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Thomson, Blair; Hepburn, Christopher David; Lamare, Miles; Baltar, Federico (2017)
Languages: English
Types: Article
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mesheuropmc: fungi
Microbial extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter in the oceans. These extracellular enzymes exist in two forms, cell-bound which are attached to the microbial cell wall, and cell-free which are completely free of the cell. Contrary to previous understanding, cell-free extracellular enzymes make up a substantial proportion of the total marine EEA. Little is known about these abundant cell-free enzymes, including what factors control their activity once they are away from their sites (cells). Experiments were run to assess how cell-free enzymes (excluding microbes) respond to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature manipulations, previously suggested as potential control factors for these enzymes. The experiments were done with New Zealand coastal waters and the enzymes studied were alkaline phosphatase [APase], β-glucosidase, [BGase], and leucine aminopeptidase, [LAPase]. Environmentally relevant UVR (i.e., in situ UVR levels measured at our site) irradiances reduced cell-free enzyme activities up to 87 % when compared to controls, likely a consequence of photodegradation. This effect of UVR on cell-free enzymes differed depending on the UVR fraction. Ambient levels of UV radiation (KJ) were shown to reduce the activity of cell-free enzymes, for the first time. Elevated temperatures (15 °C) increased the activity of cell-free enzymes up to 53 % when compared to controls (10 °C), likely by enhancing the catalytic activity of the enzymes. Our results suggest the importance of both UVR and temperature as control mechanisms for cell-free enzymes. Given the projected warming ocean environment and the variable UVR light regime, it is possible there could be major changes in the activity of cell-free EEA and their contribution to organic matter remineralization in the future.
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