Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
J. Guo; J. Guo; Y. Miao; Y. Miao; Y. Zhang; H. Liu; Z. Li; Z. Li; W. Zhang; J. He; M. Lou; Y. Yan; L. Bian; P. Zhai (2016)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Chemistry, QD1-999, Physics, QC1-999
The important roles of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in climate, weather and air quality have long been recognized, but little is known about the PBL climatology in China. Using the fine-resolution sounding observations made across China and reanalysis data, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the PBL in China from January 2011 to July 2015. The boundary layer height (BLH) is found to be generally higher in spring and summer than that in fall and winter. The comparison of seasonally averaged BLHs derived from observations and reanalysis, on average, shows good agreement, despite the pronounced inconsistence in some regions. The BLH, derived from soundings conducted three or four times daily in summer, tends to peak in the early afternoon, and the diurnal amplitude of BLH is higher in the northern and western subregions of China than other subregions. The meteorological influence on the annual cycle of BLH is investigated as well, showing that BLH at most sounding sites is negatively associated with the surface pressure and lower tropospheric stability, but positively associated with the near-surface wind speed and temperature. In addition, cloud tends to suppress the development of PBL, particularly in the early afternoon. This indicates that meteorology plays a significant role in the PBL processes. Overall, the key findings obtained from this study lay a solid foundation for us to gain a deep insight into the fundamentals of PBL in China, which helps to understand the roles that the PBL plays in the air pollution, weather and climate of China.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Beyrich, F.: Mixing height estimation from sodar data - A critical discussion, Atmos. Environ., 31, 3941-3953, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00231-8, 1997.
    • Bian, J., Chen, H., Vömel, H., Duan, Y., Xuan, Y., and Lü, D.: Intercomparison of humidity and temperature sensors: GTS1, Vaisala RS80, and CFH, Adv. Atmos. Sci. 28, 139-146, doi:10.1007/s00376-010-9170-8, 2011.
    • Chan, K. M. and Wood, R.: The seasonal cycle of planetary boundary layer depth determined using COSMIC radio occultation data, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 12422-12434, doi:10.1002/2013JD020147, 2013.
    • Dai, C., Wang, Q., Kalogiros, J. A., Lenschow, D. H., Gao, Z., and Zhou, M.: Determining Boundary-Layer Height from Aircraft Measurements, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 152, 277-302, doi:10.1007/s10546-014-9929-z, 2014.
    • Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A. C. M., van de Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Hólm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kållberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thépaut, J.-N., and Vitart, F.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553-597, doi:10.1002/qj.828, 2011.
    • Ding, A. J., Huang, X., Nie, W., Sun, J. N., Kerminen, V.-M., Petäjä, T., Su, H., Cheng, Y. F., Yang, X.-Q., Wang, M. H., Chi, X. G., Wang, J. P., Virkkula, A., Guo, W. D., Yuan, J., Wang, S. Y., Zhang, R. J., Wu, Y. F., Song, Y., Zhu, T., Zilitinkevich, S., Kulmala, M., and Fu, C. B.: Black carbon enhances haze pollution in megacities in China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 1-7, doi:10.1002/2016GL067745, 2016.
    • Eresmaa, N., Karppinen, A., Joffre, S. M., Räsänen, J., and Talvitie, H.: Mixing height determination by ceilometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1485-1493, doi:10.5194/acp-6-1485-2006, 2006.
    • Garratt, J.: Review: the atmospheric boundary layer, Earth-Sci. Rev., 37, 89-134, doi:10.1016/0012-8252(94)90026-4, 1994.
    • Guo, H., Xu, M., and Hu, Q.: Changes in near-surface wind speed in China: 1969-2005, Int. J. Climatol., 31, 349-358, doi:10.1002/joc.2091, 2011.
    • Guo, J.-P., Zhang, X.-Y., Che, H.-Z., Gong, S.-L., An, X., Cao, C.-X., Guang, J., Zhang, H., Wang, Y.-Q., and Zhang, X.- C.: Correlation between PM concentrations and aerosol optical depth in eastern China, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5876-5886, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.08.026, 2009.
    • Guo, J. P., Zhang, X. Y., Cao, C. X., Che, H. Z., Liu, H. L., Gupta, P., Zhang, H., Xu, M., and Li, X. W.: Monitoring haze episodes over Yellow Sea by combining multisensor measurements, Int. J. Remot. Sens., 31, 4743-4755, doi:10.1080/01431161.2010.485213, 2010.
    • Guo, J. P., Deng, M. J., Lee, S.-S., Wang, F., Li, Z., Zhai, P. M., Liu, H., Lv, W. T., Yao, W., and Li, X.: Delaying precipitation and lightning by air pollution over Pearl River Delta. Part I: observational analyses, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 6472-6488, doi:10.1002/2015JD023257, 2016.
    • Guo, S., Hu, M., Zamora, M. L., Peng, J., Shang, D., Zheng, J., Du, Z., Wu, Z., Shao, M., and Zeng, L.: Elucidating severe urban haze formation in China, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 17373-17378, 2014.
    • Hennemuth, B. and Lammert, A.: Determination of the atmospheric boundary layer height from radiosonde and lidar backscatter, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 120, 181-200, doi:10.1007/s10546-005- 9035-3, 2006.
    • Holzworth, G. C.: Estimates of mean maximum mixing depths in the contiguous United States, Mon. Weather Rev., 92, 235-242, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1964)092<0235:EOMMMD>2.3.CO;2, 1964.
    • Hu, X. M., Nielsen-Gammon, J. W., and Zhang, F.: Evaluation of three planetary boundary layer schemes in the WRF model, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 49, 1831-1844, doi:10.1175/2010JAMC2432.1, 2010.
    • Hu, X., Ma, Z., Lin, W., Zhang, H., Hu, J., Wang, Y., Xu, X., Fuentes, J. D. and Xue, M.: Impact of the Loess Plateau on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality in the North China Plain?: A case study, Sci. Total Environ., 499, 228-237, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.053, 2014.
    • Lee, X., Gao, Z., Zhang, C., Chen, F., Hu, Y., Jiang, W., Liu, S., Lu, L., Sun, J., Wang, J., Zeng, Z., Zhang, Q., Zhao, M., and Zhou, M.: Priorities for Boundary-Layer Meteorology Research in China, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 96, ES149-ES151, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00278.1, 2015.
    • Liu, J., Huang, J., Chen, B., Zhou, T., Yan, H., Jin, H., Huang, Z., and Zhang, B.: Comparisons of PBL heights derived from CALIPSO and ECMWF reanalysis data over China, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 153, 102-112, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.10.011, 2015.
    • Liu, S. and Liang, X.-Z.: Observed Diurnal Cycle Climatology of Planetary Boundary Layer Height, J. Climate, 23, 5790-5809, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3552.1, 2010.
    • Liu, X. G., Li, J., Qu, Y., Han, T., Hou, L., Gu, J., Chen, C., Yang, Y., Liu, X., Yang, T., Zhang, Y., Tian, H., and Hu, M.: Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4501-4514, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4501-2013, 2013.
    • Medeiros, B., Hall, A., and Stevens, B.: What Controls the Mean Depth of the PBL?, J. Climate, 18, 3157-3172, doi:10.1175/JCLI3417.1, 2005.
    • Miao, S., Dou, J., Chen, F., Li, J., and Li, A.: Analysis of observations on the urban surface energy balance in Beijing, Sci. China Earth Sci., 55, 1881-1890, doi:10.1007/s11430-012-4411- 6, 2012.
    • Miao, Y., Hu, X.-M., Liu, S., Qian, T., Xue, M., Zheng, Y., and Wang, S.: Seasonal variation of local atmospheric circulations and boundary layer structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and implications for air quality, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, 1-25, doi:10.1002/2015MS000522, 2015.
    • Miao, Y., Liu, S., Zheng, Y., and Wang, S.: Modeling the feedback between aerosol and boundary layer processes: a case study in Beijing, China, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23, 3342-3357, doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5562-8, 2016.
    • Norton, C. L. and Hoidale, G. B.: The Diurnal Variation of Mixing Height by Season over White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Mon. Weather Rev., 104, 1317-1320, doi:10.1175/1520- 0493(1976)104<1317:TDVOMH>2.0.CO;2, 1976.
    • Peng, J., Hu, M., Guo, S., Du, Z., Zheng, J., Shang, D., Zamora, M. L., Zeng, L., Shao, M., and Wu, Y.-S.: Markedly enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing of black carbon under polluted urban environments, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 113, 4266- 4271, 2016.
    • Quan, J., Gao, Y., Zhang, Q., Tie, X., Cao, J., Han, S., Meng, J., Chen, P., and Zhao, D.: Evolution of planetary boundary layer under different weather conditions, and its impact on aerosol concentrations, Particuology, 11, 34-40, doi:10.1016/j.partic.2012.04.005, 2013.
    • Sawyer, V. and Li, Z.: Detection, variations and intercomparison of the planetary boundary layer depth from radiosonde, lidar and infrared spectrometer, Atmos. Environ., 79, 518-528, 2013.
    • Seibert, P.: Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height, Atmos. Environ., 34, 1001-1027, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00349-0, 2000.
    • Seidel, D. J., Ao, C. O., and Li, K.: Estimating climatological planetary boundary layer heights from radiosonde observations: Comparison of methods and uncertainty analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D16113, doi:10.1029/2009JD013680, 2010.
    • Seidel, D. J., Zhang, Y., Beljaars, A., Golaz, J.-C., Jacobson, A. R., and Medeiros, B.: Climatology of the planetary boundary layer over the continental United States and Europe, J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos., 117, D17106, doi:10.1029/2012JD018143, 2012.
    • Slingo, J.: The development and verification of a cloud prediction scheme for the ECMWF model, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 899-927, 1987.
    • Stull, R. B. (Ed.): An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 1988.
    • Tang, G., Zhang, J., Zhu, X., Song, T., Münkel, C., Hu, B., Schäfer, K., Liu, Z., Zhang, J., Wang, L., Xin, J., Suppan, P., and Wang, Y.: Mixing layer height and its implications for air pollution over Beijing, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2459-2475, doi:10.5194/acp-16-2459-2016, 2016.
    • Vogelezang, D. H. P. and Holtslag, A. A. M.: Evaluation and model impacts of alternative boundary-layer height formulations, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 81, 245-269, doi:10.1007/BF02430331, 1996.
    • Wang, Y., Khalizov, A., Levy, M., and Zhang, R.: New Directions: Light absorbing aerosols and their atmospheric impacts, Atmos. Environ., 81, 713-715, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.09.034, 2013.
    • Wood, R.: Stratocumulus Clouds, Mon. Weather Rev., 140, 2373- 2423, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00121.1, 2012.
    • Xie, B., Fung, J. C. H., Chan, A., and Lau, A.: Evaluation of nonlocal and local planetary boundary layer schemes in the WRF model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, 1-26, doi:10.1029/2011JD017080, 2012.
    • Zhang, H., Wang, Y., Hu, J., Ying, Q., and Hu, X.-M.: Relationships between meteorological parameters and criteria air pollutants in three megacities in China, Environ. Res., 140, 242-254, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2015.04.004, 2015.
    • Zhang, R., Khalizov, A. F., Pagels, J., Zhang, D., Xue, H., and McMurry, P. H.: Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 10291-10296, doi:10.1073/pnas.0804860105, 2008.
    • Zhang, R., Wang, G., Guo, S., Zamora, M. L., Ying, Q., Lin, Y., Wang, W., Hu, M., and Wang, Y.: Formation of Urban Fine Particulate Matter, Chem. Rev., 115, 3803-3855, doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00067, 2015.
    • Zhang, W., Guo, J., Miao, Y., Liu, H., Zhang, Y., Li, Z., and Zhai, P.: Planetary boundary layer height from CALIOP compared to radiosonde over China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9951-9963, doi:10.5194/acp-16-9951-2016, 2016.
    • Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Huang, C., Huang, K., Gong, Y., and Gan, Q.: Diurnal variations of the planetary boundary layer height estimated from intensive radiosonde observations over Yichang, China, Sci. China Ser. E, 57, 2172-2176, doi:10.1007/s11431- 014-5639-5, 2014.
    • Zhao, X., Zhang, X., Xu, X., Xu, J., Meng, W., and Pu, W.: Seasonal and diurnal variation of ambient PM2:5 concentration in urban and rural environments in Beijing, Atmos. Environ., 43, 2893- 2900, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.03.009, 2009.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article