Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Engler, C.; Rose, D.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Spindler, G.; Tuch, T.; Birmili, W. (2007)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Atmospheric aerosol particle size distributions at a continental background site in Eastern Germany were examined for a one-year period. Particles were classified using a twin differential mobility particle sizer in a size range between 3 and 800 nm. As a novelty, every second measurement of this experiment involved the removal of volatile chemical compounds in a thermodenuder at 300°C. This concept allowed to quantify the number size distribution of non-volatile particle cores – primarily associated with elemental carbon, and to compare this to the original non-conditioned size distribution. As a byproduct of the volatility analysis, new particles originating from nucleation inside the thermodenuder can be observed, however, overwhelmingly at diameters below 6 nm. Within the measurement uncertainty, every particle down to particle sizes of 15 nm is concluded to contain a non-volatile core. The volume fraction of non-volatile particulate matter (non-conditioned diameter < 800 nm) varied between 10 and 30% and was largely consistent with the experimentally determined mass fraction of elemental carbon. The average size of the non-volatile particle cores was estimated as a function of original non-conditioned size using a summation method, which showed that larger particles (>200 nm) contained more non-volatile compounds than smaller particles (<50 nm), thus indicating a significantly different chemical composition. Two alternative air mass classification schemes based on either, synoptic chart analysis (Berliner Wetterkarte) or back trajectories showed that the volume and number fraction of non-volatile cores depended less on air mass than the total particle number concentration. In all air masses, the non-volatile size distributions showed a more and a less volatile ("soot") mode, the latter being located at about 50 nm. During unstable conditions and in maritime air masses, smaller values were observed compared to stable or continental conditions. This reflects the significant emission of non-volatile material over the continent and, depending on atmospheric stratification, increased concentrations at ground level.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Ackerman, T. P. and Toon, O. B.: Absorption of visible radiation in atmosphere containing mixtures of absorbing and nonabsorbing particles, Appl. Opt., 20, 3661-3668, 1981.
    • Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 955- 966, 2001.
    • Birmili, W., Stratmann, F., and Wiedensohler, A.: Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation, J. Aerosol Sci., 30, 549-553, 1999.
    • Birmili, W., Wiedensohler, A., Heintzenberg, J., and Lehmann, K.: Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statitical relations to air masses and meteorology, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32 005-32 018, 2001.
    • Birmili, W., Nowak, A., Schwirn, K., Lehmann, K., Massling, A., and Wiedensohler, A.: A new method to accurately relate dry and humidified number size distributions of atmospheric aerosols, J. Aerosol Sci., Abstracts of EAC, Budapest 2004, I, 15-16, 2004.
    • Bond, T. C., Anderson, T. L., and Campbell, D.: Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 30, 582-600, 1999.
    • Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J.- H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697, 2004.
    • Burtscher, H., Baltensperger, U., Bukowiecki, N., Cohn, P., Hu¨glin, C., Mohr, M., Nyeki, S., Schmatloch, V., Streit, N., and Weingartner, E.: Separation of volatile and non-volatile aerosol fractions by thermodesorption: instrumental development and applications, J. Aerosol Sci., 32, 427-442, 2001.
    • Cachier, H., Bremond, M.-P., and Buat-Me´nard, T.: Determination of atmospheric soot carbon with a simple thermal method, Tellus, 41B, 379-390, 1989.
    • Clarke, A. D.: A thermooptic technique for in-situ analysis of sizeresolved aerosol physicochemistry, Atmospheric Environment, 25A, 635-644, 1989.
    • Covert, D. S., Wiedensohler, A., Aalto, P., Heintzenberg, J., McMurry, P. H., and Leck, C.: Aerosol number size distributions from 3 to 500 nm diameter in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn, Tellus, 48B, 197-212, 1996.
    • Donaldson, K., Stone, V., Clouter, A., Renwick, L., and MacNee, W.: Ultrafine particles, J. Occup. Environ. Medicine, 58, 194- 199, 2001.
    • Dorling, S. R., Davies, T. D., and Pierce, C. E.: Cluster analysis: a technique for estimating the synoptic meteorological controls on air and precipitation chemistry - method and applications, Atmos. Environ., 26A, 2575-2581, 1992.
    • Draxler, R. R. and Hess, G. D.: Description of the HYSPLIT4 modeling system, NOAA Technical Memorandum, ERL, ARL-224, 2004.
    • Geb, M.: Klimatologische Grundlagen der Luftmassenbestimmung, (in German), Beilage zur Berliner Wetterkarte 50/81, Institut fu¨r Meteorologie, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, 1981.
    • Harris, S. J. and Maricq, M. M.: Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter, J. Aerosol Sci., 32, 749-764, 2001.
    • Haywood, J. and Boucher, O.: Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review, Rev. Geophys., 38, 513-543, 2000.
    • Heintzenberg, J. and Wendisch, M.: On the sensitivity of cloud albedo to the partitioning of particulate absorbers in cloudy air, Contr. Atmos. Phys., 69, 491-499, 1996.
    • Heintzenberg, J., Birmili, W., Wiedensohler, A., Nowak, A., and Tuch, T.: Structure, variability and persistence of the submicrometer marine aerosol, Tellus, 56B, 357-367, 2004.
    • Hoppel, W. A., Frick, G. M., Fitzgerald, J. W., and Larson, R. E.: Marine boundary layer measurements of new particle formation and the effects nonprecipitating clouds have on aerosol size distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 14 443-14 459, 1994.
    • Institut fu¨r Meteorologie: Berliner Wetterkarte, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, Germany, 2004.
    • Jacobson, M. Z.: Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature, 409, 695-697, 2001.
    • Johnson, G. R., Ristovski, Z., and Morawska, L.: Method for measuring the hygroscopic behaviour of lower volatility fractions in an internally mixed aerosol, J. Aerosol Sci., 35, 443-455, 2004.
    • Kalberer, M., Paulsen, D., Sax, M., Steinbacher, M., Dommen, J., Prevot, A. S. H., Fisseha, R., Weingartner, E., Franevich, V., Zenobi, R., and Baltensperger, U.: Identification of polymers as major components of atmospheric organic aerosols, Science, 303, 1659-1662, 2004.
    • Koponen, I., Virkkula, A., Hillamo, R., Kerminen, V.-M., and Kulmala, M.: Number size distribution and concentrations of marine aerosols: Observations during a cruise between the English Channel and the coast of Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4753, doi:10.1029/2002JD002533, 2002.
    • Kriva´csy, Z., Hoffer, A., Sa´rva´ri, Z., Temesi, D., Baltensperger, U., Nyeki, S., Weingartner, E., Kleefeld, S., and Jennings, S. G.: Role of organic and black carbon in the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol at European background sites, Atmos. Environ., 35, 6231-6244, 2001.
    • Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Hertlein, A.-M., and Sch u¨tz, L. W.: Sources, determination, monitoring, and transport of carbonaceous aerosols in Mainz, Germany, Atmos. Environ., 32, 1097- 1110, 1998.
    • Lide, D. R. (Ed.): CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics (77th ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl., 1996.
    • Ma¨kela¨, J. M., Koponen, I. K., Aalto, P., and Kulmala, M.: Oneyear data of submicron size modes of tropospheric background aerosol in southern Finland, J. Aerosol Sci., 31, 595-611, 2000.
    • Nilsson, E. D., Paatero, J., and Boy, M.: Effects of air masses and synoptic weather on aerosol formation in the continental boundary layer, Tellus, 53B, 462-478, 2001.
    • Oberdo¨rster, G.: Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles, International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health, 74, 1-8, 2001.
    • Ogren, J. A. and Charlson, R. J.: Elemental carbon in the atmosphere: cycle and lifetime, Tellus, 35B, 241-254, 1983.
    • Philippin, S., Wiedensohler, A., and Stratmann, F.: Measurements of non-volatile fractions of pollution aerosols with an eight-tube volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA-8), J. Aerosol Sci., 35, 185-203, 2004.
    • Pinnick, R. G., Jennings, S. G., and Fernandez, G.: Volatility of aerosols in the arid southwestern United States, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 562-576, 1987.
    • Plewka, A., Gnauk, T., Bru¨ggemann, E., Neusu¨ß, C., and Herrmann, H.: Size-resolved aerosol characterization for a polluted episode at the IfT research station Melpitz in Autumn 1997, J. Atmos. Chem., 48, 131-156, 2004.
    • Putaud, J.-P., Raes, F., van Dingenen, R., Bru¨ggemann, E., Facchini, M.-C., Decesari, S., Fuzzi, S., Gehrig, R., Hu¨glin, C., Laj, P., Lorbeer, G., Maenhaut, W., Mihalopoulos, N., Mu¨ller, K., Querol, X., Rodr´ıguez, S., Schneider, J., Spindler, G., ten Brink, H., Tørseth, K., and Wiedensohler, A.: A European aerosol phenomenology - 2: Chemical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbsite, urban, rural and background sites in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 38, 2579-2595, 2004.
    • Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Kiehl, J. T., and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle, Science, 294, 2119-2124, 2001.
    • Rodr´ıguez, S., van Dingenen, R., Putaud, J.-P., Martins-Dos Santos, S., and Roselli, D.: Nucleation and growth of new particles in the rural atmosphere of Northern Italy - relationship to air quality monitoring, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6734-6746, 2005.
    • Rose, D., Wehner, B., Ketzel, M., Engler, C., Voigtla¨nder, J., Tuch, T., and Wiedensohler, A.: Atmospheric number size distributions of soot particles and estimation of emission factors, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1021-1031, 2006, http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/1021/2006/.
    • Schmid, O., Eimer, B., Hagen, D. E., and Whitefield, P. D.: Investigation of volatility method for measuring aqueous sulfuric acid on mixed aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technolol., 36, 877-889, 2002.
    • Smith, M. H., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Observations of accumulation mode aerosol composition and soot carbon concentrations by means of a high-temperature volatility technique, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 19 583-19 592, 1996.
    • Stohl, A.: Computation, accuracy and applications of trajectories - a review and bibliography, Atmos. Environ., 32, 947-966, 1998.
    • Tunved, P., Hansson, H.-C., Kulmala, M., Aalto, P., Viisanen, Y., Karlsson, H., Kristensson, A., Swietlicki, E., Dal Maso, M., Stro¨m, J., and Komppula, M.: One year boundary layer aerosol size distribution data from five nordic background stations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 2183-2205, 2003, http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/3/2183/2003/.
    • Turpin, B. J., Saxena, P., and Andrews, E.: Measuring and simulating particulate organics in the atmosphere: problems and prospects, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2983-3013, 2000.
    • van Dingenen, R., Raes, F., Puteaud, J.-P., Baltensperger, U., Charron, A., Facchini, M.-C., Decassari, S., Fuzzi, S., Gehrig, R., Hansson, H.-C., Harrison, R. M., Hu¨glin, C., Jones, A. M., Laj, P., Lorbeer, G., Maenhaut, W., Palmgren, F., Querol, X., Rodr´ıguez, S., Schneider, J., ten Brink, H., Tunved, P., Tørseth, K., Wehner, B., Weingartner, E., Wiedensohler, A., and Wa˚hlin, P.: A European aerosol phenomenology - 1: physical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbside, urban, rural and background sites in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 38, 2561-2577, 2004.
    • Weast, R. C. and Astle, M. J. (Eds.): CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics (61st ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl., 1980.
    • Wehner, B., Philippin, S., and Wiedensohler, A.: Design and calibration of a thermodenuder with an improved heating unit to measure the size-dependent volatile fraction of aerosol particles, J. Aerosol Sci., 33, 1087-1093, 2002.
    • Wehner, B., Peta¨ja¨, T., Boy, M., Engler, C., Birmili, W., Tuch, T., Wiedensohler, A., and Kulmala, M.: The contribution of sulfuric acid and non-volatile compounds on the growth of freshly formed atmospheric aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17810, doi:10.1029/2005GL023827, 2005.
    • Weingartner, E., Nyeki, S., and Baltensperger, U.: Seasonal and diurnal variation of aerosol size distributions (10
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from