LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Poulain, L.; van Pinxteren, M.; Herrmann, H. (2014)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications (EGU)
Journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Types: Article
Subjects: Chemistry, QD1-999, Physics, QC1-999

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: complex mixtures
The first long-term aerosol sampling and chemical characterization results from measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente are presented and are discussed with respect to air mass origin and seasonal trends. In total 671 samples were collected using a high-volume PM10 sampler on quartz fiber filters from January 2007 to December 2011. The samples were analyzed for their aerosol chemical composition, including their ionic and organic constituents. Back trajectory analyses showed that the aerosol at CVAO was strongly influenced by emissions from Europe and Africa, with the latter often responsible for high mineral dust loading. Sea salt and mineral dust dominated the aerosol mass and made up in total about 80% of the aerosol mass. The 5-year PM10 mean was 47.1 ± 55.5 μg m−2, while the mineral dust and sea salt means were 27.9 ± 48.7 and 11.1 ± 5.5 μg m−2, respectively. Non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate made up 62% of the total sulfate and originated from both long-range transport from Africa or Europe and marine sources. Strong seasonal variation was observed for the aerosol components. While nitrate showed no clear seasonal variation with an annual mean of 1.1 ± 0.6 μg m−3, the aerosol mass, OC (organic carbon) and EC (elemental carbon), showed strong winter maxima due to strong influence of African air mass inflow. Additionally during summer, elevated concentrations of OM were observed originating from marine emissions. A summer maximum was observed for non-sea-salt sulfate and was connected to periods when air mass inflow was predominantly of marine origin, indicating that marine biogenic emissions were a significant source. Ammonium showed a distinct maximum in spring and coincided with ocean surface water chlorophyll a concentrations. Good correlations were also observed between nss-sulfate and oxalate during the summer and winter seasons, indicating a likely photochemical in-cloud processing of the marine and anthropogenic precursors of these species. High temporal variability was observed in both chloride and bromide depletion, differing significantly within the seasons, air mass history and Saharan dust concentration. Chloride (bromide) depletion varied from 8.8 ± 8.5% (62 ± 42%) in Saharan-dust-dominated air mass to 30 \textpm 12% (87 ± 11%) in polluted Europe air masses. During summer, bromide depletion often reached 100% in marine as well as in polluted continental samples. In addition to the influence of the aerosol acidic components, photochemistry was one of the main drivers of halogenide depletion during the summer; while during dust events, displacement reaction with nitric acid was found to be the dominant mechanism. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis identified three major aerosol sources: sea salt, aged sea salt and long-range transport. The ionic budget was dominated by the first two of these factors, while the long-range transport factor could only account for about 14% of the total observed ionic mass.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Alastuey, A., Querol, X., Castillo, S., Escudero, M., Avila, A., Cuevas, E., Torres, C., Romero, P. M., Exposito, F., Garcia, O., Diaz, J. P., Van Dingenen, R., and Putaud, J. P.: Characterisation of TSP and PM2.5 at Izana and Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during a Saharan dust episode (July 2002), Atmos. Environ., 39, 4715-4728, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.018, 2005.
    • Allan, J. D., Topping, D. O., Good, N., Irwin, M., Flynn, M., Williams, P. I., Coe, H., Baker, A. R., Martino, M., Niedermeier, N., Wiedensohler, A., Lehmann, S., Müller, K., Herrmann, H., and McFiggans, G.: Composition and properties of atmospheric particles in the eastern Atlantic and impacts on gas phase uptake rates, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9299-9314, doi:10.5194/acp9-9299-2009, 2009.
    • Alves, C., Oliveira, T., Pio, C., Silvestre, A. J. D., Fialho, P., Barata, F., and Legrand, M.: Characterisation of carbonaceous aerosols from the Azorean Island of Terceira, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1359- 1373, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.022, 2007.
    • Amato, F., Pandolfi, M., Escrig, A., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Pey, J., Perez, N., and Hopke, P. K.: Quantifying road dust resuspension in urban environment by Multilinear Engine: A comparison with PMF2, Atmos. Environ., 43, 2770-2780, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.02.039, 2009.
    • Anguelova, M. D.: Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Delaware, 2002.
    • Bates, T. S., Lamb, B. K., Guenther, A., Dignon, J., and Stoiber, R. E.: Sulfur emissions to the atmosphere from natural sources, J. Atmos. Chem., 14, 315-337, 1992.
    • Bates, T. S., Quinn, P. K., Coffman, D. J., Johnson, J. E., Miller, T. L., Covert, D. S., Wiedensohler, A., Leinert, S., Nowak, A., and Neusüss, C.: Regional physical and chemical properties of the marine boundary layer aerosol across the Atlantic during Aerosols99: An overview, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 20767- 20782, 2001.
    • Behnke, W. and Zetzsch, C.: Heterogeneous photochemical formation of Cl-atoms from NaCl aerosol, NOx and ozone, J. Aerosol Sci., 21, S229-S232, doi:10.1016/0021-8502(90)90226- N, 1990.
    • Canonaco, F., Crippa, M., Slowik, J. G., Baltensperger, U., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: SoFi, an IGOR-based interface for the efficient use of the generalized multilinear engine (ME-2) for the source apportionment: ME-2 application to aerosol mass spectrometer data, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3649-3661, doi:10.5194/amt6-3649-2013, 2013.
    • Carlton, A. G., Turpin, B. J., Altieri, K. E., Seitzinger, S., Reff, A., Lim, H. J., and Ervens, B.: Atmospheric oxalic acid and SOA production from glyoxal: Results of aqueous photooxidation experiments, Atmos. Environ., 41, 7588-7602, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.035, 2007.
    • Carpenter, E. J., Subramaniam, A., and Capone, D. G.: Biomass and primary productivity of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. in the tropical N Atlantic ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 51, 173- 203, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2003.10.006, 2004.
    • Carpenter, L. J., Fleming, Z. L., Read, K. A., Lee, J. D., Moller, S. J., Hopkins, J. R., Purvis, R. M., Lewis, A. C., Müller, K., Heinold, B., Herrmann, H., Fomba, K. W., van Pinxteren, D., Muller, C., Tegen, I., Wiedensohler, A., Müller, T., Niedermeier, N., Achterberg, E. P., Patey, M. D., Kozlova, E. A., Heimann, M., Heard, D. E., Plane, J. M. C., Mahajan, A., Oetjen, H., Ingham, T., Stone, D., Whalley, L. K., Evans, M. J., Pilling, M. J., Leigh, R. J., Monks, P. S., Karunaharan, A., Vaughan, S., Arnold, S. R., Tschritter, J., Pohler, D., Friess, U., Holla, R., Mendes, L. M., Lopez, H., Faria, B., Manning, A. J., and Wallace, D. W. R.: Seasonal characteristics of tropical marine boundary layer air measured at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, J. Atmos. Chem., 67, 87-140, doi:10.1007/s10874-011-9206-1, 2010.
    • Chen, Y. and Siefert, R. L.: Determination of various types of labile atmospheric iron over remote oceans, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4774, doi:10.1029/2003JD003515, 2003.
    • Chen, Y. and Siefert, R. L.: Seasonal and spatial distributions and dry deposition fluxes of atmospheric total and labile iron over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D09305, doi:10.1029/2003JD003958, 2004.
    • Chiapello, I., Bergametti, G., Gomes, L., Chatenet, B., Dulac, F., Pimenta, J., and Suares, E. S.: An additional low layer transport of Sahelian and Saharan dust over the northeastern tropical Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3191-3194, doi:10.1029/95gl03313, 1995.
    • Chiapello, I., Prospero, J. M., Herman, J. R., and Hsu, N. C.: Detection of mineral dust over the North Atlantic Ocean and Africa with the Nimbus 7 TOMS, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 104, 9277- 9291, 1999.
    • Clarke, A. D. and Porter, J. N.: Pacific marine aerosol .2. Equatorial gradients in chlorophyll, ammonium, and excess sulfate during Saga-3, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 98, 16997-17010, 1993.
    • Clegg, S. L., Brimblecombe, P., and Wexler, A. S.: Thermodynamic model of the system H+-NH4+-Na+-SO24−-NB3−- Cl−-H2O at 298.15 K, J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 2155-2171, doi:10.1021/Jp973043j, 1998.
    • Cropp, R. A., Gabric, A. J., McTainsh, G. H., Braddock, R. D., and Tindale, N.: Coupling between ocean biota and atmospheric aerosols: Dust, dimethylsulphide, or artifact?, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB4002, doi:10.1029/2004GB002436, 2005.
    • Facchini, M. C., Decesari, S., Rinaldi, M., Carbone, C., Finessi, E., Mircea, M., Fuzzi, S., Moretti, F., Tagliavini, E., Ceburnis, D., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Important source of marine secondary organic aerosol from biogenic amines, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 9116-9121, doi:10.1021/Es8018385, 2008.
    • Facchini, M. C., Decesari, S., Rinaldi, M., Finessi, E., Ceburnis, D., O'Dowd, C. D., and Stephanou, E. G.: Marine SOA: Gasto-particle conversion and oxidation of primary organic aerosol, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 74, A275-A275, 2010.
    • Fomba, K. W., Müller, K., van Pinxteren, D., and Herrmann, H.: Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde islands, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4801-4814, doi:10.5194/acp13-4801-2013, 2013.
    • Formenti, P., Elbert, W., Maenhaut, W., Haywood, J., and Andreae, M. O.: Chemical composition of mineral dust aerosol during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) airborne campaign in the Cape Verde region, September 2000, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 8576, doi:10.1029/2002jd002648, 2003.
    • Formenti, P., Schutz, L., Balkanski, Y., Desboeufs, K., Ebert, M., Kandler, K., Petzold, A., Scheuvens, D., Weinbruch, S., and Zhang, D.: Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8231-8256, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8231-2011, 2011.
    • Ganor, E., Foner, H. A., Bingemer, H. G., Udisti, R., and Setter, I.: Biogenic sulphate generation in the Mediterranean Sea and its contribution to the sulphate anomaly in the aerosol over Israel and the Eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Environ., 34, 3453-3462, 2000.
    • Gantt, B. and Meskhidze, N.: The physical and chemical characteristics of marine primary organic aerosol: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3979-3996, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3979-2013, 2013.
    • Gantt, B., Meskhidze, N., Facchini, M. C., Rinaldi, M., Ceburnis, D., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Wind speed dependent size-resolved parameterization for the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8777-8790, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8777- 2011, 2011.
    • Gelado-Caballero, M. D., Lopez-Garcia, P., Prieto, S., Patey, M. D., Collado, C., and Hernandez-Brito, J. J.: Long-term aerosol measurements in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Particle concentration, sources and elemental composition, J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos., 117, D03304, doi:10.1029/2011jd016646, 2012.
    • Gnauk, T., Muller, K., van Pinxteren, D., He, L. Y., Niu, Y. W., Hu, M., and Herrmann, H.: Size-segregated particulate chemical composition in Xinken, Pearl River Delta, China: OC/EC and organic compounds, Atmos. Environ., 42, 6296- 6309, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.001, 2008.
    • Harrison, R. M., Jones, A. M., and Lawrence, R. G.: A pragmatic mass closure model for airborne particulate matter at urban background and roadside sites, Atmos. Environ., 37, 4927-4933, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.08.025, 2003.
    • Heller, M. I. and Croot, P. L.: Superoxide decay as a probe for speciation changes during dust dissolution in Tropical Atlantic surface waters near Cape Verde, Mar. Chem., 126, 37-55, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2011.03.006, 2011.
    • Hsu, S. C., Liu, S. C., Kao, S. J., Jeng, W. L., Huang, Y. T., Tseng, C. M., Tsai, F., Tu, J. Y., and Yang, Y.: Water-soluble species in the marine aerosol from the northern South China Sea: High chloride depletion related to air pollution, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D19304, doi:10.1029/2007jd008844, 2007.
    • Jaenicke, R.: Atmospheric aerosols and global climate, J. Aerosol Sci., 11, 577-588, doi:10.1016/0021-8502(80)90131-7, 1980.
    • Jickells, T. D., Kelly, S. D., Baker, A. R., Biswas, K., Dennis, P. F., Spokes, L. J., Witt, M., and Yeatman, S. G.: Isotopic evidence for a marine ammonia source, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1374, doi:10.1029/2002GL016728, 2003.
    • Johansen, A. M., Siefert, R. L., and Hoffmann, M. R.: Chemical composition of aerosols collected over the tropical North Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 15277-15312, doi:10.1029/2000jd900024, 2000.
    • Kandler, K., Benker, N., Bundke, U., Cuevas, E., Ebert, M., Knippertz, P., Rodriguez, S., Schutz, L., and Weinbruch, S.: Chemical composition and complex refractive index of Saharan mineral dust at Izana, Tenerife (Spain) derived by electron microscopy, Atmos. Environ., 41, 8058-8074, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.047, 2007.
    • Kandler, K., Lieke, K., Benker, N., Emmel, C., Kupper, M., MullerEbert, D., Ebert, M., Scheuvens, D., Schladitz, A., Schutz, L., Weinbruch, S.: Electron microscopy of particles collected at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: particle chemistry, shape, mixing state and complex refractive index, Tellus B 63, 475-496, 2011.
    • Kawamura, K. and Gagosian, R. B.: Implications of omegaoxocarboxylic acids in the remote marine atmosphere for photooxidation of unsaturated fatty-acids, Nature, 325, 330-332, 1987.
    • Kawamura, K. and Sakaguchi, F.: Molecular distributions of water soluble dicarboxylic acids in marine aerosols over the Pacific Ocean including tropics, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 104, 3501- 3509, doi:10.1029/1998jd100041, 1999.
    • Kelly, J. T., Chuang, C. C., and Wexler, A. S.: Influence of dust composition on cloud droplet formation, Atmos. Environ., 41, 2904-2916, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.008, 2007.
    • Kerminen, V. M., Teinila, K., Hillamo, R., and Pakkanen, T.: Substitution of chloride in sea-salt particles by inorganic and organic anions, J. Aerosol Sci., 29, 929-942, 1998.
    • Kettle, A. J., Andreae, M. O., Amouroux, D., Andreae, T. W., Bates, T. S., Berresheim, H., Bingemer, H., Boniforti, R., Curran, M. A. J., DiTullio, G. R., Helas, G., Jones, G. B., Keller, M. D., Kiene, R. P., Leck, C., Levasseur, M., Malin, G., Maspero, M., Matrai, P., McTaggart, A. R., Mihalopoulos, N., Nguyen, B. C., Novo, A., Putaud, J. P., Rapsomanikis, S., Roberts, G., Schebeske, G., Sharma, S., Simo, R., Staubes, R., Turner, S., and Uher, G.: A global database of sea surface dimethylsulfide (DMS) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMS as a function of latitude, longitude, and month, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 13, 399-444, 1999.
    • Kouvarakis, G. and Mihalopoulos, N.: Seasonal variation of dimethylsulfide in the gas phase and of methanesulfonate and non-sea-salt sulfate in the aerosols phase in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 36, 929-938, 2002.
    • Kumar, A., and Sarin, M. M.: Atmospheric water-soluble constituents in fine and coarse mode aerosols from highaltitude site in western India: Long-range transport and seasonal variability, Atmos. Environ., 44, 1245-1254, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.035, 2010.
    • Lathuiliere, C., Echevin, V., and Levy, M.: Seasonal and intraseasonal surface chlorophyll-a variability along the northwest African coast, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 113, C05007, doi:10.1029/2007jc004433, 2008.
    • Lee, J. D., McFiggans, G., Allan, J. D., Baker, A. R., Ball, S. M., Benton, A. K., Carpenter, L. J., Commane, R., Finley, B. D., Evans, M., Fuentes, E., Furneaux, K., Goddard, A., Good, N., Hamilton, J. F., Heard, D. E., Herrmann, H., Hollingsworth, A., Hopkins, J. R., Ingham, T., Irwin, M., Jones, C. E., Jones, R. L., Keene, W. C., Lawler, M. J., Lehmann, S., Lewis, A. C., Long, M. S., Mahajan, A., Methven, J., Moller, S. J., Müller, K., Müller, T., Niedermeier, N., O'Doherty, S., Oetjen, H., Plane, J. M. C., Pszenny, A. A. P., Read, K. A., Saiz-Lopez, A., Saltzman, E. S., Sander, R., von Glasow, R., Whalley, L., Wiedensohler, A., and Young, D.: Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe): the tropical North Atlantic experiments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1031-1055, doi:10.5194/acp-10-1031- 2010, 2010.
    • Liebezeit, G.: Meereschemie und globaler Wandel. In: Warnsignal Klima - Die Meere - Änderungen & Risiken, edited by: Lozán, J. L., Graßl, H., Karbe, L., and Reise, K., Wissenschaftliche Auswertungen, Hamburg, p. 32, 2011.
    • Mahajan, A. S., Plane, J. M. C., Oetjen, H., Mendes, L., Saunders, R. W., Saiz-Lopez, A., Jones, C. E., Carpenter, L. J., and McFiggans, G. B.: Measurement and modelling of tropospheric reactive halogen species over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4611-4624, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4611-2010, 2010.
    • Mahowald, N. M., Baker, A. R., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N., Duce, R. A., Jickells, T. D., Kubilay, N., Prospero, J. M., and Tegen, I.: Atmospheric global dust cycle and iron inputs to the ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB4025, doi:10.1029/2004gb002402, 2005.
    • Mihalopoulos, N., Stephanou, E., Kanakidou, M., Pilitsidis, S., and Bousquet, P.: Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Tellus B, 49, 314-326, 1997.
    • Milton, S. F., Greed, G., Brooks, M. E., Haywood, J., Johnson, B., Allan, R. P., Slingo, A., and Grey, W. M. F.: Modeled and observed atmospheric radiation balance during the West African dry season: Role of mineral dust, biomass burning aerosol, and surface albedo, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D00C02, doi:10.1029/2007JD009741, 2008.
    • Mozurkewich, M.: Mechanisms for the release of halogens from sea-salt particles by free-radical reactions, J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos., 100, 14199-14207, doi:10.1029/94JD00358, 1995.
    • Müller, C., Iinuma, Y., Karstensen, J., van Pinxteren, D., Lehmann, S., Gnauk, T., and Herrmann, H.: Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9587-9597, doi:10.5194/acp-9- 9587-2009, 2009.
    • Müller, K., Lehmann, S., van Pinxteren, D., Gnauk, T., Niedermeier, N., Wiedensohler, A., and Herrmann, H.: Particle characterization at the Cape Verde atmospheric observatory during the 2007 RHaMBLe intensive, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2709-2721, doi:10.5194/acp-10-2709-2010, 2010.
    • Neusüss, C., Wex, H., Birmili, W., Wiedensohler, A., Koziar, C., Busch, B., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T., Ebert, M., and Covert, D. S.: Characterization and parameterization of atmospheric particle number-, mass-, and chemical-size distributions in central Europe during LACE 98 and MINT, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 8127, doi:10.1029/2001jd000514, 2002.
    • Niedermeier, N., Held, A., Müller, T., Heinold, B., Schepanski, K., Tegen, I., Kandler, K., Ebert, M., Weinbruch, S., Read, K., Lee, J., Fomba, K. W., Müller, K., Herrmann, H., and Wiedensohler, A.: Mass deposition fluxes of Saharan mineral dust to the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean: an intercomparison of methods, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2245-2266, doi:10.5194/acp-14-2245- 2014, 2014.
    • O'Dowd, C. D. and De Leeuw, G.: Marine aerosol production: a review of the current knowledge, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 365, 1753- 1774, doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.2043, 2007.
    • O'Dowd, C. D., Facchini, M. C., Cavalli, F., Ceburnis, D., Mircea, M., Decesari, S., Fuzzi, S., Yoon, Y. J., and Putaud, J. P.: Biogenically driven organic contribution to marine aerosol, Nature, 431, 676-680, doi:10.1038/Nature02959, 2004.
    • Ohde, T. and Siegel, H.: Biological response to coastal upwelling and dust deposition in the area off Northwest Africa, Cont. Shelf Res., 30, 1108-1119, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2010.02.016, 2010.
    • Paatero, P.: The multilinear engine - A table-driven, least squares program for solving multilinear problems, including the n-way parallel factor analysis model, J. Comp. Graph. Stat., 8, 854-888, doi:10.2307/1390831, 1999.
    • Pavuluri, C. M., Kawamura, K., Kikuta, M., Tachibana, E., and Aggarwal, S. G.: Time-resolved variations in the distributions of inorganic ions, carbonaceous components, dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols from Sapporo, northern Japan during summertime, Atmos. Environ., 62, 622-630, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.08.063, 2012.
    • Quinn, P. K. and Bates, T. S.: Regional aerosol properties: Comparisons of boundary layer measurements from ACE 1, ACE 2, aerosols99, INDOEX, ACE asia, TARFOX, and NEAQS, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D14202, doi:10.1029/2004JD004755, 2005.
    • Quinn, P. K., Charlson, R. J., and Bates, T. S.: Simultaneous observations of ammonia in the atmosphere and ocean, Nature, 335, 336-338, doi:10.1038/335336a0, 1988.
    • Radhi, M., Box, M. A., Box, G. P., Mitchell, R. M., Cohen, D. D., Stelcer, E., and Keywood, M. D.: Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian continental aerosols: results from a field experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5925-5942, doi:10.5194/acp-10-5925-2010, 2010.
    • Raes, F., Liao, H., Chen, W. T., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Atmospheric chemistry-climate feedbacks, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D12121, doi:10.1029/2009JD013300, 2010.
    • Read, K. A., Mahajan, A. S., Carpenter, L. J., Evans, M. J., Faria, B. V. E., Heard, D. E., Hopkins, J. R., Lee, J. D., Moller, S. J., Lewis, A. C., Mendes, L., McQuaid, J. B., Oetjen, H., Saiz-Lopez, A., Pilling, M. J., and Plane, J. M. C.: Extensive halogen-mediated ozone destruction over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 453, 1232-1235, doi:10.1038/Nature07035, 2008.
    • Reid, E. A., Reid, J. S., Meier, M. M., Dunlap, M. R., Cliff, S. S., Broumas, A., Perry, K., and Maring, H.: Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 8591, doi:10.1029/2002jd002935, 2003.
    • Rijkenberg, M. J. A., Powell, C. F., Dall'Osto, M., Nielsdottir, M. C., Patey, M. D., Hill, P. G., Baker, A. R., Jickells, T. D., Harrison, R. M., and Achterberg, E. P.: Changes in iron speciation following a Saharan dust event in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean, Mar Chem, 110, 56-67, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2008.02.006, 2008.
    • Rinaldi, M., Decesari, S., Carbone, C., Finessi, E., Fuzzi, S., Ceburnis, D., O'Dowd, C. D., Sciare, J., Burrows, J. P., Vrekoussis, M., Ervens, B., Tsigaridis, K., and Facchini, M. C.: Evidence of a natural marine source of oxalic acid and a possible link to glyoxal, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D16204, doi:10.1029/2011Jd015659, 2011.
    • Schepanski, K., Tegen, I., and Macke, A.: Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the tropical northern Atlantic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1173-1189, doi:10.5194/acp-9-1173-2009, 2009.
    • Schulz, M., Prospero, J. M., Baker, A. R., Dentener, F., Ickes, L., Liss, P. S., Mahowald, N. M., Nickovic, S., Garcia-Pando, C. P., Rodriguez, S., Sarin, M., Tegen, I., and Duce, R. A.: Atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust to the ocean: Implications for research needs, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 10390- 10404, doi:10.1021/Es300073u, 2012.
    • Sciare, J., Oikonomou, K., Cachier, H., Mihalopoulos, N., Andreae, M. O., Maenhaut, W., and Sarda-Estéve, R.: Aerosol mass closure and reconstruction of the light scattering coefficient over the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MINOS campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2253-2265, doi:10.5194/acp-5-2253-2005, 2005.
    • Sciare, J., Favez, O., Sarda-Esteve, R., Oikonomou, K., Cachier, H., and Kazan, V.: Long-term observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Austral Ocean atmosphere: Evidence of a biogenic marine organic source, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D15302, doi:10.1029/2009jd011998, 2009.
    • Sullivan, R. C., Guazzotti, S. A., Sodeman, D. A., Tang, Y. H., Carmichael, G. R., and Prather, K. A.: Mineral dust is a sink for chlorine in the marine boundary layer, Atmos. Environ., 41, 7166-7179, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.047, 2007.
    • Tesche, M., Gross, S., Ansmann, A., Muller, D., Althausen, D., Freudenthaler, V., and Esselborn, M.: Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde, Tellus B, 63, 649-676, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00548.x, 2011.
    • Tilgner, A. and Herrmann, H.: Radical-driven carbonyl-to-acid conversion and acid degradation in tropospheric aqueous systems studied by CAPRAM, Atmos. Environ., 44, 5415-5422, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.07.050, 2010.
    • Turpin, B. J., Saxena, P., and Andrews, E.: Measuring and simulating particulate organics in the atmosphere: problems and prospects, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2983-3013, 2000.
    • van Pinxteren, D., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T., Müller, K., Thiel, C., and Herrmann, H.: A GIS based approach to back trajectory analysis for the source apportionment of aerosol constituents and its first application, J. Atmos. Chem., 67, 1-28, doi:10.1007/s10874-011-9199-9, 2010.
    • Virkkula, A., Teinilä, K., Hillamo, R., Kerminen, V.-M., Saarikoski, S., Aurela, M., Viidanoja, J., Paatero, J., Koponen, I. K., and Kulmala, M.: Chemical composition of boundary layer aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean and at an Antarctic site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3407-3421, doi:10.5194/acp-6-3407-2006, 2006.
    • Warneck, P.: In-cloud chemistry opens pathway to the formation of oxalic acid in the marine atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2423-2427, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00136-5, 2003.
    • Williams, J., de Reus, M., Krejci, R., Fischer, H., and Ström, J.: Application of the variability-size relationship to atmospheric aerosol studies: estimating aerosol lifetimes and ages, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 133-145, doi:10.5194/acp-2-133-2002, 2002.
    • Yao, X. H., Fang, M., and Chan, C. K.: Size distributions and formation of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric particles, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2099-2107, 2002.
    • Yao, X. H. and Zhang, L. M.: Chemical processes in sea-salt chloride depletion observed at a Canadian rural coastal site, Atmos. Environ., 46, 189-194, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.081, 2012.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article