Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
S. Gruber; R. Fleiner; E. Guegan; P. Panday; M.-O. Schmid; D. Stumm; P. Wester; Y. Zhang; L. Zhao (2017)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Journal: The Cryosphere
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: GE1-350, QE1-996.5, Environmental sciences, Geology
The cryosphere reacts sensitively to climate change, as evidenced by the widespread retreat of mountain glaciers. Subsurface ice contained in permafrost is similarly affected by climate change, causing persistent impacts on natural and human systems. In contrast to glaciers, permafrost is not observable spatially and therefore its presence and possible changes are frequently overlooked. Correspondingly, little is known about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, despite permafrost area exceeding that of glaciers in nearly all countries. Based on evidence and insight gained mostly in other permafrost areas globally, this review provides a synopsis on what is known or can be inferred about permafrost in the mountains of the HKH region. Given the extreme nature of the environment concerned, it is to be expected that the diversity of conditions and phenomena encountered in permafrost exceed what has previously been described and investigated. We further argue that climate change in concert with increasing development will bring about diverse permafrost-related impacts on vegetation, water quality, geohazards, and livelihoods. To better anticipate and mitigate these effects, a deepened understanding of high-elevation permafrost in subtropical latitudes as well as the pathways interconnecting environmental changes and human livelihoods are needed. © Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Allen, S. K., Fiddes, J., Linsbauer, A., Randhawa, S. S., Saklani, B., and Salzmann, N.: Permafrost studies in Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, Curr. Sci., 111, 557-560, 2016.
    • Arenson, L. U., Springman, S. M., and Sego, D. C.: The rheology of frozen soils, Appl. Rheol., 17, 1-14, 2007.
    • Azócar, G. F. and Brenning, A.: Hydrological and geomorphological significance of rock glaciers in the dry Andes, Chile (27 - 33 S), Permafrost Periglac., 21, 42-53, doi:10.1002/ppp.669, 2010.
    • Bajracharya, S. and Shrestha, B.: The status of glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2011.
    • Bao, X. and Zhang, F.: Evaluation of NCEP-CFSR, NCEP-NCAR, ERA-Interim, and ERA-40 reanalysis datasets against independent sounding observations over the Tibetan Plateau, J. Clim., 26, 206-214, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00056.1, 2013.
    • Barsch, D. and Jakob, M.: Mass transport by active rockglaciers in the Khumbu Himalaya, Geomorphology, 26, 215- 222, doi:10.1016/S0169-555X(98)00060-9, 1998.
    • Benn, D. I. and Lehmkuhl, F.: Mass balance and equilibrium-line altitudes of glaciers in high-mountain environments, Quatern. Int., 65/66, 15-29, doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(99)00034-8, 2000.
    • Benn, D. I. and Owen, L. A.: The role of the Indian summer monsoon and the mid-latitude westerlies in Himalayan glaciation: review and speculative discussion, J. Geol. Soc. London, 155, 353- 363, doi:10.1144/gsjgs.155.2.0353, 1998.
    • Bense, V. F., Kooi, H., Ferguson, G., and Read, T.: Permafrost degradation as a control on hydrogeological regime shifts in a warming climate, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03036, doi:10.1029/2011JF002143, 2012.
    • Bhutiyani, M. R., Kale, V. S., and Pawar, N. J.: Long-term trends in maximum, minimum and mean annual air temperatures across the Northwestern Himalaya during the twentieth century, Clim. Change, 85, 159-177, doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9196-1, 2007.
    • Blöthe, J. H. and Korup, O.: Millennial lag times in the Himalayan sediment routing system, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 382, 38-46, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.08.044, 2013.
    • Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges, The Cryosphere, 6, 125-140, doi:10.5194/tc-6-125-2012, 2012.
    • Böhner, J.: General climatic controls and topoclimatic variations in Central and High Asia, Boreas, 35, 279-295, doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2006.tb01158.x, 2006.
    • Bolch, T. and Gorbunov, A. P.: Characteristics and origin of rock glaciers in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan), Permafrost Periglac., 25, 320-332, doi:10.1002/ppp.1825, 2014.
    • Bolch, T., Kulkarni, A., Kääb, A., Huggel, C., Paul, F., Cogley, J. G., Frey, H., Kargel, J. S., Fujita, K., Scheel, M., Bajracharya, S., and Stoffel, M.: The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers, Science, 336, 310-314, doi:10.1126/science.1215828, 2012.
    • Bommer, C., Phillips, M., and Arenson, L.: Practical recommendations for planning, constructing and maintaining infrastructure in mountain permafrost, Permafrost Periglac., 21, 97-104, 2010.
    • Bookhagen, B. and Burbank, D. W.: Topography, relief, and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Himalaya, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08405, doi:10.1029/2006GL026037, 2006.
    • Bookhagen, B. and Burbank, D. W.: Toward a complete Himalayan hydrological budget: Spatiotemporal distribution of snowmelt and rainfall and their impact on river discharge, J. Geophys. Res., 115, F03019, doi:10.1029/2009JF001426, 2010.
    • Brown, J., Ferrians, O., Heginbottom, J. A., and Melnikov, E.: Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions, Boulder, Color. USA Natl. Snow Ice Data Center, 1998.
    • Brown, R. J. E. and Pewe, T. L.: Distribution of permafrost in North America and its relationship to the environment: a review, in Permafrost: North American Contribution, Second International Conference, 71-100, 1973.
    • Buchli, T., Merz, K., Zhou, X., Kinzelbach, W., and Springman, S. M.: Characterization and monitoring of the Furggwanghorn rock glacier, Turtmann Valley, Switzerland: results from 2010 to 2012, Vadose Zone J., 12, doi:10.2136/vzj2012.0067, 2013.
    • Burger, K. C., Degenhardt, J. J., and Giardino, J. R.: Engineering geomorphology of rock glaciers, Geomorphology, 31, 93-132, doi:10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00074-4, 1999.
    • Burn, C. R. and Smith, C. A. S.: Observations of the “thermal offset” in near-surface mean annual ground temperatures at several sites near Mayo, Yukon Territory, Canada, Arctic, 41, 99-104, doi:10.14430/arctic1700, 1988.
    • Cheng, G. and Jin, H.: Permafrost and groundwater on the QinghaiTibet Plateau and in northeast China, Hydrogeol. J., 21, 5-23, doi:10.1007/s10040-012-0927-2, 2012.
    • Clark, I. D., Lauriol, B., Harwood, L., and Marschner, M.: Groundwater contributions to discharge in a permafrost setting, Big Fish River, N.W.T., Canada, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 33, 62-69, doi:10.2307/1552278, 2001.
    • Clift, P. D., Hodges, K. V., Heslop, D., Hannigan, R., Van Long, H., and Calves, G.: Correlation of Himalayan exhumation rates and Asian monsoon intensity, Nat. Geosci., 1, 875-880, doi:10.1038/ngeo351, 2008.
    • Delaloye, R. and Lambiel, C.: Evidence of winter ascending air circulation throughout talus slopes and rock glaciers situated in the lower belt of alpine discontinuous permafrost (Swiss Alps), Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr. - Nor. J. Geogr., 59, 194-203, doi:10.1080/00291950510020673, 2005.
    • Delaloye, R., Perruchoud, E., Avian, M., Kaufmann, V., Bodin, X., Hausmann, H., Ikeda, A., Kääb, A., Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A., Krainer, K., Lambiel, C., Mihajlovic, D., Staub, B., Roer, I., and Thibert, E.: Recent interannual variations of rock glacier creep in the European Alps, Proceeding Ninth Int. Conf. Permafr., 343- 348, 2008.
    • Derin, Y., Anagnostou, E., Berne, A., Borga, M., Boudevillain, B., Buytaert, W., Chang, C.-H., Delrieu, G., Hong, Y., Hsu, Y. C., Lavado-Casimiro, W., Manz, B., Moges, S., Nikolopoulos, E. I., Sahlu, D., Salerno, F., Rodríguez-Sánchez, J.-P., Vergara, H. J., and Yilmaz, K. K.: Multiregional satellite precipitation products evaluation over complex terrain, J. Hydrometeorol., 17, 1817- 1836, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-15-0197.1, 2016.
    • Endrizzi, S., Gruber, S., Dall'Amico, M., and Rigon, R.: GEOtop 2.0: simulating the combined energy and water balance at and below the land surface accounting for soil freezing, snow cover and terrain effects, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2831-2857, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-2831-2014, 2014.
    • Etzelmüller, B. and Hagen, J. O.: Glacier-permafrost interaction in Arctic and alpine mountain environments with examples from southern Norway and Svalbard, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 242, 11-27, 2005.
    • Fiddes, J. and Gruber, S.: TopoSUB: a tool for efficient large area numerical modelling in complex topography at sub-grid scales, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1245-1257, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1245- 2012, 2012.
    • Fiddes, J. and Gruber, S.: TopoSCALE v.1.0: downscaling gridded climate data in complex terrain, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 387-405, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-387-2014, 2014.
    • Fiddes, J., Endrizzi, S., and Gruber, S.: Large-area land surface simulations in heterogeneous terrain driven by global data sets: application to mountain permafrost, The Cryosphere, 9, 411-426, doi:10.5194/tc-9-411-2015, 2015.
    • Fort, M. and van Vliet-Lanoe, B.: Permafrost and periglacial environment of Western Tibet, Landf. Anal., 5, 25-29, 2007.
    • Fowler, H. J. and Archer, D. R.: Conflicting signals of climatic change in the upper Indus basin, J. Clim., 19, 4276-4293, doi:10.1175/JCLI3860.1, 2006.
    • Frey, K. E. and McClelland, J. W.: Impacts of permafrost degradation on arctic river biogeochemistry, Hydrol. Process., 23, 169- 182, doi:10.1002/hyp.7196, 2009.
    • Fuchs, M., Kuhry, P., and Hugelius, G.: Low below-ground organic carbon storage in a subarctic Alpine permafrost environment, The Cryosphere, 9, 427-438, doi:10.5194/tc-9-427-2015, 2015.
    • Fujii, Y. and Higuchi, K.: Ground temperature and its relation to permafrost occurrences in the Khumbu region and Hidden Valley, J. Japanese Soc. Snow Ice, 38, 125-128, doi:10.5331/seppyo.38.Special_125, 1976.
    • Fujita, K., Sakai, A., Takenaka, S., Nuimura, T., Surazakov, A. B., Sawagaki, T., and Yamanokuchi, T.: Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1827- 1839, doi:10.5194/nhess-13-1827-2013, 2013.
    • Gardelle, J., Arnaud, Y., and Berthier, E.: Contrasted evolution of glacial lakes along the Hindu Kush Himalaya mountain range between 1990 and 2009, Glob. Planet. Change, 75, 47-55, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.10.003, 2011.
    • Gärtner-Roer, I.: Sediment transfer rates of two active rockglaciers in the Swiss Alps, Geomorphology, 167-168, 45-50, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.04.013, 2012.
    • Geertsema, M., Hungr, O., Schwab, J. W., and Evans, S. G.: A large rockslide-debris avalanche in cohesive soil at Pink Mountain, northeastern British Columbia, Canada, Eng. Geol., 83, 64-75, doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.06.025, 2006a.
    • Geertsema, M., Clague, J. J., Schwab, J. W., and Evans, S. G.: An overview of recent large catastrophic landslides in northern British Columbia, Canada, Eng. Geol., 83, 120-143, doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.06.028, 2006b.
    • Girard, L., Gruber, S., Weber, S., and Beutel, J.: Environmental controls of frost cracking revealed through in situ acoustic emission measurements in steep bedrock, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1748- 1753, doi:10.1002/grl.50384, 2013.
    • Gold, L. W. and Lachenbruch, A. H.: Thermal conditions in permafrost: a review of North American literature, in North American Contribution to the Second International Conference on Permafrost, 3-25, National Research Council Canada, 1973.
    • Goodrich, L. E.: The influence of snow cover on the ground thermal regime, Can. Geotech. J., 19, 421-432, doi:10.1139/t82-047, 1982.
    • Gorbunov, A. P.: Permafrost investigations in high-mountain regions, Arctic Alpine Res., 10, 283-294, 1978.
    • Gruber, S.: Derivation and analysis of a high-resolution estimate of global permafrost zonation, The Cryosphere, 6, 221-233, doi:10.5194/tc-6-221-2012, 2012.
    • Gruber, S. and Haeberli, W.: Permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and its temperature-related destabilization following climate change, J. Geophys. Res., 112, F02S18, doi:10.1029/2006JF000547, 2007.
    • Gruber, S. and Haeberli, W.: Mountain permafrost, in: Permafrost Soils, edited by: Margesin, R., 33-44, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
    • Gruber, S. and Hoelzle, M.: The cooling effect of coarse blocks revisited: a modeling study of a purely conductive mechanism, in: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Permafrost 2008, 557-561, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 2008.
    • Gruber, S., Hoelzle, M., and Haeberli, W.: Permafrost thaw and destabilization of Alpine rock walls in the hot summer of 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L13504, doi:10.1029/2004GL020051, 2004a.
    • Gruber, S., Hoelzle, M., and Haeberli, W.: Rock-wall temperatures in the Alps: modelling their topographic distribution and regional differences, Permafrost Periglac., 15, 299-307, doi:10.1002/ppp.501, 2004b.
    • Gubler, S., Fiddes, J., Keller, M., and Gruber, S.: Scaledependent measurement and analysis of ground surface temperature variability in alpine terrain, The Cryosphere, 5, 431-443, doi:10.5194/tc-5-431-2011, 2011.
    • Gubler, S., Endrizzi, S., Gruber, S., and Purves, R. S.: Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1319-1336, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1319-2013, 2013.
    • Guodong, C.: The mechanism of repeated-segregation for the formation of thick layered ground ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 8, 57-66, doi:10.1016/0165-232X(83)90017-4, 1983.
    • Gutmann, E., Barstad, I., Clark, M., Arnold, J., and Rasmussen, R.: The Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research Model (ICAR), J. Hydrometeorol., 17, 957-973, doi:10.1175/JHM-D15-0155.1, 2016.
    • Haeberli, W.: Investigating glacier-permafrost relationships in highmountain areas: historical background, selected examples and research needs, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 242, 29-37, 2005.
    • Haeberli, W., Huggel, C., Kääb, A., Zgraggen-Oswald, S., Polkvoj, A., Galushkin, I., Zotikov, I., and Osokin, N.: The Kolka-Karmadon rock/ice slide of 20 September 2002: an extraordinary event of historical dimensions in North Ossetia, Russian Caucasus, J. Glaciol., 50, 533-546, doi:10.3189/172756504781829710, 2004.
    • Haeberli, W., Hallet, B., Arenson, L., Elconin, R., Humlum, O., Kääb, A., Kaufmann, V., Ladanyi, B., Matsuoka, N., Springman, S., and Mühll, D. V.: Permafrost creep and rock glacier dynamics, Permafrost Periglac., 17, 189-214, doi:10.1002/ppp.561, 2006.
    • Haeberli, W., Noetzli, J., Arenson, L., Delaloye, R., GärtnerRoer, I., Gruber, S., Isaksen, K., Kneisel, C., Krautblatter, M., and Phillips, M.: Mountain permafrost: development and challenges of a young research field, J. Glaciol., 56, 1043-1058, doi:10.3189/002214311796406121, 2010.
    • Harris, C. and Murton, J. B.: Interactions between glaciers and permafrost: an introduction, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 242, 1-9, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2005.242.01.01, 2005.
    • Harris, C., Arenson, L. U., Christiansen, H. H., Etzelmüller, B., Frauenfelder, R., Gruber, S., Haeberli, W., Hauck, C., Hölzle, M., Humlum, O., Isaksen, K., Kääb, A., Kern-Lütschg, M. a., Lehning, M., Matsuoka, N., Murton, J. B., Nötzli, J., Phillips, M., Ross, N., Seppälä, M., Springman, S. M., and Vonder Mühll, D.: Permafrost and climate in Europe: Monitoring and modelling thermal, geomorphological and geotechnical responses, EarthSci. Rev., 92, 117-171, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.12.002, 2009.
    • Hartmann, D. L., Tank, A. M. G. K., Rusticucci, M., Alexander, L. V., Brönnimann, S., Charabi, Y., Dentener, F. J., Dlugokencky, E. J., Easterling, D. R., Kaplan, A., Soden, B. J., Thorne, P. W., Wild, M., and Zhai, P. M.: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface, in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., 159-254, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2013.
    • Hasler, A., Gruber, S., Font, M., and Dubois, A.: Advective heat transport in frozen rock clefts: conceptual model, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation, Permafrost Periglac., 22, 378-389, doi:10.1002/ppp.737, 2011a.
    • Hasler, A., Gruber, S., and Haeberli, W.: Temperature variability and offset in steep alpine rock and ice faces, The Cryosphere, 5, 977-988, doi:10.5194/tc-5-977-2011, 2011b.
    • Hasler, A., Gruber, S., and Beutel, J.: Kinematics of steep bedrock permafrost, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F01016, doi:10.1029/2011JF001981, 2012.
    • Hewitt, K.: Glaciers of the Karakoram Himalaya, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
    • Hinkel, K. M. and Hurd, J. K.: Permafrost destabilization and thermokarst following snow fence installation, Barrow, Alaska, U.S.A., Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res., 38, 530-539, 2006.
    • Hinzman, L. D., Bettez, N. D., Bolton, W. R., Chapin, F. S., Dyurgerov, M. B., Fastie, C. L., Griffith, B., Hollister, R. D., Hope, A., Huntington, H. P., Jensen, A. M., Jia, G. J., Jorgenson, T., Kane, D. L., Klein, D. R., Kofinas, G., Lynch, A. H., Lloyd, A. H., McGuire, A. D., Nelson, F. E., Oechel, W. C., Osterkamp, T. E., Racine, C. H., Romanovsky, V. E., Stone, R. S., Stow, D. a., Sturm, M., Tweedie, C. E., Vourlitis, G. L., Walker, M. D., Walker, D. a., Webber, P. J., Welker, J. M., Winker, K. S., and Yoshikawa, K.: Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other Arctic regions, Clim. Change, 72, 251-298, doi:10.1007/s10584-005-5352-2, 2005.
    • Huggel, C., Gruber, S., and Wessels, R. L.: The 2005 Mt. Steller, Alaska, rock-ice avalanche: a large slope failure in cold permafrost, in: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Permafrost 2008, 747-752, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 2008.
    • Huggel, C., Gruber, S., and Korup, O.: Landslide hazards and climate change in high mountains, in: Treatise on Geomorphology, 13, 288-301, Elsevier Ltd., 2013.
    • Immerzeel, W. W., Wanders, N., Lutz, A. F., Shea, J. M., and Bierkens, M. F. P.: Reconciling high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin with glacier mass balances and runoff, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4673-4687, doi:10.5194/hess-19-4673- 2015, 2015.
    • Ishikawa, M., Watanabe, T., and Nakamura, N.: Genetic differences of rock glaciers and the discontinuous mountain permafrost zone in Kanchanjunga Himal, Eastern Nepal, Permafrost Periglac., 12, 243-253, doi:10.1002/ppp.394, 2001.
    • Ishikawa, M., Fukui, K., Aoyama, M., Ikeda, A., Sawada, Y., and Matsuoka, N.: Mountain permafrost in Japan: distribution, landforms and thermal regimes, Zeitschrift für Geomorphol. Suppl. Issue, 130, 99-116, 2003.
    • Ishikawa, M., Sharkhuu, N., Zhang, Y., Kadota, T., and Ohata, T.: Ground thermal and moisture conditions at the southern boundary of discontinuous permafrost, Mongolia, Permafrost Periglac., 16, 209-216, doi:10.1002/ppp.483, 2005.
    • Ives, J., Shrestha, R., and Mool, P.: Formation of glacial lakes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas and GLOF risk assessment, ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2010.
    • Iwata, S., Ageta, Y., Sakai, A., Narama, C., and Naito, N.: Glacial goemorphology in the Lunana area in the Bhutan Himalaya: moraine stages, glacial lakes, and rock glaciers, Himal. J. Sci., 2, 164-165, 2004.
    • Jakob, M.: Active rock glaciers and the lower limit of discontinuous alpine permafrost, Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal, Permafrost Periglac., 3, 253-256, 1992.
    • Jarvis, A., Reuter, H. I., Nelson, A., and Guevara, E.: Holefilled SRTM for the globe Version 4, Dataset available from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90 m Database (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org), 2008.
    • Jin, H., Yu, Q., Wang, S., and Lü, L.: Changes in permafrost environments along the Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor induced by anthropogenic activities and climate warming, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 53, 317-333, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2007.07.005, 2008a.
    • Jin, H., Sun, G., Yu, S., Jin, R., and He, R.: Symbiosis of marshes and permafrost in Da and Xiao Hinggan Mountains in northeastern China, Chinese Geogr. Sci., 18, 62-69, doi:10.1007/s11769- 008-0062-0, 2008b.
    • Jin, H., He, R., Cheng, G., Wu, Q., Wang, S., Lü, L., and Chang, X.: Changes in frozen ground in the source area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and their eco-environmental impacts, Environ. Res. Lett., 4, 45206, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045206, 2009.
    • Jobbágy, E. G. and Jackson, R. B.: Global controls of forest line elevation in the northern and southern hemispheres, Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr., 9, 253-268, 2000.
    • Kääb, A., Reynolds, J. M., and Haeberli, W.: Glacier and permafrost hazards in high mountains, in Global Change and Mountain Regions: An Overview of Current Knowledge, 225-234, 2005.
    • Kääb, A., Frauenfelder, R., and Roer, I.: On the response of rockglacier creep to surface temperature increase, Glob. Planet. Change, 56, 172-187, 2007.
    • Kääb, A., Berthier, E., Nuth, C., Gardelle, J., and Arnaud, Y.: Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas, Nature, 488, 495-498, doi:10.1038/nature11324, 2012.
    • Kapnick, S. B., Delworth, T. L., Ashfaq, M., Malyshev, S., and Milly, P. C. D.: Snowfall less sensitive to warming in Karakoram than in Himalayas due to a unique seasonal cycle, Nat. Geosci., October, 1-7, doi:10.1038/ngeo2269, 2014.
    • Kargel, J. S., Leonard, G. J., Shugar, D. H., Haritashya, U. K., Bevington, A., Fielding, E. J., Fujita, K., Geertsema, M., Miles, E. S., Steiner, J., Anderson, E., Bajracharya, S., Bawden, G. W., Breashears, D. F., Byers, A., Collins, B., Dhital, M. R., Donnellan, A., Evans, T. L., Geai, M. L., Glasscoe, M. T., Green, D., Gurung, D. R., Heijenk, R., Hilborn, A., Hudnut, K., Huyck, C., Immerzeel, W. W., Liming, Jiang, Jibson, R., Kääb, A., Khanal, N. R., Kirschbaum, D., Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A., Lamsal, D., Shiyin, Liu, Mingyang, Lv, McKinney, D., Nahirnick, N. K., Zhuotong, Nan, Ojha, S., Olsenholler, J., Painter, T. H., Pleasants, M., Pratima, K. C., Yuan, Q. I., Raup, B. H., Regmi, D., Rounce, D. R., Sakai, A., Donghui, Shangguan, Shea, J. M., Shrestha, A. B., Shukla, A., Stumm, D., van der Kooij, M., Voss, K., Xin, Wang, Weihs, B., Wolfe, D., Lizong, Wu, Xiaojun, Yao, Yoder, M. R., and Young, N.: Geomorphic and geologic controls of geohazards induced by Nepal's 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Science, doi:10.1126/science.aac8353, 2015.
    • Kattel, D. B. and Yao, T.: Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas, J. Earth Syst. Sci., 122, 215-227, doi:10.1007/s12040-012-0257-8, 2013.
    • Kirkbride, M.: Debris-covered glaciers, edited by: Singh, V. P., Singh, P., and Haritashya, U. K., Encycl. Snow, Ice Glaciers, 190-192, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2642-2, 2011.
    • Klimeš, L. and Doležal, J.: An experimental assessment of the upper elevational limit of flowering plants in the western Himalayas, Ecography (Cop.), 33, 590-596, doi:10.1111/j.1600- 0587.2009.05967.x, 2010.
    • Kokelj, S. V. and Burn, C. R.: Ground ice and soluble cations in near-surface permafrost, Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, Permafrost Periglac., 14, 275-289, doi:10.1002/ppp.458, 2003.
    • Kokelj, S. V., Smith, C. A. S. and Burn, C. R.: Physical and chemical characteristics of the active layer and permafrost, Herschel Island, western Arctic Coast, Canada, Permafrost Periglac., 13, 171-185, doi:10.1002/ppp.417, 2002.
    • Kokelj, S. V., Riseborough, D., Coutts, R., and Kanigan, J. C. N.: Permafrost and terrain conditions at northern drilling-mud sumps: Impacts of vegetation and climate change and the management implications, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 64, 46-56, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2010.04.009, 2010.
    • Körner, C. and Paulsen, J.: A world-wide study of high altitude treeline temperatures, J. Biogeogr., 31, 713-732, 2004.
    • Krysiecki, J., Bodin, X., and Schoeneich, P.: Collapse of the Bérard rock glacier (southern French Alps), Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Permafrost, Ext. Abstr., 153-154, 2008.
    • Kurylyk, B. L. and Watanabe, K.: The mathematical representation of freezing and thawing processes in variablysaturated, non-deformable soils, Adv. Water Resour., 60, 160- 177, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2013.07.016, 2013.
    • Li, S. and He, Y.: Features of permafrost in the West Kunlun Mountains, Bull. Glacier Res., 7, 161-167, 1989.
    • Lin, Z., Niu, F., Liu, H., and Lu, J.: Hydrothermal processes of Alpine Tundra Lakes, Beiluhe Basin, QinghaiTibet Plateau, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 65, 446-455, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2010.10.013, 2011.
    • Lin, Z., Burn, C. R., Niu, F., Luo, J., Liu, M., and Yin, G.: The thermal regime, including a reversed thermal offset, of arid permafrost sites with variations in vegetation cover density, Wudaoliang Basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 26, 142-159, doi:10.1002/ppp.1840, 2015.
    • Lipovsky, P. S., Evans, S. G., Clague, J. J., Hopkinson, C., Couture, R., Bobrowsky, P., Ekström, G., Demuth, M. N., Delaney, K. B., Roberts, N. J., Clarke, G., and Schaeffer, A.: The July 2007 rock and ice avalanches at Mount Steele, St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada, Landslides, 5, 445-455, doi:10.1007/s10346-008-0133- 4, 2008.
    • Liu, J., Yang, B., and Qin, C.: Tree-ring based annual precipitation reconstruction since AD 1480 in south central Tibet, Quatern. Int., 236, 75-81, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2010.03.020, 2011.
    • Liu, X., Cheng, Z., Yan, L., and Yin, Z.-Y.: Elevation dependency of recent and future minimum surface air temperature trends in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings, Global Planet. Change, 68, 164-174, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.03.017, 2009.
    • Ma, Y., Zhang, Y., Zubrzycki, S., Guo, Y., and Farhan, S. B.: Hillslope-scale variability in seasonal frost depth and soil water content investigated by GPR on the southern margin of the sporadic permafrost zone on the Tibetan Plateau, Permafrost Periglac., 334, 321-334, doi:10.1002/ppp.1844, 2015.
    • Ma, Z. G., Wei, H. L., and Fu, C. B.: Progress in the research on the relationship between soil moisture and climate change (in Chinese), Adv. Earth Sci., 14, 299-305, 1999.
    • Mackay, J. R.: The world of underground ice, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr., 62, 1-22, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1972.tb00839.x, 1972.
    • Mackay, J. R.: Some observations on the growth and deformation of epigenetic, syngenetic and anti-syngenetic ice wedges, Permafrost Periglac., 1, 15-29, 1990.
    • Matsuoka, N.: Contemporary permafrost and periglaciation in Asian high mountains: an overview, Zeitschrift für Geomorphol. Suppl. Issue, 47, 145-166, 2003.
    • McRoberts, E. C. and Morgenstern, N. R.: The stability of thawing slopes, Can. Geotech. J., 11, 447-469, 1974.
    • Ménégoz, M., Gallée, H., and Jacobi, H. W.: Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3921-3936, doi:10.5194/hess-17-3921-2013, 2013.
    • Ménégoz, M., Krinner, G., Balkanski, Y., Boucher, O., Cozic, A., Lim, S., Ginot, P., Laj, P., Gallée, H., Wagnon, P., Marinoni, A., and Jacobi, H. W.: Snow cover sensitivity to black carbon deposition in the Himalayas: from atmospheric and ice core measurements to regional climate simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4237-4249, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4237-2014, 2014.
    • Moors, E. J., Groot, A., Biemans, H., van Scheltinga, C. T., Siderius, C., Stoffel, M., Huggel, C., Wiltshire, A., Mathison, C., Ridley, J., Jacob, D., Kumar, P., Bhadwal, S., Gosain, A. and Collins, D. N.: Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India, Environ. Sci. Policy, 14, 758-769, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2011.03.005, 2011.
    • Muster, S., Langer, M., Heim, B., Westermann, S., and Boike, J.: Subpixel heterogeneity of ice-wedge polygonal tundra: a multi-scale analysis of land cover and evapotranspiration in the Lena River Delta, Siberia, Tellus B, 64, 1-19, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.17301, 2012.
    • Niu, F., Lin, Z., Liu, H., and Lu, J.: Characteristics of thermokarst lakes and their influence on permafrost in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Geomorphology, 132, 222-233, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.05.011, 2011.
    • Niu, F., Luo, J., Lin, Z., Ma, W., and Lu, J.: Development and thermal regime of a thaw slump in the QinghaiTibet plateau, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 83-84, 131-138, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2012.07.007, 2012.
    • Noetzli, J. and Gruber, S.: Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost, The Cryosphere, 3, 85-99, doi:10.5194/tc-3-85-2009, 2009.
    • Noetzli, J., Gruber, S., Kohl, T., Salzmann, N., and Haeberli, W.: Three-dimensional distribution and evolution of permafrost temperatures in idealized high-mountain topography, J. Geophys. Res., 112, F02S13, doi:10.1029/2006JF000545, 2007.
    • Osti, R. and Egashira, S.: Hydrodynamic characteristics of the Tam Pokhari Glacial Lake outburst flood in the Mt. Everest region, Nepal, Hydrol. Process., 23, 2943-2955, doi:10.1002/hyp.7405, 2009.
    • Østrem, G. and Ostrem, G.: Ice-cored moraines in Scandinavia, Geogr. Ann., 46, 282, doi:10.2307/520383, 1964.
    • Otto, J., Schrott, L., Jaboyedoff, M., and Dikau, R.: Quantifying sediment storage in a high alpine valley (Turtmanntal, Switzerland), Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 34, 1726-1742, doi:10.1002/esp.1856, 2009.
    • Owen, L. A. and England, J.: Observations on rock glaciers in the Himalayas and Karakoram mountains of northern Pakistan and India, Geomorphology, 26, 199-213, doi:10.1016/S0169- 555X(98)00059-2, 1998.
    • Palazzi, E., Hardenberg, J., and Von and Provenzale, A.: Precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya: Observations and future scenarios, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 85-100, doi:10.1029/2012JD018697, 2013.
    • Pepin, N., Bradley, R. S., Diaz, H. F., Baraer, M., Caceres, E. B., Forsythe, N., Fowler, H., Greenwood, G., Hashmi, M. Z., Liu, X. D., Miller, J. R., Ning, L., Ohmura, A., Palazzi, E., Rangwala, I., Schöner, W., Severskiy, I., Shahgedanova, M., Wang, M. B., Williamson, S. N., and Yang, D. Q.: Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world, Nat. Clim. Chang., 5, 424-430, doi:10.1038/nclimate2563, 2015.
    • Pfeffer, W. T., Arendt, A. A., Bliss, A., Bolch, T., Cogley, J. G., Gardner, A. S., Hagen, J.-O., Hock, R., Kaser, G., Kienholz, C., Miles, E. S., Moholdt, G., Mölg, N., Paul, F., Radic´, V., Rastner, P., Raup, B. H., Rich, J., and Sharp, M. J.: The Randolph Glacier Inventory: a globally complete inventory of glaciers, J. Glaciol., 60, 537-552, doi:10.3189/2014JoG13J176, 2014.
    • Pu, Z. and Xu, L.: MODIS/Terra observed snow cover over the Tibet Plateau: Distribution, variation and possible connection with the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97, 265-278, doi:10.1007/s00704-008-0074-9, 2009.
    • Qin, D. H., Liu, S. Y., and Li, P. J.: Snow cover distribution, variability, and response to climate change in western China, J. Clim., 19, 1820-1833, doi:10.1175/JCLI3694.1, 2006.
    • Rangecroft, S., Harrison, S., and Anderson, K.: Rock glaciers as water stores in the Bolivian Andes: an assessment of their hydrological importance, Arctic, Antarct. Alp. Res., 47, 89-98, doi:10.1657/AAAR0014-029, 2015.
    • Rasmussen, R., Baker, B., Kochendorfer, J., Meyers, T., Landolt, S., Fischer, A. P., Black, J., Thériault, J. M., Kucera, P., Gochis, D., Smith, C., Nitu, R., Hall, M., Ikeda, K., and Gutmann, E.: How Well Are We Measuring Snow: The NOAA/FAA/NCAR Winter Precipitation Test Bed, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 811- 829, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00052.1, 2012.
    • Rastogi, S. P. and Narayan, S.: Permafrost in the Tso Kar Basin, Ladakh, in Proceedings of the Symposium for Snow, Ice and Glaciers, March 1999, Geological Survey of India Special Publication, 53, 315-319, 1999.
    • Ravanel, L., Allignol, F., Deline, P., Gruber, S., and Ravello, M.: Rock falls in the Mont Blanc Massif in 2007 and 2008, Landslides, 7, 493-501, doi:10.1007/s10346-010-0206-z, 2010.
    • Regmi, D.: Rock Glacier distribution and the lower limit of discontinuous mountain permafrost in the Nepal Himalaya, Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. Permafr. (NICOP), 29 June-3 July 2008, Alaska Fairbanks, 1475-1480, 2008.
    • Richardson, S. D. and Reynolds, J. M.: An overview of glacial hazards in the Himalayas, Quatern. Int., 65-66, 31-47, doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(99)00035-X, 2000.
    • Riseborough, D., Shiklomanov, N., Etzelmüller, B., Gruber, S., Marchenko, S., Etzelmuller, B., Gruber, S., and Marchenko, S.: Recent advances in permafrost modelling, Permafrost Periglac., 19, 137-156, doi:10.1002/ppp, 2008.
    • Roer, I., Haeberli, W., Avian, M., Kaufmann, V., Delaloye, R., Lambiel, C., and Kääb, A.: Observations and considerations on destabilizing active rock glaciers in the European Alps, Ninth Int. Conf. Permafr., 4, 1505-1510, doi:10.5167/uzh-6082, 2008.
    • Romanovsky, V. E. and Osterkamp, T. E.: Effects of unfrozen water on heat and mass transport processes in the active layer and permafrost, Permafrost Periglac., 11, 219-239, doi:10.1002/1099- 1530(200007/09)11:3<219::AID-PPP352>3.0.CO;2-7, 2000.
    • Romanovsky, V. E., Smith, S. L., and Christiansen, H. H.: Permafrost thermal state in the polar northern hemisphere during the international polar year 2007-2009: A synthesis, Permafrost Periglac., 21, 106-116, doi:10.1002/ppp.689, 2010.
    • Ryser, C., Lüthi, M., Blindow, N., Suckro, S., Funk, M., and Bauder, A.: Cold ice in the ablation zone: Its relation to glacier hydrology and ice water content, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 118, 693-705, doi:10.1029/2012JF002526, 2013.
    • Salerno, F., Guyennon, N., Thakuri, S., Viviano, G., Romano, E., Vuillermoz, E., Cristofanelli, P., Stocchi, P., Agrillo, G., Ma, Y., and Tartari, G.: Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya) in the last 2 decades (1994-2013), The Cryosphere, 9, 1229- 1247, doi:10.5194/tc-9-1229-2015, 2015.
    • Salerno, F., Thakuri, S., Guyennon, N., Viviano, G., and Tartari, G.: Glacier melting and precipitation trends detected by surface area changes in Himalayan ponds, The Cryosphere, 10, 1433-1448, doi:10.5194/tc-10-1433-2016, 2016.
    • Schiemann, R., Lüthi, D., Vidale, P. L., and Schär, C.: The precipitation climate of Central Asia - intercomparison of observational and numerical data sources in a remote semiarid region, Int. J. Climatol., 28, 295-314, doi:10.1002/joc.1532, 2008.
    • Schmid, M.-O., Baral, P., Gruber, S., Shahi, S., Shrestha, T., Stumm, D., and Wester, P.: Assessment of permafrost distribution maps in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region using rock glaciers mapped in Google Earth, The Cryosphere, 9, 2089-2099, doi:10.5194/tc9-2089-2015, 2015.
    • Schneider, D., Huggel, C., Haeberli, W., and Kaitna, R.: Unraveling driving factors for large rock-ice avalanche mobility, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 36, 1948-1966, doi:10.1002/esp.2218, 2011.
    • Schuur, E. A. G., McGuire, A. D., Grosse, G., Harden, J. W., Hayes, D. J., Hugelius, G., Koven, C. D., and Kuhry, P.: Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback, Nature, 520, 171-179, doi:10.1038/nature14338, 2015.
    • Shaoling, W., Huijun, J., Shuxun, L., and Lin, Z.: Permafrost degradation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its environmental impacts, Permafrost Periglac., 11, 43-53, 2000.
    • Shea, J. M., Wagnon, P., Immerzeel, W. W., Biron, R., Brun, F., and Pellicciotti, F.: A comparative high-altitude meteorological analysis from three catchments in the Nepalese Himalaya, Int. J. Water Resour. D., 31, 174-200, doi:10.1080/07900627.2015.1020417, 2015.
    • Shekhar, M. S., Chand, H., Kumar, S., Srinivasan, K., and Ganju, A.: Climate-change studies in the western Himalaya, Ann. Glaciol., 51, 105-112, doi:10.3189/172756410791386508, 2010.
    • Shiraiwa, T.: Freeze-thaw activities and rock breakdown in the Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya, Environ. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. J. Grad. Sch. Environ. Sci., 15, 1-12, 1992.
    • Shrestha, A. B., Wake, C. P., Mayewski, P. A., and Dibb, J. E.: Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971-94, J. Clim., 12, 2775-2786, doi:10.1175/1520- 0442(1999)012<2775:MTTITH>2.0.CO;2, 1999.
    • Shroder, J. F., Bishop, M. P., Copland, L., and Sloan, V. F.: Debriscovered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan, Geogr. Ann. A, 82, 17-31, doi:10.1111/j.0435- 3676.2000.00108.x, 2000.
    • Sorg, A., Kaab, A., Roesch, A., Bigler, C., and Stoffel, M.: Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming, Sci. Repoatrs, 5, 1-6, doi:10.1038/srep08228, 2015.
    • Tahir, A. A., Chevallier, P., Arnaud, Y., and Ahmad, B.: Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2275-2290, doi:10.5194/hess-15-2275-2011, 2011.
    • Thies, H., Nickus, U., Mair, V., Tessadri, R., Tait, D., Thaler, B., and Psenner, R.: Unexpected response of high Alpine Lake waters to climate warming., Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 7424-7429, 2007.
    • Thies, H., Nickus, U., Tolotti, M., Tessadri, R., and Krainer, K.: Evidence of rock glacier melt impacts on water chemistry and diatoms in high mountain streams, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 96, 77-85, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2013.06.006, 2013.
    • Vonder Mühll, D., Nötzli, J., and Roer, I.: PERMOS - A comprehensive monitoring network of mountain permafrost in the Swiss Alps, Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Permafr., 1869-1874, doi:10.5167/uzh4288, 2008.
    • Vuichard, D. and Zimmermann, M.: The 1985 catastrophic drainage of a moraine-dammed lake, Khumbu Himal, Nepal: cause and consequences, Mt. Res. Dev., 7, 91-110, doi:10.2307/3673305, 1987.
    • Waller, R. I., Murton, J. B., and Kristensen, L.: Glacierpermafrost interactions: Processes, products and glaciological implications, Sediment. Geol., 255-256, 1-28, doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.02.005, 2012.
    • Wang, B. and French, H.: Permafrost on the Tibet plateau, China, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 14, 255-274, 1995.
    • Watanabe, T., Kameyama, S., and Sato, T.: Imja glacier deadice melt rates and changes in a supra-glacial lake, 1989-1994, Khumbu Himal, Nepal: danger of lake drainage, Mt. Res. Dev., 15, 293-300, 1995.
    • Westermann, S., Østby, T. I., Gisnås, K., Schuler, T. V., and Etzelmüller, B.: A ground temperature map of the North Atlantic permafrost region based on remote sensing and reanalysis data, The Cryosphere, 9, 1303-1319, doi:10.5194/tc-9-1303- 2015, 2015.
    • Williams, M. W., Knauf, M., Caine, N., Liu, F., and Verplanck, P. L.: Geochemistry and source waters of rock glacier outflow, Colorado Front Range, Permafrost Periglac., 17, 13-33, doi:10.1002/ppp.535, 2006.
    • Winiger, M., Gumpert, M., and Yamout, H.: KarakorumHindukush-western Himalaya: assessing high-altitude water resources, Hydrol. Process., 19, 2329-2338, doi:10.1002/hyp.5887, 2005.
    • Wirz, V., Gruber, S., Purves, R. S., Beutel, J., Gärtner-Roer, I., Gubler, S., and Vieli, A.: Short-term velocity variations at three rock glaciers and their relationship with meteorological conditions, Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 103-123, doi:10.5194/esurf-4-103- 2016, 2016.
    • Woo, M., Kane, D. L., Carey, S. K., and Yang, D.: Progress in permafrost hydrology in the new millennium, Permafrost Periglac., 19, 237-254, doi:10.1002/ppp.613, 2008.
    • Wu, Z., Barosh, P. J., Hu, D., Wu, Z., Peisheng, Y., Qisheng, L., and Chunjing, Z.: Migrating pingos in the permafrost region of the Tibetan Plateau, China and their hazard along the Golmud-Lhasa railway, Eng. Geol., 79, 267-287, doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.02.003, 2005.
    • Xie, A., Ren, J., Qin, X., and Kang, S.: Reliability of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in the Himalayas/Tibetan Plateau, J. Geogr. Sci., 17, 421-430, doi:10.1007/s11442-007-0421-2, 2007.
    • Yang, M., Nelson, F. E., Shiklomanov, N. I., Guo, D., and Wan, G.: Permafrost degradation and its environmental effects on the Tibetan Plateau: A review of recent research, Earth-Sci. Rev., 103, 31-44, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.07.002, 2010.
    • Yang, Z., Ou, Y. H., Xu, X., Zhao, L., Song, M., and Zhou, C.: Effects of permafrost degradation on ecosystems, Acta Ecol. Sin., 30, 33-39, doi:10.1016/j.chnaes.2009.12.006, 2010.
    • Yang, X., Zhang, T., Qin, D., Kang, S., and Qin, X.: Characteristics and changes in air temperature and glacier's response on the north slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Mt. Everest), Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 43, 147-160, doi:10.1657/1938-4246-43.1.147, 2011.
    • Yao, T., Thompson, L., Yang, W., Yu, W., Gao, Y., Guo, X., Yang, X., Duan, K., Zhao, H., Xu, B., Pu, J., Lu, A., Xiang, Y., Kattel, D. B., and Joswiak, D.: Different glacier status with atmospheric circulations in Tibetan Plateau and surroundings, Nat. Clim. Chang., 2, 663-667, doi:10.1038/nclimate1580, 2012.
    • Yatagai, A., Kamiguchi, K., Arakawa, O., Hamada, A., Yasutomi, N., and Kitoh, A.: APHRODITE: Constructing a long-term daily gridded precipitation dataset for Asia based on a dense network of rain gauges, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 1401-1415, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00122.1, 2012.
    • Yin, Z.-Y., Zhang, X., Liu, X., Colella, M., and Chen, X.: An Assessment of the Biases of Satellite Rainfall Estimates over the Tibetan Plateau and Correction Methods Based on Topographic Analysis, J. Hydrometeorol., 9, 301-326, doi:10.1175/2007JHM903.1, 2008.
    • Zhai, P., Zhang, X., Wan, H., and Pan, X.: Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China, J. Clim., 18, 1096-1108, doi:10.1175/JCLI-3318.1, 2005.
    • Zhang, T.: Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: An overview, Rev. Geophys., 43, RG4002, doi:10.1029/2004RG000157, 2005.
    • Zhang, T., Baker, T. H. W., Cheng, G., and Wu, Q.: The Qinghai-Tibet Railroad: A milestone project and its environmental impact, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 53, 229-240, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2008.06.003, 2008.
    • Zhang, Y.: Spatio-temporal features of permafrost thaw projected from long-term high-resolution modeling for a region in the Hudson Bay Lowlands in Canada, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 118, 542- 552, doi:10.1002/jgrf.20045, 2013.
    • Zhisheng, A., Kutzbach, J. E., Prell, W. L., and Porter, S. C.: Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the HimalayaTibetan plateau since Late Miocene times, Nature, 411, 62-66, doi:10.1038/35075035, 2001.
    • Zimov, S. A., Schuur, E. A. G., and Chapin, F. S.: Climate change. Permafrost and the global carbon budget, Science, 312, 1612- 1613, doi:10.1126/science.1128908, 2006.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article