikawa, T., Hanayama, S., JanssensMaenhout, G., Fukui, T., Kawashima, K., and Akimoto, H.: Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11019-11058, doi:10.5194/acp-13-11019-2013, 2013.
    • Lee, D. G., Lee, Y.-M., Jang, K.-W., Yoo, C., Kang, K.-H., Lee, J.-H., Jung, S.-W., Park, J.-M., Lee, S.-B., Han, J.-S., Hong, J.- H., and Lee, S.-J.: Korean national emissions inventory system and 2007 air pollutant emissions, Asian J. Atmos. Environ., 5, 278-291, 2011.
    • Li, M., Zhang, Q., Kurokawa, J., Woo, J.-H., He, K. B., Lu, Z., Ohara, T., Song, Y., Streets, D. G., Carmichael, G. R., Cheng, Y. F., Hong, C. P., Huo, H., Jiang, X. J., Kang, S. C., Liu, F., Su, H., and Zheng, B.: MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory for the MICS-Asia and the HTAP projects, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 15, 34813-34869, doi:10.5194/acpd-15- 34813-2015, 2015.
    • Liu, X., Kondo, Y., Ram, K., Matsui, H., Oshima, N., Nakagomi, K., Ikeda, T., Oshima, N., Verma, R. L., Takegawa, N., Koike, M., and Kajino, M.: Seasonal variations of black carbon observed at the remote mountain site Happo in Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 3709-3722, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50317, 2013.
    • Matsui, H, Kondo, Y., Moteki, N., Takegawa, N., Sahu, L. K., Zhao, Y., Fuelberg, H. E., Sessions, W. R., Diskin, G., Blake, D. R., Wisthaler, A., and Koike, M.: Seasonal variation of the transport of black carbon aerosol from the Asian continent to the Arctic during the ARCTAS aircraft campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D05202, doi:10.1029/2010JD015067, 2011.
    • Matsui, H., Koike, M., Kondo, Y., Oshima, N., Moteki, N., Kanaya, Y., Takami, A., and Irwin, M.: Seasonal variations of Asian black carbon outflow to the Pacific: Contribution from anthropogenic sources in China and biomass burning sources in Siberia and Southeast Asia, J. Geophys.Res., 118, 9947-9967, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50702, 2013.
    • Miyakawa, T., Oshima, N., Taketani, F., Komazaki, Y., Yoshino, A., Takami, A., Kondo, Y., and Kanaya, Y.: Alteration of the microphysical properties of black carbon through transport in the boundary layer in East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-570, in review, 2016.
    • Miyazaki, Y., Kondo, Y., Sahu, L. K., Imaru, J., Fukushima, N., and Kano, M.: Performance of a newly designed Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS), J. Env. Monit., 10, 1195-1201, doi:10.1039/b806957c, 2008.
    • Mori, T., Kondo, Y., Ohata, S., Moteki, N., Matui, H., Oshima, N., and Iwasaki, A.: Wet deposition of black carbon at a remote site in the East China Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 10485-10498, doi:10.1002/2014JD022103, 2014.
    • Ohara, T., Akimoto, H., Kurokawa, J., Horii, N., Yamaji, K., Yan, X., and Hayasaka, T.: An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4419-4444, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4419-2007, 2007.
    • Oshima, N., Kondo, Y., Moteki, N., Takegawa, N., Koike, M., Kita, K., Matsui, H., Kajino, M., Nakamura, H., Jung, J. S., and Kim, Y. J.: Wet removal of black carbon in Asian outflow: Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D03204,doi:10.1029/2011JD016552, 2012.
    • Pan, X. L., Kanaya, Y., Wang, Z. F., Liu, Y., Pochanart, P., Akimoto, H., Sun, Y. L., Dong, H. B., Li, J., Irie, H., and Takigawa, M.: Correlation of black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in the high-altitude environment of Mt. Huang in Eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9735-9747, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9735- 2011, 2011.
    • Pan, X. L., Kanaya, Y., Wang, Z. F., Taketani, F., Tanimoto, H., Irie, H., Takashima, H., and Inomata, S.: Emission ratio of carbonaceous aerosols observed near crop residual burning sources in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D22304, doi:10.1029/2012JD018357, 2012.
    • Pan, X., Kanaya, Y., Wang, Z., Komazaki, Y., Taketani, F., Akimoto, H., Pochanart, P.: Variation of carbonaceous aerosols from open crop residue burning with transport and its implication to estimate their lifetimes, Atmos. Environ., 74, 301-310, 2013.
    • Park, S. S., Bae, M. S., Schauer, J. J., Ryu, S. S., Kim, Y. J., Cho, S. Y., and Kim S. J.: Evaluation of the TMO and TOT methods for OC and EC measurement and their characteristics in PM2:5 at an urban site of Korea during ACE Asia, Atmos. Environ., 39, 5101-5112, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.05.016, 2005.
    • Petzold, A., Kramer, H., and Schönlinner, M.: Continuous measurement of atmospheric black carbon using a multi-angle absorption photometer, Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 4, 78-82, 2002.
    • Sahu, L. K., Kondo, Y., Miyazaki, Y., Kuwata, M., Koike, M., Takegawa, N., Tanimoto, H., Matsueda, H., Yoon, S. C., and Kim Y. J.: Anthropogenic aerosols observed in Asian continental outflow at Jeju Island, Korea, in spring 2005, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D03301, doi:10.1029/2008JD010306, 2009.
    • Sahu, L. K., Kondo, Y., Miyazaki, Y., Pongkiatkul, P., and Kim Oanh, N. T.: Seasonal and diurnal variations of black carbon and organic carbon aerosols in Bangkok, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D15302, doi:10.1029/2010JD015563, 2011.
    • Shindell, D. T., Levy II, H., Schwarzkopf, M. D., Horowitz, L. W., Lamarque, J.-F., and Faluvegi, G.: Multi-model Projections of Climate Change From Short-lived Emissions Due To Human Activities. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D11109, doi:10.1029/2007JD009152, 2008.
    • Shiraiwa M., Kondo Y., Moteki N., Takegawa N., Sahu L. K., Takami A., Hatakeyama S., Yonemura S., Blake D. R.: Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24210, doi:10.1029/2008JD010546, 2008.
    • Streets, D. G., Bond, T. C., Carmichael, G. R., Fernandes, S. D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N. Y., Wang, M. Q., Woo, J.-H., and Yarber, K. F.: An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8809, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093, 2003.
    • Takami A., Miyoshi T., Shimono A., Hatakeyama S.: Chemical composition of fine aerosol measured by AMS at Fukue Island, Japan during APEX period, Atmos. Environ., 39 4913-4924, 2005.
    • Tohjima, Y., Kubo, M., Minejima, C., Mukai, H., Tanimoto, H., Ganshin, A., Maksyutov, S., Katsumata, K., Machida, T., and Kita, K.: Temporal changes in the emissions of CH4 and CO from China estimated from CH4/CO2 and CO/CO2 correlations observed at Hateruma Island, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1663- 1677, doi:10.5194/acp-14-1663-2014, 2014.
    • UNEP and WMO: Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone, United Nations Environment Program and World Meteorological Organization, Nairobi, Kenya, 285 pp., ISBN-13: 92 -807-3141-6, 2011.
    • Verma, R. L., Kondo, Y., Oshima, N., Matsui, H., Kita, K., Sahu, L. K., Kato, S., Kajii, Y., Takami, A., and Miyakawa, T.: Seasonal variations of the transport of black carbon and carbon monoxide from the Asian continent to the western Pacific in the boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D21307, doi:10.1029/2011JD015830, 2011.
    • Wang, Q., Jacob, D. J., Fisher, J. A., Mao, J., Leibensperger, E. M., Carouge, C. C., Le Sager, P., Kondo, Y., Jimenez, J. L., Cubison, M. J., and Doherty, S. J.: Sources of carbonaceous aerosols and deposited black carbon in the Arctic in winter-spring: implications for radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12453- 12473, doi:10.5194/acp-11-12453-2011, 2011.
    • Wang, Y., Wang, X., Kondo, Y., Kajino, M., Munger, J. W., and Hao, J.: Black carbon and its correlation with trace gases at a rural site in Beijing: Top-down constraints from ambient measurements on bottom-up emissions, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 116, D24304, doi:10.1029/2011JD016575, 2011.
    • Wang, P., Wang, H., Wang, Y. Q., Zhang, X. Y., Gong, S. L., Xue, M., Zhou, C. H., Liu, H. L., An, X. Q., Niu, T., and Cheng, Y. L.: Inverse modeling of black carbon emissions over China using ensemble data assimilation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 989-1002, doi:10.5194/acp-16-989-2016, 2016.
    • Yamaji, K., Li, J., Uno, I., Kanaya, Y., Irie, H., Takigawa, M., Komazaki, Y., Pochanart, P., Liu, Y., Tanimoto, H., Ohara, T., Yan, X., Wang, Z., and Akimoto, H.: Impact of open crop residual burning on air quality over Central Eastern China during the Mount Tai Experiment 2006 (MTX2006), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7353-7368, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7353-2010, 2010.
    • Yumimoto, K., Uno I., and Itahashi S.: Long-term inverse modeling of Chinese CO emission from satellite observations. Environ. Pollut., 195, 208-318, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.07.026, 2014.
    • Zhang, Q., Streets, D. G., Carmichael, G. R., He, K. B., Huo, H., Kannari, A., Klimont, Z., Park, I. S., Reddy, S., Fu, J. S., Chen, D., Duan, L., Lei, Y., Wang, L. T., and Yao, Z. L.: Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5131-5153, doi:10.5194/acp-9-5131-2009, 2009.
    • Zhang, X. Y., Wang, Y. Q., Niu, T., Zhang, X. C., Gong, S. L., Zhang, Y. M., and Sun, J. Y.: Atmospheric aerosol compositions in China: spatial/temporal variability, chemical signature, regional haze distribution and comparisons with global aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 779-799, doi:10.5194/acp12-779-2012, 2012.
    • Zhang, J., Liu, J., Tao, S., and Ban-Weiss, G. A.: Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11521-11535, doi:10.5194/acp-15-11521-2015, 2015.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article