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Douglas, JA
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: LB2300
This application for PhD by publication is the culmination of a series of investigations concerning the development of a conceptual model of student satisfaction with their higher education (HE) experience. The five core papers that sequentially contributed to knowledge are presented within this application, together with their supporting papers. In particular, the investigations focussed on what were the main determinants of student satisfaction utilising critical incident technique (CIT). New determinants of quality within higher education were identified as a result, namely motivation, praise/reward, social inclusion, usefulness, value for money and fellow student behaviour. The resultant research papers have made an original contribution to knowledge in the area of quality in HE. \ud The rationale for using CIT to gather and analyse data was to investigate its effectiveness in triangulating with existing methods used in HE to measure student satisfaction. The CIT research was triggered by previous research that had developed and tested a student satisfaction questionnaire. CIT is used to gather data that is defined as ‘rich’. It is ideal when researching new areas. The questionnaire was based on the work of Sasser et al (1978) who proposed that service delivery consisted of a ‘bundle’ of goods and services, which incorporated distinct elements (the facilitating goods, the sensual service and the psychological service). The CIT survey instrument subsequently adopted, built upon the seminal work by Flanagan (1954) who developed it to assess the psychological impact (on pilots) when learning to fly. Both survey instruments were used to identify the determinants of quality in higher education from a student’s point of view and ultimately what was considered “critically critical” (Edvardsson & Nilsson-Wittel, 2004). \ud An evaluation of teaching quality was carried out as part of this series during the mid-2000 era, and a comparison made of some of the existing measurement methods used at the time, such as student feedback questionnaires and peer review practices. A review of the potential use of mystery students in higher education was also carried out. This particular study highlighted the lack of confidence (by teaching personnel) in the existing methods for evaluating teaching quality as well as some mistrust of the concept of using mystery students in a classroom setting. \ud A multi-method approach was chosen for this series of studies, because of the merits in using both quantitative and qualitative studies to generate data. Using such an approach provided a sequential method of analysing and presenting the data for this cross-sectional study. The initial student satisfaction questionnaire was a quantitative instrument and gathered data on importance and satisfaction ratings (using a five-point Likert scale) which were further analysed used quadrant analysis. \ud The CIT survey was largely qualitative in nature and gathered written narratives from students about their positive and negative experiences; the resulting data used interpretive thematic analysis to identify key themes and any resulting patterns that could be coded quantitatively for input into the statistical software package SPSS. Each piece of research was underpinned by the existing literature at the time; this has inevitably progressed since then. CIT has been widely used in the service sector and additional determinants of quality within higher education have been identified within the current literature. A number of papers presented with this application have generated academic discussion in the field and these are evidenced by the number of citations for the applicant’s work. Moreover, the applicant’s additional supplementary papers also appended for background information have also been cited within the academic literature. \ud The findings can be applied to teaching practice and within policy documents that support front-line teaching (and other) personnel in higher education.
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    • Douglas, J., McClelland, R. and Davies, J. (2008) The Development of a Conceptual Model of
    • 16(1) pp. 19-35.......................................................................................................................... 22
    • Douglas, J., McClelland, R., Davies, J. & Sudbury, L., 2009. Using critical incident technique
    • (CIT) to capture the voice of the student. The TQM Journal, 21:4, pp. 305-318. .................... 23
    • Douglas, J. A., Douglas, A., McClelland, R. J. & Davies, J., 2014. Understanding student
    • on-line January 2014................................................................................................................. 24
    • Critical reflection and overview ............................................................................................ 31
    • Table 1. Redefined Student - perceived determinants of Quality in Higher Education .............. 32
    • Implications for the future.................................................................................................... 34
    • 1. Douglas, Jacqueline*, Alexander Douglas and Barry Barnes (2006) Measuring Student Satisfaction at a UK University, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 251-267. ISSN 0968-4883
    • 2. Douglas, Jacqueline and Alexander Douglas (2006) Evaluating Teaching Quality, Quality in Higher Education, Vol.12, No.1 (ISSN 1353-8322)
    • 3. Douglas, Jacqueline, Robert McClelland and John Davies (2008) The Development of a Conceptual Model of Student Satisfaction with their Experience in Higher Education, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol.16, No.1. pp. 19-35. ISSN: 0968-4883
    • 4. Douglas, Jacqueline, Robert McClelland, John Davies and Lynn Sudbury (2009) Using critical incident technique (CIT) to capture the voice of the student, The TQM Journal, Vol.21, No.4, pp. 305-318. ISSN 1754-2731 / ISBN 978-1-84855-798-7 (Awarded Emerald Literati Network 2010 Outstanding Paper Award)
    • 5. Douglas, Jacqueline, Alexander Douglas, Robert McClelland and John Davies (2014) Understanding student satisfaction and dissatisfaction - an interpretive study in the HE context, Studies in Higher Education. DOI number is 10.1080/03075079.2013.842217 (online 9th January 2014)
    • 1. Blackmore, J. & Douglas, A. (2003a) “Towards a “better” university: the use of the EFQM Model in a UK Higher Education Institution” The Asian Journal on Quality, December, 4 (2). ISSN:1598-2688
    • 2. Blackmore, J. & Douglas, A. (2004a) The Use of the EFQM Excellence Model in a Higher Education Institute, Journal of Management Systems, 16 (3), 11-24, (USA) ISSN: 1041 - 2808
    • 3. Blackmore, J.A. (2004) A critical evaluation of academic internal audit, Quality Assurance in Education, 12 (3), 128-135, ISSN: 0968-4883
    • 4. Blackmore, J.A. (2005) A critical evaluation of peer review via teaching observation within Higher Education, International Journal of Education Management, 19 (3), 218-232. ISSN: 0951-354X
    • 5. Douglas, A and Douglas, J (2006) Campus Spies? Using mystery students to evaluate university performance, Educational Research, 48 (1), 111-119. ISSN: 0013-1881.
    • 6. Blackmore, J. & Douglas, A. (2003b) Towards a "better" University: the use of the EFQM Model in a UK Higher Education Institution, Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Quality Management and Organisational Development (QMOD), Paris, France.
    • 7. Douglas, A. , Blackmore, J. and Barnes, B. (2004) Measuring Student Satisfaction at a UK University, Proceedings of the 7th Quality Management and Organisational Development (QMOD) Conference, Monterrey, Mexico, pp. 97-112. ISBN: 970-773-015-3
    • 8. Blackmore, J (2005) The development of a conceptual model of student satisfaction with their experience in higher education, 8th Quality Management and Organisational Development Conference, Palermo, Italy, pp. 237 - 246.
    • 9. Douglas, J., McClelland, R. and Davies, J. (2006) The development of a conceptual model of student satisfaction with their experience in higher education, 9th ICIT Conference, (April) Hong Kong.
    • 10. Douglas, A., Douglas, J. and Barnes, B. (2006) The Student as Customer? Proceedings of the 9th Toulon - Verona Conference on Excellence in Services, Paisley, UK, September, pp.291-303. (ISBN 1-903978-33-5)
    • 11. Douglas, J., McClelland, R., Sudbury, L. and Davies, J. (2008) Comparing Critical Incident Technique and Survey Questionnaires as a means of Collecting Student Feedback, Proceedings of the 11th Toulon-Verona Conference on Excellence in Services, Florence, Italy ISBN 978-88-8453-855-0.
    • 1. Douglas, J.A. (2008) Comparing Critical Incident Technique and Survey Questionnaires as a means of gathering student feedback in HE, presented at the Faculty of Business and Law Research Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, (June) Liverpool, UK.
    • 2. Blackmore, J. & Douglas, A. (2004b) Mystery students - Has their time come? Presented at The Learning and Teaching Conference, University of Hertfordshire.
    • 2.1 Quality
    • Quality has been variously defined by Juran and Gryna (1988); Crosby (1979) and Parasuraman
    • Deming, W. E., 1982. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
    • 1. Douglas, Douglas and Barnes, (2006) Measuring student satisfaction at a UK university, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol.14, No.3, pp.251-267 (www.emeraldinsight.com/0968-4883.htm)
    • 2. Douglas and Douglas, (2006) Evaluating Teaching Quality, Quality in Higher Education, Vol.12, No.1, pp.3-13 (http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13538320600685 024)
    • 3. Douglas, McClelland and Davies (2008) The development of a conceptual model of student satisfaction with their experience in higher education, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol.16, No.1, pp.19-35 (www.emeraldinsight.com/0968-4883.htm)
    • 4. Douglas, McClelland, Davies and Sudbury (2009) Using critical incident technique (CIT) to capture the voice of the student, The TQM Journal, Vol.21, No.4, pp.305-318 (www.emeraldinsight.com/1751-2731.htm)
    • 5. Douglas, Douglas, McClelland and Davies (2015) Understanding student satisfaction and dissatisfaction: an interpretive study in the UK higher education context, Studies in Higher Education, Vol.40, No.2, pp.329-349 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.842217)
    • Davies, J., Douglas, A. and Douglas, J. (2007) The Effect of Academic Culture on the Implementation of the EFQM excellence Model in UK Universities, Quality Assurance in Education, 15 (6), 382 - 401. ISSN: 0968-4883
    • Douglas, J and Douglas, A, (2006) Evaluating Teaching Quality, Quality in Higher Education, 12 (1) 3- 13. ISSN: 1353-8322
    • Douglas, J, Douglas, A, and Barnes, B (2006) Measuring Student Satisfaction at a UK University, Quality Assurance in Education, 14 (3), 251-267. ISSN: 0968-4883
    • Douglas, A and Douglas, J (2006) Campus Spies? Using mystery students to evaluate university performance, Educational Research, 48 (1), 111-119. ISSN: 0013-1881.
    • Blackmore, J.A. (2005) A critical evaluation of peer review via teaching observation within Higher Education, International Journal of Education Management, 19 (3), 218-232. ISSN: 0951-354X
    • Blackmore, J, and Douglas, A. (2004) The Use of the EFQM Excellence Model in a Higher Education Institute, Journal of Management Systems, 16 (3), 11-24, (USA) ISSN: 1041 - 2808
    • Blackmore, J.A. (2004) A critical evaluation of academic internal audit, Quality Assurance in Education, 12 (3), 128-135, ISSN: 0968-4883
    • Blackmore, J and Douglas, A (2003) “Towards a “better” university: the use of the EFQM Model in a UK Higher Education Institution” The Asian Journal on Quality, December, 4 (2). ISSN:1598-2688
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