Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
U. Paliwal; M. Sharma; J. F. Burkhart; J. F. Burkhart (2016)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Chemistry, QD1-999, Physics, QC1-999
Black carbon (BC) emissions from India for the year 2011 are estimated to be 901.11 ± 151.56 Gg yr−1 based on a new ground-up, GIS-based inventory. The grid-based, spatially resolved emission inventory includes, in addition to conventional sources, emissions from kerosene lamps, forest fires, diesel-powered irrigation pumps and electricity generators at mobile towers. The emissions have been estimated at district level and were spatially distributed onto grids at a resolution of 40 × 40 km2. The uncertainty in emissions has been estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation by considering the variability in activity data and emission factors. Monthly variation of BC emissions has also been estimated to account for the seasonal variability. To the total BC emissions, domestic fuels contributed most significantly (47 %), followed by industry (22 %), transport (17 %), open burning (12 %) and others (2 %). The spatial and seasonal resolution of the inventory will be useful for modeling BC transport in the atmosphere for air quality, global warming and other process-level studies that require greater temporal resolution than traditional inventories.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abhilash, P. C. and Singh, N.: Influence of the application of sugarcane bagasse on lindane ( -HCH) mobility through soil column: Implication for biotreatment, Bioresource Technol., 99, 8961- 8966, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.05.006, 2008.
    • Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T., Crounse, J. D., and Wennberg, P. O.: Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4039-4072, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011, 2011.
    • Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955-966, doi:10.1029/2000GB001382, 2001.
    • ARAI: Air Quality Monitoring Project-Indian Clean Air Programme (ICAP), Draft report on Emission Factor development for Indian Vehicles, Tech. rep., The Automotive Research Association of India, 2008.
    • Baidya, S. and Borken-Kleefeld, J.: Atmospheric emissions from road transportation in India, Energy Policy, 37, 3812-3822, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.010, 2009.
    • Bond, T. C. and Sun, K.: Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 5921- 5926, doi:10.1021/es0480421, 2005.
    • Bond, T. C., David G., S., Kristen F., Y., Sibyl M., N., Jung-Hun, W., and Zbigniew, K.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697, 2004.
    • Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S., Roden, C., Streets, D. G., and Trautmann, N. M.: Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840, 2007.
    • Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., Deangelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Kärcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K., Sarofim, M. C., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M., Venkataraman, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Bellouin, N., Guttikunda, S. K., Hopke, P. K., Jacobson, M. Z., Kaiser, J. W., Klimont, Z., Lohmann, U., Schwarz, J. P., Shindell, D., Storelvmo, T., Warren, S. G., and Zender, C. S.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 5380-5552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013.
    • Borken, J., Steller, H., Merétei, T., and Vanhove, F.: Global and Country Inventory of Road Passenger and Freight Transportation: Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Year 2000, Transportation Research Record, 2011, 127-136, doi:10.3141/2011-14, 2008.
    • Bowerman, N. H. A., Frame, D. J., Huntingford, C., Lowe, J. A., Smith, S. M., and Allen, M. R.: The role of short-lived climate pollutants in meeting temperature goals, Nature Climate Change, 3, 1021-1024, doi:10.1038/nclimate2034, 2013.
    • Cachier, H.: Carbonaceous combustion aerosols, in: Atmospheric Particles, edited by: Harrison, R. and van Grieken, R., vol. 2, pp. 1-2, pp. 295-348, John Wiley, New York, 1998.
    • CEA: Annual report on fuel consumption in Power Plants, Tech. rep., Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi, available at: http: //www.cea.nic.in (last access: January 2015), 2012.
    • CEA-LGBR: Load generation balance report 2012-13, 2013-14, Tech. rep., Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
    • Census of India: India: Administrative Divisions 2011, available at: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/maps/atlas/ 00part1.pdf (last access: April 2015), 2011.
    • Chen, Y., Sheng, G., Bi, X., Feng, Y., Mai, B., and Fu, J.: Emission factors for carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 1861-1867, doi:10.1021/es0493650, 2005.
    • Chen, Y., Zhi, G., Feng, Y., Liu, D., Zhang, G., Li, J., Sheng, G., and Fu, J.: Measurements of black and organic carbon emission factors for household coal combustion in China: Implication for emission reduction, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 9495-9500, doi:10.1021/es9021766, 2009.
    • Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Antony Chen, L. W., and Motallebi, N.: PM2:5 source profiles for black and organic carbon emission inventories, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5407-5414, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.011, 2011.
    • CMA: Annual Report 2011-12, Tech. rep., Cement Manufacturers' Association, New Delhi, available at: http://www.cmaindia.org/ cms/images/annual-report/Annual-Report-2011-12.pdf, 2012.
    • Cooke, W. F., Liousse, C., Cachier, H., and Feichter, J.: Construction of Construction of a 1 1 fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 22137-22162, doi:10.1029/1999JD900187, 1999.
    • CPCB: Management of Municipal Solid Waste, Tech. rep., Central Pollution Control Board, Government of India, New Delhi, 2007.
    • CPCB: Status Report on Municipal Solid Waste Management, Tech. rep., Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, 2012.
    • DAC: Annual Report 2012-13, Tech. rep., Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
    • DFPD: Department of Food and Public Distribution, available at: http://dfpd.nic.in/ (last access: January 2015), 2011.
    • DGCA: Air Transport Statistics 2011-12 & 2012-13, Tech. rep., Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
    • EEA: The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing, Tech. Rep. 4, European Environment Agency, doi:10.2800/75763, 2013.
    • Ezhumalai, S. and Thangavelu, V.: Kinetic and optimization studies on the bioconversion of lignocellulosic material into ethanol, BioResources, 5, 1879-1894, 2010.
    • Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Randerson, J. T., and Rasch, P. J.: Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D11202, doi:10.1029/2006JD008003, 2007.
    • FSI: State of Forest Report 2013, Tech. rep., Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
    • FSI: Forest Fire Search - Forest Survey of India, available at: http: //fsi.nic.in/forest-fire.php (last access: January 2015), 2015.
    • Ganguly, D., Ginoux, P., Ramaswamy, V., Winker, D. M., Holben, B. N., and Tripathi, S. N.: Retrieving the composition and concentration of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic basin using CALIOP and AERONET data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13806 doi:10.1029/2009GL038315, 2009.
    • Grieshop, A. P., Reynolds, C. C. O., Kandlikar, M., and Dowlatabadi, H.: A black-carbon mitigation wedge, Nature Geosci., 2, 533-534, doi:10.1038/ngeo595, 2009.
    • Gupta, S. and Narayan, R.: Brick kiln industry in long-term impacts biomass and diversity structure of plant communities, Current Sci., 99, 72-79, 2010.
    • Guttikunda, S. K. and Calori, G.: A GIS based emissions inventory at 1 km 1 km spatial resolution for air pollution analysis in Delhi, India, Atmos. Environ., 67, 101-111, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.10.040, 2013.
    • Habib, G., Venkataraman, C., Shrivastava, M., Banerjee, R., Stehr, J. W., and Dickerson, R. R.: New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB3007, doi:10.1029/2003GB002157, 2004.
    • Heierli, U. and Maithel, S.: Brick By Brick : The Herculean Task of Cleaning Up the Asian, Tech. Rep. FEBRUARY 2008, Natural Resources and Environment Division, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, 2015.
    • Hendricks, J., Kärcher, B., Döpelheuer, A., Feichter, J., Lohmann, U., and Baumgardner, D.: Simulating the global atmospheric black carbon cycle: a revisit to the contribution of aircraft emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2521-2541, doi:10.5194/acp-4- 2521-2004, 2004.
    • ICAO: Environmental Report 2010, Tech. rep., International Civil Aviation Organization, 2010.
    • IEA: International Energy Agency Statistics, available at: http:// www.iea.org/statistics/ (last access: January 2015), 2012.
    • IPCC 2006: 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, edited by: Eggleston, H. S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T., and Tanabe, K., IGES, Japan, 2006.
    • IPCC, 2013: Annex III: Glossary, edited by: Planton, S., in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.031.
    • ISMA: List of sugar mills in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal & Sri Lanka, Tech. rep., Indian Sugar Mills Association, New Delhi, India, 2012.
    • Ito, A. and Penner, J. E.: Historical emissions of carbonaceous aerosols from biomass and fossil fuel burning for the period 1870-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB2028, doi:10.1029/2004GB002374, 2005.
    • Jain, N.: Emission of Air Pollutants from Crop Residue Burning in India, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 14, 422-430, doi:10.4209/aaqr.2013.01.0031, 2014.
    • Janssen, N. A., Gerlofs-Nijland, M. E., Lanki, T., Salonen, R. O., Cassee, F., Hoek, G., Fischer, P., Brunekreef, B., and Krzyzanowski, M.: Health effects of black carbon, Tech. rep., World Health Organization, available at: http: //www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/ air-quality/publications/2012/health-effects-of-black-carbon (last access: April 2015), 2012.
    • Joshi, V.: Biomass burning in India, in: Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications, 185-193, The MIT Press, Cambridge, London, 1991.
    • Klimont, Z., Cofala, J., Xing, J., Wei, W., Zhang, C., Wang, S., Kejun, J., Bhandari, P., Mathur, R., Purohit, P., Rafaj, P., Amann, M., Chambers, A., and Hao, J.: Projections of SO2, NOx and carbonaceous aerosols emissions in Asia, Tellus B, 61, 602-617, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00428.x, 2009.
    • Koch, D. and Del Genio, A. D.: Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7685-7696, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7685-2010, 2010.
    • Kopp, R. E. and Mauzerall, D. L.: Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 11703- 11708, doi:10.1073/pnas.0909605107, 2010.
    • Kumar, S.: Effective Waste Management in India, Tech. rep., INTECH CROATIA, 2010.
    • Lack, D. A., Corbett, J. J., Onasch, T., Lerner, B., Massoli, P., Quinn, P. K., Bates, T. S., Covert, D. S., Coffman, D., Sierau, B., Herndon, S., Allan, J., Baynard, T., Lovejoy, E., Ravishankara, A. R., and Williams, E.: Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D00F04, doi:10.1029/2008JD011300, 2009.
    • Lam, N. L., Chen, Y., Weyant, C., Venkataraman, C., Sadavarte, P., Johnson, M. a., Smith, K. R., Brem, B. T., Arineitwe, J., Ellis, J. E., and Bond, T. C.: Household light makes global heat: High black carbon emissions from kerosene wick lamps, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 13531-13538, doi:10.1021/es302697h, 2012.
    • Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), 2000: MODIS MCD45A1, NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC, USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, available at: https: //lpdaac.usgs.gov, last access: January 2015.
    • Lau, W. K. M., Kim, M.-K., Kim, K.-M., and Lee, W.-S.: Enhanced surface warming and accelerated snowmelt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau induced by absorbing aerosols, Env. Res. Lett., 5, 025204, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/2/025204, 2010.
    • Li, X., Wang, S., Duan, L., Hao, J., and Nie, Y.: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions from Household Biofuel Combustion in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6076-6081, doi:10.1021/es803330j, 2009.
    • Liousse, C., Penner, J. E., Chuang, C., Walton, J. J., Eddleman, H., and Cachier, H.: A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 19411, doi:10.1029/95JD03426, 1996.
    • Lu, Z., Zhang, Q., and Streets, D. G.: Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9839-9864, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9839- 2011, 2011.
    • Maithel, S., Uma, R., Bond, T., Baum, E., and Thao, V.: Brick Kilns Performance Assessment A Roadmap for Cleaner Brick Production in India, Tech. Rep. April, Greentech Knowledge Solutions, New Delhi, India, 2012.
    • Mathwave Technologies: Fitting tool EasyFit software, Tech. rep., available at: www.mathwave.com (last access: January 2015), 2015.
    • Meehl, G. A., Arblaster, J. M., and Collins, W. D.: Effects of black carbon aerosols on the Indian monsoon, J. Climate, 21, 2869- 2882, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1777.1, 2008.
    • Menon, S., Koch, D., Beig, G., Sahu, S., Fasullo, J., and Orlikowski, D.: Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4559-4571, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4559-2010, 2010.
    • Menzie, C. A., Potocki, B. B., and Santodonato, J.: Ambient concentrations and exposure to carcinogenic PAHs in the environment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, 1278-1284 doi:10.1021/es00031a002, 1992.
    • Ministry of Agriculture: Land Use Statistics Information System, available at: http://eands.dacnet.nic.in/ (last access: January 2015), 2011.
    • Ministry of Agriculture: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2013, Tech. rep., Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
    • Ministry of Railways: INDIAN RAILWAYS Year Book 2010- 11, Tech. rep., Government of India, New Delhi, available at: http://www.indianrailways.gov.in/railwayboard/uploads/ directorate/stat_econ/yearbook10-11/Year_book_10-11_eng.pdf (last access: July 2015), 2012a.
    • Ministry of Railways: INDIAN RAILWAYS ANNUAL REPORT & ACCOUNTS, Tech. rep., Government of India, New Delhi, 2012b.
    • Ministry of Road Transport and Highways: Road Transport Year Book 2010-11, Tech. rep., Government of India, New Delhi, 2011.
    • Ministry of Steel: Annual Report 2012-13, Tech. rep., Government of India, New Delhi, 2014.
    • Mittal, L. M. and Sharma, C.: Anthropogenic Emissions from Energy Activities in India: Generation and Source Characterization (Part II: Emissions from Vehicular Transport in India), Tech. rep., available at: http://archive.osc.edu/research/archive/ pcrm/emissions/India_Report_1Pagelayout.pdf (last access: July 2015), 2003.
    • Moorthy, K. K., Beegum, S. N., Srivastava, N., Satheesh, S. K., Chin, M., Blond, N., Babu, S. S., and Singh, S.: Performance evaluation of chemistry transport models over India, Atmos. Environ., 71, 210-225, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.01.056, 2013.
    • MoPNG: All India Study on Sectoral Demand of Diesel & Petrol, Tech. rep., Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
    • MoPNG: Indian Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics 2013-14, Tech. rep., Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas Economics and Statistics Division, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014.
    • MoSPI: Energy Statistics 2014, Tech. rep., Central Statistics Office, Government of India, New Delhi, available at: http://mospi.nic. in/mospi_new/upload/Energy_Statistics_2013.pdf (last access: July 2015), 2014a.
    • MoSPI: Household Consumption of Various Goods and Services in India, Tech. Rep. 558, MOSPI, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014b.
    • Nair, V. S., Solmon, F., Giorgi, F., Mariotti, L., Babu, S. S., and Moorthy, K. K.: Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D04209, doi:10.1029/2011JD016711, 2012.
    • National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI): Air Quality Assessment, Emissions Inventory and Source Apportionment Studies: Mumbai, New Delhi, Tech. rep., Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 2010, 2010.
    • Ni, M., Huang, J., Lu, S., Li, X., Yan, J., and Cen, K.: A review on black carbon emissions, worldwide and in China., Chemosphere, 107, 83-93, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.052, 2014.
    • Novakov, T.: Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols, Geophys. Res. Let., 30, 1324, doi:10.1029/2002GL016345, 2003.
    • NSSO: Energy Sources of Indian Households for Cooking and Lighting, 2011-12, National Sample Survey Office,Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi, available at: http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_new/upload/ nss_report_567.pdf (last access: May 2015), 2015.
    • Ohara, T., Akimoto, H., Kurokawa, J., Horii, N., Yamaji, K., Yan, X., and Hayasaka, T.: An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4419-4444, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4419-2007, 2007.
    • OpenStreetMap: OpenStreetMap Foundation - Geofabrik Data Downloads, available at: http://download.geofabrik.de/asia/ india.html (last access: April 2015), 2016.
    • Pachauri, T., Satsangi, A., Singla, V., Lakhani, A., and Maharaj Kumari, K.: Characteristics and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2:5 during wintertime in Agra, India, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13, 977-991, doi:10.4209/aaqr.2012.10.0263, 2013.
    • Pandey, A. and Venkataraman, C.: Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume, Atmos. Environ., 98, 123-133, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.039, 2014.
    • Pandey, A., Sadavarte, P., Rao, A. B., and Venkataraman, C.: Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technologylinked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors, Atmos. Environ., 99, 341-352, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.080, 2014.
    • Parashar, D. C., Gadi, R., Mandal, T. K., and Mitra, A. P.: Carbonaceous aerosol emissions from India, Atmos. Environ., 39, 7861- 7871, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.08.034, 2005.
    • Parikh, S. and Radhakrishna, R.: India Development Report 2004- 05, Tech. rep., Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India, 2005.
    • Pedersen, D. U., Durant, J. L., Taghizadeh, K., Hemond, H. F., Lafleur, A. L., and Cass, G. R.: Human cell mutagens in respirable airborne particles from the northeastern United States. 2. Quantification of mutagens and other organic compounds, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 9547-9560, doi:10.1021/es050886c, 2005.
    • Pessoa Júnior, A., de Mancilha, I. M., and Sato, S.: Evaluation of sugar cane hemicellulose hydrolyzate for cultivation of yeasts and filamentous fungi, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot., 18, 360-363, doi:10.1038/sj.jim.2900403, 1997.
    • Press Information Bureau: Number of Steel Plants in India, Government of India, New Delhi, available at: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/ erelease.aspx?relid=77494 (last access: September 2015), 2011.
    • Qin, Y. and Xie, S.: Estimation of county-level black carbon emissions and its spatial distribution in China in 2000, Atmos. Environ., 45, 6995-7004, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.017, 2011.
    • Quinn, P. K., Bates, T. S., Baum, E., Doubleday, N., Fiore, A. M., Flanner, M., Fridlind, A., Garrett, T. J., Koch, D., Menon, S., Shindell, D., Stohl, A., and Warren, S. G.: Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1723-1735, doi:10.5194/acp8-1723-2008, 2008.
    • Rajarathnam, U., Athalye, V., Ragavan, S., Maithel, S., Lalchandani, D., Kumar, S., Baum, E., Weyant, C., and Bond, T.: Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns, Atmos. Environ., 98, 549-553, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.075, 2014.
    • Ramachandra, T. V. and Shwetmala: Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5510- 5517, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.015, 2009.
    • Ramachandra, T. V., Aithal, B., and Sreejith, K.: GHG footprint of major cities in India, Renew. Sustain. Energy, 44, 473-495, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.12.036, 2015.
    • Ramanathan, V. and Carmichael, G.: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, 1, 221-227, doi:10.1038/ngeo156, 2008.
    • Reddy, M. and Venkataraman, C.: Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part II - biomass combustion, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00464-2, 2002a.
    • Reddy, M. S. and Venkataraman, C.: Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I F Fossil fuel combustion, 36, 677-697, 2002b.
    • Reynolds, C. C. O. and Kandlikar, M.: Climate impacts of air quality policy: Switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 5860-5865, doi:10.1021/es702863p, 2008.
    • Sadavarte, P. and Venkataraman, C.: Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors, Atmos. Environ., 99, 353-364, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.081, 2014.
    • Sahu, S. K., Beig, G., and Sharma, C.: Decadal growth of black carbon emissions in India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02807, doi:10.1029/2007GL032333, 2008.
    • Saud, T., Gautam, R., Mandal, T. K., Gadi, R., Singh, D. P., Sharma, S. K., Dahiya, M., and Saxena, M.: Emission estimates of organic and elemental carbon from household biomass fuel used over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India, Atmos. Environ., 61, 212-220, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.030, 2012.
    • Schultz, M., Backman, L., Balkanski, Y., Bjoerndalsaeter, S., Brand, R., Burrows, J., Dalsoeren, S., de Vasconcelos, M., Grodtmann, B., Hauglustaine, D., Heil, A., Hoelzemann, J., Isaksen, I., Kaurola, J., Knorr, W., Ladstaetter-Weißenmayer, A., Mota, B., Oom, D., Pacyna, J., Panasiuk, D., Pereira, J., Pulles, T., Pyle, J., Rast, S., Richter, A., Savage, N., Schnadt, C., Schulz, M., Spessa, A., Staehelin, J., Sundet, J., Szopa, S., Thonicke, K., van het Bolscher, M., van Noije, T., van Velthoven, P., Vik, A., and Wittrock, F.: REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition over the past 40 years. A long-term global modeling study of tropospheric chemistry funded under the 5th EU framework programme, Final Report, Tech. Rep. 3, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, 2007.
    • Schultz, M., Rast, S., Pulles, T., Brand, R., Pereira, J., Mota, B., and Spessa, A.: Emission data sets and methodologies for estimating emissions, Tech. Rep. February 2007, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2008.
    • Sen, A., Mandal, T., Sharma, S., Saxena, M., Gupta, N., Gautam, R., Gupta, A., Gill, T., Rani, S., Saud, T., Singh, D., and Gadi, R.: Chemical properties of emission from biomass fuels used in the rural sector of the western region of India, Atmos. Environ., 99, 411-424, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.012, 2014.
    • Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation: Diesel Generators: Improving Efficiency and Emission Performance in India, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, available at: http://shaktifoundation.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/ Shakti-Diesel-Generators-FINAL1.pdf (last access: May 2015), 2014.
    • Shen, G., Yang, Y., Wang, W., Tao, S., Zhu, C., Min, Y., Xue, M., Ding, J., Wang, B., Wang, R., Shen, H., Li, W., Wang, X., and Russell, A. G.: Emission factors of particulate matter and elemental carbon for crop residues and coals burned in typical household stoves in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 7157- 7162, doi:10.1021/es101313y, 2010.
    • Shen, G., Wei, S., Wei, W., Zhang, Y., Min, Y., Wang, B., Wang, R., Li, W., Shen, H., Huang, Y., Yang, Y., Wang, W., Wang, X., Wang, X., and Tao, S.: Emission factors, size distributions, and emission inventories of carbonaceous particulate matter from residential wood combustion in rural china, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 4207-4214, doi:10.1021/es203957u, 2012.
    • Sindhwani, R. and Goyal, P.: Assessment of traffic-generated gaseous and particulate matter emissions and trends over Delhi (2000-2010), Atmospheric Pollution Research, 5, 438-446, doi:10.5094/APR.2014.051, 2014.
    • Smith, K., Uma, R., Kishore, V., Lata, K., Joshi, V., Zhang, J., Rasmussen, R., and Khalil, M.: Greenhouse Gases from Smallscale Combustion Devices in Developing Countries, Phase IIA: Household Stoves in India, Tech. Rep. June, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC 20460, EPA-600/R-00-052, 2000.
    • Sonkar, M.: Regional Scale Transport Simulation and Deposition of Elemental Carbon in the Himalayas: A WRF and CAMx Modeling, Ph.D. thesis, IIT Kanpur, 2011.
    • Streets, D. G., Gupta, S., Waldhoff, S. T., Wang, M. Q., Bond, T. C., and Yiyun, B.: Black carbon emissions in China, Atmos. Environ., 35, 4281-4296, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00179-0, 2001.
    • Streets, D. G., Yarber, K., Woo, J., and Carmichael, G.: An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8809, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093, 2003.
    • TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute): A Model to Establish a Policy Framework for Emissions Reduction, and costeffectiveness of Alternative Measures, Tech. rep., TERI, New Delhi, 2006.
    • Turn, S. Q., Jenkins, B. M., Chow, J. C., Pritchett, L. C., Campbell, D., Cahill, T., and Whalen, S. A.: Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 102, 3683-3699, doi:10.1029/96JD02979, 1997.
    • Tyagi, R. C.: Problems and Prospects of Sugar Industry in India, Mittal Publications (India), 1995.
    • Venkataraman, C., Habib, G., Eiguren-Fernandez, A., Miguel, A. H., and Friedlander, S. K.: Residential biofuels in South Asia: carbonaceous aerosol emissions and climate impacts., Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 1454-1456, doi:10.1126/science.1104359, 2005.
    • Venkataraman, C., Habib, G., Kadamba, D., Shrivastava, M., Leon, J.-F., Crouzille, B., Boucher, O., and Streets, D. G.: Emissions from open biomass burning in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, GB2013, doi:10.1029/2005GB002547, 2006.
    • Weyant, C., Athalye, V., Ragavan, S., Rajarathnam, U., Lalchandani, D., Maithel, S., Baum, E., and Bond, T. C.: Emissions from South Asian brick production, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 6477- 6483, doi:10.1021/es500186g, 2014.
    • World Bank: Access to electricity (% of population), available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS (last access: July 2016), 2010.
    • Yasunari, T. J., Tan, Q., Lau, K. M., Bonasoni, P., Marinoni, A., Laj, P., Ménégoz, M., Takemura, T., and Chin, M.: Estimated range of black carbon dry deposition and the related snow albedo reduction over Himalayan glaciers during dry pre-monsoon periods, Atmos. Environ., 78, 259-267, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.031, 2013.
    • Yevich, R.: An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1095, doi:10.1029/2002GB001952, 2003.
    • Zhang, Y., Shao, M., Lin, Y., Luan, S., Mao, N., Chen, W., and Wang, M.: Emission inventory of carbonaceous pollutants from biomass burning in the Pearl River Delta Region, China, Atmos. Environ., 76, 189-199, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.05.055, 2013.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.