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P. Boguslawski; C. M. Gold; A. A. Rahman (2012)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Journal: ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: TA1-2040, T, TA1501-1820, Applied optics. Photonics, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), Technology
Buildings are often modelled as two-dimensional (2D) footprints which are extruded to simple cubes. Buildings are also represented as more complex objects with roofs, facades, etc. – in this case they are polyhedra, sometimes of a complex shape. These allow for visualisation and analysis of a wide area like a city, but micro-scale analysis of interiors is not possible. An example can be rescue operation simulation where information about the internal structure of a building and the external terrain is crucial to improve the response time. It demands a three-dimensional (3D) model where each room is represented as a separate element; there are also doors, windows, walls and other objects that have to be included. Even complex geometrical models can be easily constructed using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. However, lack of semantic information and topological relations makes such models poor choices for GIS analysis. With the new dual half-edge (DHE) data structure and a set of Euler operators a 3D model can be built as in CAD systems, and represented as a cell complex. Construction of non-manifold objects is also possible. An advantage of the DHE is simplicity – only edges and nodes are used. Because of the 3D duality implemented in the structure volumes (cells) and faces are also present in the model. The geometry of a model is constructed explicitly by using Euler operators: connections between elements are created automatically, and semantic information is represented with attributes which can be assigned to any element of the model.