Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hellén, Heidi; Kangas, Leena; Kousa, Anu; Vestenius, Mika; Teinilä, Kimmo; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Niemi, Jarkko V. (2017)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Languages: English
Types: Article
Even though emission inventories indicate that wood combustion is a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), estimating its impacts on PAH concentration in ambient air remains challenging. In this study the effect of local small-scale wood combustion on the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland is evaluated, using ambient air measurements, emission estimates, and dispersion modeling. The measurements were conducted at 12 different locations during the period from 2007 to 2015. The spatial distributions of annual average BaP concentrations originating from wood combustion were predicted for four of those years: 2008, 2011, 2013, and 2014. According to both the measurements and the dispersion modeling, the European Union target value for the annual average BaP concentrations (1 ng m−3) was clearly exceeded in certain suburban detached-house areas. However, in most of the other urban areas, including the center of Helsinki, the concentrations were below the target value. The measured BaP concentrations highly correlated with the measured levoglucosan concentrations in the suburban detached-house areas. In street canyons, the measured concentrations of BaP were at the same level as those in the urban background, clearly lower than those in suburban detached-house areas. The predicted annual average concentrations matched with the measured concentrations fairly well. Both the measurements and the modeling clearly indicated that wood combustion was the main local source of ambient air BaP in the Helsinki metropolitan area.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Anttila, P., Brorström-Lundén, E., Hansson, K., Hakola, H., and Vestenius M.: Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 140, 22-33, 2016.
    • Belis, C. A., Cancelinha, J., Duane, M., Forcina, V., Pedroni, V., Passarella, R., Tanet, G., Douglas, K., Piazzalunga, A., Bolzacchini, E., Sangiorgi, G., Perrone, M.-G., Ferreroer, L., Fermo, P., and Larsen, B. R.: Sources for PM air pollution in the Po Plain Italy: I. Critical comparison of methods for estimating biomass burning contributions to benzo(a)pyrene, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7266-7275, 2011.
    • Douros, J. and Moussiopoulos, N.: Report on the urban scale model development: overview and validation. TRANSPHORM deliverable D2.3.3, available at: http://www.transphorm.eu/Portals/51/ Documents/Deliverables/NewDeliverables/D2.3.3._c.pdf (last access: 8 March 2017), 2014
    • EC (European Council): Directive on relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air, 2004/107/EC, 2004.
    • EN 15549: Air quality - Standard method for the measurement of the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in ambient air, European Committee fur Standardization, Brussels, 2008.
    • European Environmental Agency: Air quality in Europe - 2015 report, EEA report No. 5/2015, Copenhagen, Denmark, doi:10.2800/62459, 2015.
    • Gianelle, V., Colombi, C., Caserini, S., Ozgen, S., Galante, S., Marongiu, A., and Lanzani, G.: Benzo(a)pyrene air concetrations and emission inventory in Lombardy region, Italy, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4, 257-266, 2013.
    • Glasius, M., Ketzel, M., Wåhlin, P., Bossi, R., Stubkjaer, J., Hertel, O., and Palmgren, F.: Characterization of particles from reasidential wood combustion and modelling of spatial variation in lowstrength emission area, Atmos. Environ., 42, 8686-8697, 2008.
    • Gröndahl, T., Makkonen, J., Myllynen, M., Niemi, J., and Tuomi, S.: Small-scale wood combustion in the Helsinki metropolitan area (in Finnish: Tulisijojen käyttö ja päästöt pääkaupunkiseudun pientaloista), HSY report, 39 pp., 2011.
    • Guerreiro, C., Horalek, J., de Leeuw, F., and Couvidat, F.: Mapping ambient concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Europe - population exposure and health effects for 2012, ETC/ACM Technical Paper 2014/6, 2015.
    • Guerreiro, C. B. B., Horalek, J., de Leeuw, F., and Couvidat, F.: Benzo(a)pyrene in Europé: Ambient air concentrations, population exposure and health effects, Environ. Pollut., 214, 657-667, 2016.
    • Hari, P. and Kulmala, M.: Station for measuring ecosystematmosphere relations (SMEAR II), Boreal Env. Res., 10, 315- 322, 2005.
    • Hatakka, J., Aalto, T., Aaltonen, V., Aurela, M., Hakola, H., Komppula, M., Laurila, T., Lihavainen, H., Paatero, J., Salminen, K., and Viisanen, Y.: Overview of the atmospheric research activities and results at Pallas GAW station, Boreal Environ. Res., 8, 365-383, 2003.
    • Hedberg, E., Johansson, C., Johansson, L., Swietlicki, E., and Brorström-Lundén, E.: Is levoglucosan suitable tracer for wood burning? Comparison with receptor modeling on trace elements in Lycksele, Sweden, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 56, 1669- 1678, 2006.
    • Hellén, H., Hakola, H., Pietarila, H., Kauhaniemi, M., and Haaparanta, S.: Influence of residential wood combustion on local air quality, Sci. Total Environ., 393, 283-290, 2008.
    • Hennigan, C. J., Sullivan, A. P., Collett Jr., J. L., and Robinson, A. L.: Levoglucosan stability in biomass burning particles exposed to hydroxyl radicals, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09806, doi:10.1029/2010GL043088, 2010.
    • Hytönen, K., Yli-Pirilä, P., Tissari, J., Gröhn, A., Riipinen, I., Lehtinen, K. E. J., and Jokiniemi, J.: Gas-particle distribution of PAHs in wood combustion emission determined with annular denuders, filter, and polyurethane foam adsorbent, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 43, 442-454, 2009.
    • ISO 12884: Ambient air - Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Collection on sorbent-backed filters with gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis, 2000.
    • Jang, E., Alam, M. S., and Harrison, R.: Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air using positive matrix factorization and spatial distribution, Atmos. Environ., 79, 271-285, 2013.
    • Karppinen, A., Kukkonen, J., Nordlund, G., Rantakrans, E., and Valkama, I.: A dispersion modelling system for urban air pollution, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Publications on Air Quality, 28, Helsinki, 58 pp., 1998.
    • Karppinen, A., Kukkonen, J., Elolähde, T., Konttinen, M., Koskentalo, T., and Rantakrans, E.: A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution: model description and applications in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Atmos. Environ., 34, 3723-3733, 2000a.
    • Karppinen, A., Kukkonen, J., Elolähde, T., Konttinen, M., and Koskentalo, T.: A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution: comparison of model predictions with the data of an urban measurement network in Helsinki, Atmos. Environ., 34, 3735- 3743, 2000b.
    • Karvosenoja, N., Tainio, M., Kupiainen, K., Tuomisto, J. T., Kukkonen, J., and Johansson, M.: Evaluation of the emissions and uncertainties of PM2:5 orginated from vehicular traffic and domestic wood combustion in Finland, Boreal Environ. Res., 13, 465- 474, 2008.
    • Karvosenoja, N., Kangas, L., Kupiainen, K., Kukkonen, J., Karppinen, A., Sofiev, M., Tainio, M., Paunu, V.-V., Ahtoniemi, P., Tuomisto, J. T., and Porvari, P.: Integrated modeling assessments of the population exposure in Finland to primary PM2:5 from traffic and domestic wood combustion on the resolutions of 1 and 10 km, Air Qual. Atmos. Health., 4, 179-188, doi:10.1007/s11869-010-0100-9, 2010.
    • Kaski, N., Vuorio, K., Niemi, J., Myllynen, M., and Kousa, A.: Use of fireplaces; emissions in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in 2014, HSY publications 2/2016, ISBN-13: 978-952-7146-08- 8, 2016a (in Finnish with an abstract in English).
    • Kaski, N., Aarnio, P., Loukkola, K., and Portin, H.: Air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 2015, HSY publications 6/2016, ISBN-13: 978-952-7146-16-3, 2016b (in Finnish with an abstract in English).
    • Keyte, I. J., Harrison, R. M., and Lammel, G.: Chemical reactivity and long-range transport potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-review, Chem. Soc. Rev., 42, 9333-9391, 2013.
    • Lamberg, H., Nuutinen, K., Tissari, J., Ruusunen, J., Yli-Pirilä, P., Sippula, O., Tapanainen, M., Jalava, P., Makkonen, U., Teinilä, K., Saarnio, K., Hillamo, R., Hirvonen, M.-R., and Jokiniemi, J.: Physicochemical characterization of fine particles from smallscale wood combustion, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7635-7643, 2011.
    • Mäkelä, K. and Auvinen, H.: LIPASTO - transport emission database, in: Life cycle assessment of products and technologies, VTT Symposium 262, ISBN-13: 978-951-38-7586-2, available at: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp, ISSN: 1455-0873, Publisher: VTT, Vuorimiehentie 5, PL 1000, 02044 VTT, 134- 142, 2009.
    • Niemi, J. V., Saarikoski, S., Aurela, M., Tervahattu, H., Hillamo, R., Westphal, D. L., Aarnio, P., Koskentalo, T., Makkonen, U., Vehkamäki, H., and Kulmala, M.: Long-range transport episodes of fine particles in southern Finland during 1997-2007, Atmos. Environ., 43, 1255-1264, 2009.
    • Ozgen, S., Caserini, S., Galante, S., Giugliano, M., Angelino, E., Marongiu, A., Hugony, F., Migliavagga, G., and Morreale, C.: Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets, Atmos. Environ., 94, 144-153, 2014.
    • Pastorello, C., Caserini, S., Galante, S., Dilara, P., and Galletti, F.: Importance of activity data for improving the residential wood combustion emission inventory at regional scale, Atmos. Environ., 45, 2869-2876, 2011.
    • Prevedouros, K., Brorström-Lundén, E., Halsall, C. J., Jines, K. C., Lee, R. G. M., and Sweetman, A. J.: Seasonal and long-term trends in atmospheric PAH concentrations: evidence and implications, Environ. Pollut., 128, 17-27, 2004.
    • Ravindra, K., Sokhi, R., and Grieken, R. V.: Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source Attribution, emission factors and regulation, Atmos. Environ., 42, 2895-2921, 2008.
    • Saarikoski, S. K., Sillanpää, M. K., Saarnio, K. M., Hillamo, R. E., Pennanen, A. S., and Salonen, R. O.: Impact of biomass combustion on urban fine particulate matter in central and northern Europe, Water Air Soil Pollut., 191, 265-277, 2008.
    • Saarnio, K., Teinilä, K., Aurela, M., Timonen, H., and Hillamo, R.: High-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Anal. Bional. Chem., 398, 2253-2264, 2010.
    • Saarnio, K., Niemi, J., Saarikoski, S., Aurela, M., Timonen, H., Teinilä, K., Myllynen, M., Frey, A., Lamberg, H., Jokiniemi, J., and Hillamo, R.: Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Boreal Environ. Res., 17, 163-183, 2012.
    • Savolahti, M., Karvosenoja, N., Tissari, J., Kupiainen, K., Sippula, O., and Jokiniemi, J.: Black carbon and fine particle emissions in Finnish residential wood combustion: Emission projections, reduction measures and the impact of combustion practices, Atmos. Environ., 140, 495-505, 2016.
    • Schnelle-Kreis, J., Shlorz, M., Orasche, J., Stölzel, M., Peters, A., and Zimmermann, R.: Semi volatile organic compounds in ambient PM2:5, Seasonal trends and daily reasolved source contributions, Envir. Sci. Tech., 41, 3821-3828, 2007.
    • Shen, H., Huang, Y., Wang, R., Zhu, D., Li, W., Shen, G., Wang, B., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., Lu, Y., Chen, H., Li, T., Sun, K., Li, B., Liu, W., Liu, J., and Tao, S.: Global atmospheric emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions, Envir. Sci. Tech., 47, 6415-6424, 2013.
    • Silibello, C., Calori, G., Costa, M. G., Mircea, M., Radice, P., Vitali, L., and Zanini, G.: Benzo(a)pyrene modelling over Italy: comparison with experimental data and source apportionment, Atmos. Pol. Res., 3, 399-407, 2012.
    • Simoneit, B. R. T.: Biomass burning - a review of organic tracers for smoke from incomplete combustion, Appl. Geochem., 17, 129- 162, 2002.
    • Soares, J., Kousa, A., Kukkonen, J., Matilainen, L., Kangas, L., Kauhaniemi, M., Riikonen, K., Jalkanen, J.-P., Rasila, T., Hänninen, O., Koskentalo, T., Aarnio, M., Hendriks, C., and Karppinen, A.: Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1855-1872, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1855-2014, 2014.
    • Tissari, J., Hytönen, K., Lyyränen, J., and Jokiniemi, J.: A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion, Atmos. Environ., 41, 8330-8344, 2007.
    • Tissari, J., Hytönen, K., Sippula, O., and Jokiniemi, J.: The effects of operating conditions on emissions from mansory heaters and sauna stoves, Biomass Bioenerg., 33, 513-520, 2009.
    • Todorovic´, J., Broden, H., Padban, N., Lange, S., Gustavsson, L., Johansson, L., Paulrud, S., and Löfgren, B. E.: Syntes och analys av emissionsfaktorer för småskalig biobränsleförbränning. Slutrapport för avtal 503 0506 och 503 0507 på Naturvårdsverket, Nyköping, Borås, Stockholm, 28 pp., available at: http://www.sp. se/sv/units/risebuilt/energy/Documents/Syntes_final.pdf (last access: 8 March 2017), 2007.
    • Yttri, K. E., Dye, C., Slordal, K. H., and Braathen, O.-A.: Quantification of monosaccharide anhydrides by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry: application to aerosol samples from an urban and a sub-urban site influences by small-scale wood burning, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 55, 1169-1177, 2005.
    • Vestenius, M., Leppänen, S., Anttila, P., Kyllönen, K., Hatakka, J., Hellen, H., Hyvärinen, A-P., and Hakola, H.: Background concentrations and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in South-Eastern Finland, Atmos. Environ., 45, 3391-3399, 2011.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.