LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Levy, Roger René (2001)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: LB
This study examines the balance of HEI-school responsibilities for secondary PGCE courses, and extends previous work in this dimension of partnership by moving beyond the perspective of HEI course managers through content analysis of HEI course documentation and interviews with HEI course leaders. The views of mentor, school ITT co-ordinator, university tutor, and student participants in these courses were also examined, through a questionnaire survey across ten HEI-school partnerships. More specifically, the aim has been to examine the balance of HEI-school responsibility for: course planning and organisation; the assessment of students' teaching; and the assessment of students' work other than teaching. Here, as in other aspects of the study, the experience of participants has been analysed at the level of the overall course, and from the perspective of each of the participant roles. A second, more extensive, aim of the study has been to establish the nature of these courses, particularly within a framework of what may be ailed 'technical', 'interpretive', and 'critical' conceptions of teaching This model has also been extended to the importance placed upon the foci of students' reflection, and other aspects of the nature of teachers', tutors' and students' work on PGCE courses. The implications of these course characteristics in terms of the forms of teacher professionalism associated with them provides a complementary theme which runs through the study. The latter part of this thesis includes a survey of four School Centred Initial Teacher Training Schemes. Differences between data from the HEI documentation, and the perspectives of HEI course leaders, and the teacher, tutor, and student participants have been examined. The association between the balance of HEI-school responsibilities and the nature of courses was also examined, with particular reference to the evident association of shared HEI-school course responsibilities with course experiences, which may support the development of extended forms of professionalism.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • A. HEI-school partnership.............................................................................................................3 /. Definitions..........................................................................................................................3 ii. The partners in ITT.............................................................................................................8 Hi. The development of partnership................................................................................. ........8 iv. School-centred ITT schemes............................................................................................ 13
    • B. Conceptions of teaching......................................................................................................... 15 ;. How conceptions of teaching may be categorised............................................................. 16 a) The role of teachers...................................................................................................................^ b) Forms of knowledge.................................................................................................................. 18 c) Teacher thinking........................................................................................................................21 d) A competence-based approach..................................................................................................24 e) Perspectives and epistemologies...............................................................................................26
    • CThe nature of students' work with tutors and teachers: mentoring................................................. 33 /. Definitions........................................................................................................................ 33 //'. The development of mentoring......................................................................................... 34 ;/;. Conceptions of mentoring: the early stages of practice following Circular 9/92. ........................ 38 iv. Moving on?.......................................................................................................... ............. 42
    • D. Reflection..............................................................................................................................43 /. Definitions........................................................................................................................ 44 //'. The rise and survival of reflective practice in ITT ..............................................................46 ///'. Conceptions of reflection.................................................................................................. 50
    • E. Taking the research questions forward................................................................................... 53
    • A. The balance of HEI-school responsibility: HEI intentions................ ........................................ 99 ;. Assessment of stuctents........ ............................................. ............................................ 100 //. Content of school-based programmes........................................... ...... ........................... 102 Hi. Other course content...................................................................................................... 104 iv. Courses in general terms................................................................................................ 105 v. Courses overall .............................................................................................................. 106
    • B. The balance of HEI-school responsibility: the experience of respondents............................. 107 ;. The courses overall........................... ............................................................................. 107 //'. The perspective of teachers, tutors and students............................................................ 113 ///'. HEI-school partnerships ................................................................................................. 117
    • C. Differences in, and integration of, course content covered by teachers and by tutors: HEI intentions.......................................................... ............................................................ .119 /. Acknowledgement of problems....................................................................................... 120 Ti. How integration was supported....................................................................................... 122
    • D. Differences in, and integration of, course content covered by teachers and by tutors: the experience of respondents............................................................................................. 124 /'. The courses overall.............................. .......................................................................... 125 a) acknowledgement of problems......................... .......................................................................125 b) how integration was supported................................................................................................. 127 c) the extent to which students' work with teachers and with tutors was integrated .......................... 1 29 //. The perspective of teachers, tutors and students............ ................................................ 130 a) acknowledgement of problems......................................... ...................................................... ..130 b) how integration was supported................................................................................................. 133 c) the extent to which students' work with teachers and with tutors was integrated ......................... 1 34 ....................................._
    • c) elements of the interpretive conception of teaching promoted through teachers' and tutors' contributions to the courses................................................................................................... 163
    • d) elements of the critical conception of teaching promoted through teachers' and tutors' contributions to the courses .................................................................................................... 164
    • e) the nature of'good practice' in students' teaching as promoted through the courses................. 166
    • 0 the nature of the means used to establish students' achievement of competences .................... 170
    • B. The experience of respondents............................................................................................216
    • A. The association of the balance of HEI-school responsibilities in partnerships with other course characteristics................................."..----""-------""""--"-"""---"---.."..-........... 273 /'. Shared partnership............................... ....................................................................... 274
    • B. Forms of professionalism promoted through ITT courses: conceptions of teaching, reflection and other work ..................................................................................................... 317
    • Chart I-A: The balance of HEI-school responsibilities in partnership: The courses overall........................--------.---""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ................................. 108
    • Chart I-B: The balance of HEI-school responsibilities in partnership: .............................................. The experience of teachers and tutors....................................................................... 114
    • Chart I-C: The balance of HEI-school responsibilities in partnership: The experience of students....................................................................................... 116
    • Chart I-D: Mean scores of the balance of responsibility for course planning and organisation: Variation between the HEI-school partnerships.......................................................... 118
    • Chart I-E: The problematic nature of integrating students' work with teachers and with tutors: The courses overall.................................................................................................. 126
    • Chart I-F: How the integration of students' work with teachers and with tutors was supported: The courses overall................................................................................................... 128
    • Chart I-G: Differences in the content covered by tutors and by teachers, and extent to which their work with students was integrated: The courses overall................................................................................................... 130
    • Chart I-H: The problematic nature of integrating students' work with teachers and with tutors: The experience of teachers, tutors and students........................................................ 131
    • Chart l-l: How the integration of students' work with teachers and with tutors was supported: The experience of teachers, tutors and students........................................................ 133
    • Chart I-J: The extent to which students' work with teachers and with tutors was integrated: The experience of teachers, tutors and students........................................................ 134
    • Chart III-A: The nature of teachers' and tutors' work with students: HEI intentions for the courses overall ........................................................................212
    • Chart III-B: The nature of teachers' and tutors' work in ITT courses: HEI intentions for teachers and tutors........................................................................ 213
    • Chart III-C: The relative emphasis on training and examining theory: Variation between the intentions of HEIs................................................................... 215
    • Chart III-D: The nature of teachers' and tutors' work with students: The courses overall...................................................................................................217
    • Chart III-E: The nature of teachers' and tutors' work with students: The contribution of teachers and tutors...................................................................... 219
    • Chart III-F: The nature of teachers' and tutors' work with students: The perspective of students....................................................................................... 222
    • Chart III-G: The work of teachers and tutors in examining moral, social or political viewpoints in ITT courses: The perspective of students....................................................................................... 224
    • Chart III-H: The extent to which teachers' and tutors' work with students involved telling them how to deal with specific situations: Variation between the HEI-school partnerships/SCITTs............................................. 225
    • Chart Ill-l: The extent to which teachers' and tutors' work with students involved providing information about the school: Variation between the HEI-school partnerships/SCITTs............................................. 225
    • Chart III-J: The extent to which teachers' and tutors' work with students involved relating practice to theory: Variation between the HEI-school partnerships/SCITTs.............................................226
    • Table I-A: The balance of HEI-school responsibility for the assessment of students HEI intentions......................................................................................................100
    • Table I-B: The balance of HEI-school responsibility for the content of school-based programmes HEI intentions...................................................................................................-..103
    • Table I-C: The balance of HEI-school responsibility for other course content: HEI intentions............................................................................................................ 104
    • Table I-D: The balance of HEI-school responsibility for courses in general terms: HEI intentions..........................................................................................................105
    • Table I-E: The balance of HEI-school responsibility for courses overall: HEI intentions............................................................................................................ 106
    • Table I-F: Statistical significance of variation between teachers' and tutors' perceptions of the balance of HEI-school responsibilities in partnership: The experience of teachers and tutors....................................................................... 114
    • Martin, R.A. and Sheehan, AT. (1982), The role of university staff in schools during practice teaching: expectations of associate teachers', Teacher Education. 12, 1, pp. 78-88.
    • Martin, S. (1994), The mentoring process in pre-service teacher education', School Organisation, 14, 3, pp. 269-277.
    • Martin, S. (1996a), 'Exploring the match between the principles, pedagogy and practice of promoting reflective practice amongst novice mathematics teachers and those associated with helping them in their professional development', Paper presented at the European Educational Research Association Conference. University of Bath, September.
    • Martin, S. (1996b), 'Support and challenge: conflicting or complementary aspects of mentoring novice teachers? Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice. 2, 1, pp. 41-56.
    • Martin, T. (1996), 'Initial teacher training and partnership: a management perspective', in Blake, D., Hanley, V., Jennings, M. and Lloyd M. (Eds.), Researching School-Based Teacher Education. Aldershot, Avebury, pp. 83-92.
    • Mason, J. (1996), 'Linking qualitative and quantitative data analysis', in Bryman, A. and Burgess, R.G. (Eds.), Analyzing Qualitative Data. London, Routledge, pp. 88-110.
    • Mathieson, M. (1995), The recruitment of students from ethnic minorities into teaching: problems and opportunities', Mentoring and Tutoring. 3, 2, pp. 61-64.
    • Maw, J. (1988), 'National curriculum policy: coherence and progression?', in Lawton, D. (Ed.), The National Curriculum. London, Bedford Way Papers, pp. 49-64.
    • Mawer, M. (1996), (Ed.), Mentoring in Physical Education. London, Palmer Press.
    • May, T. (1993), 'Documentary research', in Social Research: Issues. Methods and Process, Buckingham, Open University Press, pp. 133-151.
    • Maynard, T. (1995), 'Mentoring in Initial Teacher Education', paper presented at the European Educational Research Association Conference. University of Bath, September.
    • Maynard, T. (1996), The limits of mentoring: the contribution of the Higher Education tutor to primary student teachers' school-based learning', in Furlong, J. and Smith, R. (Eds.), The Role of Higher Education in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 101-118.
    • Maynard, T. and Furlong, J. (1993), 'Learning to teach and models of mentoring', in Mclntyre, D., Hagger, H. and Wilkin, M. (Eds.), Mentoring: Perspectives on School-Based Teacher Education London, Kogan Page, pp. 69-85.
    • McBride, R. (1995), Teacher Education Policy: Some Issues Arising From Research and Practice. London, Falmer Press.
    • McCall, J. (1988), 'Improving teacher quality: the potential of enhanced partnership between colleges and schools', European Journal of Teacher Education. 11, 2/3, pp. 113-122.
    • McCann, K., Clark, D., Taylor, R. and Mortice, K. (1984), Telephone screening as a research technique', Sociology. 18, p. 393-402.
    • McClelland, V.A. (1989), 'Reflections on a changing concept of teacher education', in McClelland, V.A. and Varma, V.P (Eds.), Advances in Teacher Education. London, Routledge, pp. 19-33.
    • McCulloch, G. (1997), 'Privatising the past? History and education policy in the 1990s', British Journal of Educational Studies. 45, 1, 69-82.
    • McCulloch, G., Helsby, G., and Knight, P (2000), The Politics of Professionalism: Teachers and the Curriculum. London, Continuum.
    • McCulloch, M and Fidler, B., (1994), (Eds.), Improving Initial Teacher Training? New Roles for Teachers. Schools and Higher Education. Harlow, Longman.
    • McCulloch, M. and Lock, N.D. (1992), 'Student teachers' school experience: the managerial implications for school', Cambridge Journal of Education. 22, 1, pp. 69-78.
    • McCulloch, M., (1994), 'Improving initial teacher training? Policy into action 1984-1994', in McCulloch, M and Fidler, B., (Eds.), Improving Initial Teacher Training? New Roles for Teachers. Schools and Higher Education. Harlow, Longman, pp. 3-13.
    • McCulloch, M., (1994), 'Integrating mentorship into higher education institutions: implementation issues', in McCulloch, M and Fidler, B., (Eds.), Improving Initial Teacher Training? New Roles for Teachers, Schools and Higher Education, Harlow, Longman, pp. 156-168.
    • McCulloch, M., (1994), Teacher competences and their assessment', in McCulloch, M and Fidler, B., (Eds.), Improving Initial Teacher Training? New Roles for Teachers. Schools and Higher Education. Hartow, Longman, pp. 129-140.
    • McDiarmid, G. (1987), The development of a conceptual-empirical theory of curriculum1 , Interchange. 18, 3, pp. 38-62.
    • McDiarmid, G. W. (1993), 'Changes in beliefs about learners among participants in eleven teacher education programs', in Calderhead J and Gates P. (Eds.), Conceptualising Reflection in Teacher Development. London, Falmer Press, pp. 113-143. 393
    • McNamara, (1990b), The NCu: an agenda for research', British Educational Research Journal. 16, 30, pp. 225-35.
    • McNamara, D, (1990b), 'Research on teacher training in a changing society: the case of Britain in the late 1980s', in Tisher, R.P and Wideen, M.F (Eds.), Research in Teacher Education, London, Palmer Press, pp. 121-139.
    • McNamara, D. (1976), 'On returning to the chalk face: theory not into practice', British Journal of Teacher Education. 2, 2, pp. 147-160.
    • McNamara, D. (1984), 'Research in teacher education: the past decade and future trends', in Alexander R.J., Craft, M. and Lynch, J. (Eds.), Change in Teacher Education. Context and Provision since Robbins, London, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 284-299.
    • McNamara, D. (1990a), 'Research on teacher thinking: Its contribution to educating student teachers to think critically', Journal of Education for Teachers. 16, 2, pp. 113-128.
    • McNamara, D. (1993), Student Teachers' Classroom Practice: The Influence of their Tutors and Mentors: Report of a Mentor Training Project Supported by the Paul Hamlyn Foundation. London, Paul Hamlyn Foundation.
    • McNamara, D. (1994), The influence of tutors and mentors upon primary student teachers' classroom practice', in Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 107-122.
    • McNamara, D. (1996), The university, the academic tradition and education', in Furlong, J. and Smith, R. (Eds.), The Role of Higher Education in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 179-194.
    • McNamara, D. and Desforges, C. (1978), The social sciences, teacher education and the objectification of craft knowledge', British Journal of Teacher Education. 4, 1, pp. 17-36.
    • McNamara, D.R. and Desforges, C.W. (1979), 'Professional studies as a source of theory', in Alexander, R.J. and Wormald, E. (Eds.), Professional Studies for Teaching. Guildford, SRHE, University of Surrey, pp. 46-60.
    • McNamara, D.R. and Ross, A.M. (1982), The BEd Degree and its Future, Lancaster School of Education, University of Lancaster.
    • McPartland, M. (1995), 'On being a geography mentor1 . Teaching Geography: 20, 1.
    • McPherson, A. and Raab, C. (1988), Governing Education: A Sociology of Policy Since 1945. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.
    • McQualter, J.W. (1985), 'Becoming a teacher: preservice teacher education using personal construct theory', Journal of Education for Teaching, 11,2, pp. 177-186.
    • McSharry, G. and Reid, D. (1997), 'Establishing criteria for success in "Classroom Management" and "Subject Application" competences in the teaching of science', Mentoring and Tutoring. 5, 1, pp. 38-47.
    • McWilliam, E. (1992), Towards advocacy: post-positivist directions for progressive teacher educators', British Journal of Sociology of Education. 13, 1, pp. 3-17.
    • Measor, L. (1985), 'Interviewing: a strategy in qualitative research', in Burgess, R.G. (Ed.), Strategies of Educational Research. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 55-78.
    • Mee, E.G. (1960), The education course in the three-year training of teachers', Education for Teaching. 52, pp. 50-58.
    • Megginson, D. and Clutterbuck, D. (1995), Mentoring in Action: A Practical Guide for Managers. London, Kogan Page.
    • Meighan, R (1978), 'Consultation and educational ideologies: some issues raised by research into children's judgements of teaching performance', in Barton, L. and Meighan, R. (Eds.), Sociological Interpretations of Schooling and Classrooms: A Reappraisal, Nafferton, Driffield, pp. 101-114.
    • Meighan, R. (1986), A Sociology of Education. Eastbourne, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2ndedn.
    • Menter, I. and Pollard, A. (1989), The implications of the National Curriculum for reflective practice in initial teacher education1 , Westminster Studies in Education. 12, pp. 31-42.
    • Menter, I. and Whitehead, J. with Bangs, J., Ring, K. and Stainton, R. (1995), Learning the Lessons: Reform in Initial Teacher Training. Bristol, University of the West of England and the National Union of Teachers.
    • Mercer, N. (1994), 'Classrooms, language and communication', in Moon, B. and Mayes, A.S. (Ed.s), Teaching and Learning in the Secondary School. London, Routledge, pp. 172-186.
    • Merrett, F. and Wheldall, K. (1993), 'How do teachers learn to manage classroom behaviour? A study of teachers' opinions about their initial training with special reference to classroom behaviour management', Educational Studies, 19, 1, pp. 91-106.
    • Merson, M. (2000) Teachers and the myth of modernisation1 , British Journal of Education Studies. 48, 2, pp. 155-169.
    • Meyer, J.W. (1986), Types of explanation in the sociology of education', in Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Westport, Connecticut!, Greenwood Press, pp. 341-359.
    • Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage, 2nd edn.
    • Miles, S. and Furlong, J. (1988), Teachers training teachers: an opportunity for a sociological break in transmission?', in Woods, P and Pollard, A. (Eds.), Sociology and Teaching. Beckenham, Groom Helm, pp. 76-91.
    • Miles, S., Barrett, E., Barton, L, Furlong, J. and Whitty, G. (1993), 'Initial teacher education in England and Wales: a topography', Research Papers in Education. 8, 3, pp. 275-304.
    • Miles, S., Everton, T. and Bonnett, M. (1994), 'Primary partnership matters', Cambridge Journal of Education. 24, 1, pp. 49-65.
    • Millar, R. (1985), Training the mind: continuity and change in the rhetoric of school science', Journal of Curriculum Studies. 17, 4, pp. 369-82.
    • Miller, C. (1995), 'In depth interviewing by telephone: some practical considerations', Evaluation and Research in Education. 9, 1, pp. 29-38.
    • Millerson, G. (1964), The Qualifying Associations: A Study in Professionalization. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • Millins, P.K.C. (1974), 'Looking to the future: new directions in the professional training of teachers', in Warwick, D. (Ed.), New Directions in the Professional Training of Teachers. Lancaster, University of Lancaster, pp. 55-59.
    • Millwater, J. and Yarrow, (1997), The mentoring mindset: a constructivist perspective?', Mentoring and Tutoring. 5, 1, pp. 14-24.
    • Mitchell, CJ. (1983), 'Case and situation analysis', Sociological Review. 31, 2, pp. 187-211.
    • Mokhtari, K., Yelkin, D., Bull, K. and Montgomery, D. (1996), 'Portfolio assessment in teacher education: impact on preservice teachers' knowledge and attitudes', Journal of Teacher Education. 47, 4, pp. 245-252.
    • Molenaar, N.J. (1982), 'Response-effects of "Formal" characteristics of questions', in Dijkstra, W. and Van der Zouwen, J. (Eds.), Response Behaviour and the Survey Interview, New York, Academic Press.
    • Monaghan J. and Lunt, N. (1992), 'Mentoring: person, process, practice and problems', British Journal of Educational Studies. 40, 3, pp. 248-263.
    • Moon, B. (1998), The English Exception? International Perspectives on the Initial Education and Training of Teachers. Occasional Paper No. 11, London, UCET.
    • Moon, B. and Shelton Mayes, A. (1995a), 'Frameworks, competences and quality: open learning dimensions to initial teacher education and training', in Bines, H. and Welton, J.M. (Eds.), Managing Partnership in Teacher Training and Development. London, Routledge, pp. 91-105.
    • Moon, B., Murphy, P and Raynor, J. (1989), (Eds.), Policies for the Curriculum. London, Hodder and Stoughton.
    • Moore, (1993), 'Finding strength through partnership', English and Media Magazine. 28
    • Moore, A. (1996), '"Masking the fissure": some thoughts on competences, reflection and "closure" in initial teacher education', British Journal of Educational Studies. 44, 2, pp. 200- 211.
    • Moore, M. and Kremer-Hayon, L. (1978), 'Changes in attitudes towards education during teacher training', International Review of Education. 24, 4, pp. 511-513.
    • Moore, R. (1994), 'Professionalism, expertise and control in teacher training', in Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 28-41.
    • Moran, A. and Dallat, J. (1995), 'Promoting reflective practice in initial teacher training', International Journal of Educational Management. 9, 5, 20-26.
    • Morrison, A. and Mclntyre, D. (1973), Teachers and Teaching, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 2nd edn.
    • Mortimore, P. and Mortimore, J. (1998), The political and the professional in education: an unnecessary conflict', Journal of Education for Teaching. 24, 3, pp. 51-62.
    • Moser, C.A. and Kalton, G. (1971), Survey Methods in Social Investigation. Aldershot, Dartmouth.
    • Mountford, B. (1993), 'Mentoring and initial teacher education', in West, P. and BurnhamWest, J. (Eds.), Mentoring in the Effective School, Harlow, Longman, pp. 29-39.
    • Moxham, J. (1995), 'An evaluation of Nene College's PGCE pilot project 1993-94', in Blake, D., Hartley, V., Jennings, M. and Lloyd, M. (Eds.), Researching School-Based Teacher Education, Aldershot, Avebury, pp. 231-243.
    • Moyser G. and Wagstaffe, M. (1987), (Eds.), Research Methods for Elite Studies, London, Alien and Unwin.
    • Musgrave, P.W. (1966), 'Constant factors in the demand for technical education, 1860-1960', British Journal of Educational Studies. 14, 2, pp. 173-187.
    • Musgrove, F. and Taylor, P.M. (1965), Teachers and parents' conception of the teacher's role', British Journal of Educational Psychology, 35, 2, pp. 171-9.
    • Naidoo, B. (1989), 'Past masters', Times Educational Supplement. London, Times Newspapers, 20th October.
    • Naish, M. (1990), Teacher education today', in Graves, N. (Ed.), Initial Teacher Education. London, Kogan Page, pp. 26-44.
    • Naysmith, J. and Palma, A. (1998), Teachers talking, teachers reflecting: how do teachers reflect on their practice? A case study', Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice. 4,1, pp. 65-76.
    • Newman, S. (1999), 'Constructing and critiquing reflective practice', Educational Action Research. 7, 1, pp. 145-161.
    • Ne3w,mppa.n2.9S7.-J3.10(1.996), 'Reflection and teacher education', Journal of Teacher Education, 22,
    • Newton, L.D. (1994), 'New teachers reflecting on their training', in Reid, I., Constable, C. and Griffiths, R. (Eds.), Teacher Education Reform. Current Research. London, Paul Chapman, pp. 188-196.
    • Nias, J. (1985), Teaching and the self, in Holly, M.L.H. and McLoughlin, C. (Eds.), Perspectives on Teacher Professional Development. Palmer Press, Lewes, pp 155-171.
    • Nias, J. (1987a), Seeing Anew: Teachers' Theories Of Action. Geelong, Deakin University.
    • Nias, J. (1987b), 'Learning from difference; a collegia! approach to change', in Smyth, J. (Ed.), Educating Teachers, Lewes, Palmer Press, pp. 137-152.
    • Nias, J. (1991), 'Primary teachers talking1 , in Walford, G. (Ed.), Doing Educational Research. London, Routledge, pp. 147-165.
    • Nichol, J., (1993), The Exeter school-based PGCE', Journal of Education for Teachers. 19, 3, pp 303-322.
    • Nilssen, V., Gudmundsdottir, S. and Wangsmocapellan, V. (1998), 'Mentoring the teaching of multiplication', European Journal of Teacher Education, 21, 1, pp. 29-45.
    • Nisbet, J. (1986), 'Appraising for improvement', in Appraising Appraisal: Report of a Conference Organised by the British Educational Research Association. Birmingham, British Educational Research Association, pp. 10-19.
    • Nixon, J. (1989), 'Determining in-service needs within specific contexts', British Journal of In Service Education. 15, 3, pp. 150-155.
    • Nixon, J., Martin, J., McKeown, P. and Ranson, S. (1997), Towards a learning profession: changing codes of occupational practice within the new management of education', British Journal of Sociology of Education. 18, 1, pp. 5-28.
    • Noel, K. (2000), '"Experiencing the theory": constructivism in a presevice teacher preparation program', Teachers and Teaching. 6, 2, pp. 183-196.
    • North, R.C., Holsti, O.R., Zaninovich, M.G. and Zines, D.A. (1963), Content Analysis: A Handbook with Applications for the Study of International Crises. Stanford, USA, Northwestern University Press.
    • Norwich, B. (1985), 'Aspects of the professional socialization of teachers', in Francis, H. (Ed.), Learning to Teach: Psychology in Teacher Training. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 37-54.
    • NUT (1971), The Reform of Teacher Education: A Policy Statement. London, National Union of Teachers.
    • NUT (1981), Initial and In-Service B.Ed Degrees. London, National Union of Teachers.
    • NUT, (1969), The Future of Teacher Education. London, National Union of Teachers.
    • O'Donoghue, T.A. (1994), Transnational knowledge transfer and the need to take cognisance of contextual realities: a Papua New Guinea case study', Educational Review, 46, 1, pp. 73-88.
    • O'Hear, A. (1988), Who Teaches the Teachers?. London, The Social Affairs Unit.
    • O'Keefe, D. J. (1990a), 'Equality and childhood, education and the myths of teacher training', in Graves, N. (Ed.), Initial Teacher Education. London, Kogan Page, pp. 74-92.
    • O'Keefe, D.J. (1990b), The Wayward Elite: A Critigue of British Teacher Education. London, Adam Smith Institute.
    • Oberg, A. (1985), 'Curriculum study and professional practice: how are they linked?1 , Journal of Curriculum Studies. 17, 2, pp. 207-209.
    • Oberg, A. (1986), 'Using construct theory as a basis for research into teachers' professional development', Journal of Curriculum Studies. 19, 1, pp. 55-65.
    • OECD, (1972), The Changing R6le of the Teacher and its Implications - General Report. Paris, OECD.
    • OFSTED, (1993a), The Articled Teacher Scheme: September 1990 - July 1992. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1993b), The Licensed Teacher Scheme: September 1990 - July 1992. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1995a), Partnership: Schools and Higher Education in Partnership in Secondary Initial Teacher Training, London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1995b), School-Centred Initial Teacher Training 1993-94. London, HMSO.
    • OFSTED, (1996), The Gloucestershire ITT Partnership. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997a), Chiltem Training Group. (English), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997b), Chiltem Training Group. (Geography), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997c), Chiltem Training Group. (Mathematics), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997d), Chiltem Training Group. (Science), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997e), Coastal Confederation Essex (History). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997f), Newman Catholic Partnership. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997g). North East Essex Coastal Confederation (English). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997h). North East Essex Coastal Confederation (Geography), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997i), North London Consortium (Science). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997J), Mid-Essex Consortium (Art). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997k), North Bedfordshire Consortium. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (19971), North East Essex Coastal Confederation (English). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997m), North London Consortium (Science). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997n), North West Kent Teacher Trainers. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997o), Smallpeice Teacher Training Programme North East Consortium. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997p), Smallpeice Teacher Training Programme North London Consortium. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997q), The Douav Martyrs Consortium (Geography). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997r), The Douav Martyrs Consortium (History), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997s), The Douav Martyrs Consortium (Religious Education). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997t), The Mill Hill Consortium. London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1997u), The West Midlands Consortium (Physical Education). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1998a), North East Essex Coastal Confederation (Geography - Reinspection). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1998b), The Annual Report of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools: Standards and Quality in Education: 1996/97. London, The Stationery Office.
    • OFSTED, (1999a), South West Teacher Training, (Science Re-Inspection), London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (1999b), Titan Partnership (English). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (2000a), Chiltem Training Group. (Geography). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (2000b), Urban Learning Foundation (English). London, OFSTED.
    • OFSTED, (2000c), Urban Learning Foundation (Science). London, OFSTED.
    • Ogren, G. (1953), Trends in English Teachers Training from 1800: a Survey and an Investigation. Stockholm, Esselte Aktiebolag.
    • Olson, J. (1992), Understanding Teaching, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.
    • Olson, J.K. (1980), Teacher constructs and curriculum change', Journal of Curriculum Studies. 12, 1, pp. 1-11.
    • Olson, J.K. (1982), 'Dilemmas of supervision: teacher perspectives', Teacher Education. 20, pp. 74-81.
    • Olson, J.K. (1988), 'Making sense of teaching', Journal of Curriculum Studies. 20, 2, pp. 162- 169.
    • Oppenheim, A.M. (1992), Questionnaire Design. Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London, Pinter Publishers.
    • Oriand, L. (2001), 'Reading a mentoring situation: one aspect of learning to mentor1 , Teaching and Teacher Education. 17, pp. 75-78.
    • Osier, A. (1997), The Education and Careers of Black Teachers: Changing Identities, Changing Lives, Buckingham, Open University Press.
    • Osterman, K.F and Kottkamp, R.B. (1993), Reflective Practice for Educators: Improving Schooling Through Professional Development. London, Sage Publications.
    • Oversby, J. (1996), 'School-based supervision in school based PGCE science programme', paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. University of Lancaster, September.
    • Ozga, J. (1992), 'Introduction: teaching, professionalism and work', in Ozga, J. (Ed.), Schoolwork: Approaches to the Labor Process of Teaching. Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    • Ozga, J. (1995), 'Deskilling a profession: professionalism, deprofessionalism and the new managerialism', in Busher, H and Saran, R. (Eds.), Managing Teachers as Professionals. London, Kogan Page, pp. 21-37.
    • Ozga, J. and Lawn, M. (1981), Teachers. Professionalism, and Class: Study of Organized Teachers. Lewes, Palmer Press.
    • Papouli-Tzelepi, P. (1992), Teaching practice curriculum in teacher education: a proposal outline', in European Journal of Teacher Education. 16, 2, pp. 147-162.
    • Parkinson J. (1994), 'School-based teacher training and the mentor1 , Education in Chemistry: 31,6, pp 154-156.
    • Parsons, J.M., Graham, N. and Honess, T. (1983), 'A teacher's implicit model of how children learn', British Educational Journal. 9, 1, pp. 91-101.
    • Patrick, H. and Reid, D. (1980), 'Universities and the PGCE: an historical perspective', in Alexander, R. and Whittaker, J. (Eds.), Developments in PGCE Courses, Guildford, SRHE, pp. 6-16.
    • Patrick, H., Bernbaum, G, and Reid, K. (1982), The Structure and Process of Initial Teacher Education Within Universities in England and Wales (the SPITE Report). Leicester, University of Leicester School of Education.
    • Payne, D.L. (1951), The Art of Asking Questions. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
    • Peirson, E.G. (1971), 'Chairman's Address: ATCDF, Dec, 1970, "At the crossroads'", Education for Teaching, 84, pp. 2-14.
    • Pell, D. (1997), The role of the Professional Tutor1 , in Mclntyre, D. (Ed.), Teacher Education Research in a New Context: The Oxford Internship Scheme, London, Paul Chapman, pp. 162-188.
    • Pendry, A. (1990), The process of change', in Benton, P (Ed.), The Oxford Internship Scheme. London, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, pp. 35-47.
    • Pendry, A. (1992), 'Mentoring in teacher education', in Lucas, P. and Watts R. (Eds.), Meeting the Challenge: Preparing Tomorrow's History Teachers. University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Standing Conference of History Teacher Educators in the United Kingdom, pp. 24-36.
    • Pendry, A. (1997), The pedagogical thinking and learning of history student teachers', in Mclntyre, D. (Ed.), Teacher Education Research in a New Context: The Oxford Internship Scheme. London, Paul Chapman, pp.76-98.
    • Pendry, A. and Husbands, C. with Arthur, J. and Davison, J. (1998), History Teachers in the Making: Professional Learning, Buckingham, Open University Press.
    • Pendry, A. and Mcintyre, D. (1996), Trying to make profiling useful for teacher education: the Oxford experience", in Hustler, D. and Mclntyre, D. (Eds.), Developing Competent Teachers, London, David Fulton, pp. 56-71.
    • Pendry, A., (1994), 'Partnership: the Oxford internship scheme', in Williams, A.E. (Ed.), Perspectives on Partnership, London, Falmer Press, pp. 63-80.
    • Penny, A.J., Harley, K.L. and Jessop, T.S. (1996), Towards a language of possibility: critical reflection and mentorship in initial teacher training', Teachers and Teaching: Theory into Practice. 2, 1, pp. 57-69.
    • Percy, K.A. (1972), 'Lecturers' objectives and the college curriculum', Education for Teaching. 49, pp. 76-81.
    • Perkin, H. (1983), The teaching profession and the game of life', in Gordon, P., Perkin, H., Sockett, H. and Hoyle, E. (Eds.), Is Teaching A Profession?. London, Bedford Way Papers 15, Institute of Education, University of London, pp. 12-25.
    • Perkin, H. (1989), The Rise of Professional Society, London, Routledge.
    • Perrenoud, P (1996), The teaching profession between proletarianization and professionalization: two models of change', Prospects. 26, 2, pp. 509-529.
    • Perry, C. (2000), 'Mentoring as partnerships in collaboration: one school's story of professional development', Mentoring and Tutoring. 8, 3, pp. 141-150.
    • Perry, P. (1987), The training of teachers for better schools', European Journal of Teacher Education. 10, 1, pp. 17-21.
    • Peters, R.S. (1966), Ethics and Education. London, George Alien and Unwin.
    • Peters, R.S. (1969), 'A recognisable philosophy of education", in Peters, R.S. (Ed.), Perspectives on Plowden, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, pp. 1-20.
    • Peters, R.S. (1977), Education and the Education of Teachers, Routledge, London.
    • Peters, R.S. (1981), Essays on Education. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • Petty, M.F. and Hogben, D. (1980), 'Explorations of semantic space with beginning teachers: a study of socialization into teaching', British Journal of Teacher Education. 6, pp. 51-61.
    • Phelan, A.M. (1997), 'When the mirror crack'd: the discourse of reflection in pre-service
    • Pring, R. (1996), The changing context of higher education's contribution to initial teacher education', in Furlong, J. and Smith , R. (Eds.), The Role of Higher Education in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 8-22.
    • Pritchard, A. (1993), 'Developmental reporting for professional practice', Mentoring. 1, 2, pp. 21-27.
    • Proctor, A. (1994), 'Supervision strategies and their application in the school context', in Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 136-150.
    • Proctor, K.A. (1993), Tutors' professional knowledge of supervision and the implications for supervision practice', in Calderhead J and Gates P. (Eds.), Conceptualising Reflection in Teacher Development. London, Palmer Press, pp. 93-112.
    • Proctor, N. (1984), Towards a partnership with schools', Journal of Education for Teachers 10, 3, pp. 219-231.
    • Pugarch, M.C. and Johnson, L.J. (1990), 'Developing reflective practice through structured dialogue', in Clift, R.T., Houston R.W. and Pugarch, M.C. (Eds.), Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education: An Analysis of Issues and Programs. New York, Teachers' College Press, pp. 186-207.
    • Pultorak, E.G. (1996), 'Following the developmental process of reflection in novice teachers: three years of investigation', Journal of Teacher Education, 47, 4, pp. 283-291.
    • Purvis, J. (1985), 'Reflections upon doing historical documentary research from a feminist perspective', in Burgess, R.G. (Ed.), Strategies of Educational Research. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 179-205.
    • Quicke, J. (1989), The "New Right" and education', in Moon, B., Murphy, P. and Raynor, J. (Eds.), Policies for the Curriculum. London, Hodder and Stoughton, pp. 74-88.
    • Quicke, J. (1996), The reflective practitioner and teacher education: an answer to critics', Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice. 2, 1, pp. 11-22.
    • Quicke, J. (1998), Towards a New Professionalism for 'New Times': some problems and possibilities', Teacher Development. 2, 3, pp. 323-338.
    • Rafferty, F. (1992), 'Laying plans for a hijack', Times Educational Supplement. London, Times Newspapers, 18th September.
    • Ranson, S. (1980), 'Changing relations between the centre and the locality in education', Local Government Studies. 6, 6, pp. 3-23.
    • Ranson, S. (1993), 'Markets or democracy for education?', British Journal of Educational Studies, 41, 4, pp. 333-353.
    • Ranson, S. (1995), Theorising education policy', Journal of Education Policy. 10, 4, pp. 427- 448.
    • Raynor, J. (1972), The Curriculum in England, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    • Rea, J. and Parkinson, A. (1999), 'Professionals in a few months? Trainee teachers' perceptions of their profession', Journal of In-Service Education. 25, 1, pp. 151-160.
    • Reid, D. (1994a), 'A philosophy of partnership', Mentoring and Tutoring, 2, 2, pp. 35-36.
    • Reid, D. (1994b), Towards empowerment: an approach to school-based mentoring', in Field, B. and Field, T. (Eds.), Teachers as Mentors. London, Falmer Press, pp. 78-95.
    • Reid, D. (1999), 'Investigating teachers' perceptions of the r6le of theory in initial teacher training through Q methodology', Mentoring and Tutoring. 7, 3, pp. 241-255.
    • Reid, D. and Patrick, H. (1980), The structure and process of initial teacher education within universities in England and Wales', in Alexander, R. and Whittaker, J. (Eds.), Developments in PGCE Courses. Guildford, SRHE, pp. 26-41.
    • Reid, I. (1993), The lost opportunity? The relative failure of British teacher education in tackling the inequality of schooling', in Verma, G.K. (Ed.), Ineguality and Teacher Education: An International Perspective. London, Falmer Press, pp. 108-120.
    • Reid, I. (1994), The reform: change or transformation of initial teacher training?', in Reid, I., Constable, C. and Griffiths, R. (Eds.), Teacher Education Reform. Current Research. London, Paul Chapman.
    • Reid, I. and Caldwell, J. (1997), 'Why did secondary PGCE students choose teaching as a career?', Research in Education, 58, pp. 46-58.
    • Reid, I. and Parker, F. (1995), 'Whatever happened to the sociology of education in teacher education', Educational Studies. 21, 3, pp. 395-413.
    • Reid, I., Constable, C. and Griffiths, R. (1994), (Eds.), Teacher Education Reform. Current Research. London, Paul Chapman.
    • Reid, K. (1985), 'Recent Research and developments in teacher education in England and Wales', in Hopkins D. and Reid, K. (Ed.s), Rethinking Teacher Education, Beckenham, Groom Helm, pp. 19-37.
    • Reid, W. (1986), 'Curriculum theory and curriculum change: what can we learn from history?', Journal of Curriculum Studies. 18, 2, pp. 159-166.
    • Reiman, A.J. (1999), The evolution of the social roletaking and guided reflection framework in teacher education: recent theory and quantitative synthesis of research', Teaching and Teacher Education. 15, pp. 597-612.
    • Renshaw, P. (1968), 'A re-appraisal of the college of education curriculum', Education for Teaching. 75, pp. 28-34.
    • Renshaw, P. (1971), 'A curriculum for teacher education', in Burgess, T. (Ed.), Dear Lord James: A Critique of Teacher Education. Harmondsworth, Penguin, pp. 78-105.
    • Renshaw, P. (1973), 'A flexible curriculum for teacher education', in Lomax, D.E. (Ed.), The Education of Teachers in Britain. London, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 219-242.
    • Reynolds, D. (1998), Teacher effectiveness', presentation to the Teacher Training Agency, London, Teacher Training Agency
    • Reynolds, J. (1993), 'School-based teacher training: business opportunity, distraction or educational catalyst?', Link. 14, 1, pp. 1,2, and 6-7.
    • Reynolds, M. and Salters, M. (1995), 'Models of competence and teacher training', Cambridge Journal of Education. 25, 3, pp. 349-359.
    • Reynolds, M. and Salters, M. (1998), The reflective teacher and the Teacher Training Agency', Journal of Further and Higher Education. 22, 2, pp. 193-200.
    • Rhodes G. (1994), 'Managing the beginner teacher in school', in Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 69-80.
    • Richards, L. and Richards, T. (1991), The transformation of qualitative method: computational paradigms and research processes', in Fielding, N.G. and Lee, R.M. (Eds.), Using Computers in Qualitative Research. London, Sage, pp. 38-53.
    • Richardson, J.A.S. (1968), The content of three-year courses in the principles of education', Education for Teaching. 76, pp. 53-60.
    • Richardson, V. (1990), The evolution of reflective teaching and teacher education', An Analysis of Issues and Programs, in Clift, R.T., Houston, W.R. and Pugach, M.C. (Eds.), Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education: An Analysis of Issues and Programs. New York, Teachers' College Press, pp. 3-19.
    • Richert, A.E. (1992), The content of student teachers' reflections within different structures for facilitating the reflective process', in Munby, H. and Russell, T. (Eds.), Teachers and Teaching: From Classroom to Reflection. London, Palmer Press, pp. 170-191.
    • Ring, K. (1995) t 'Implications for schools of recent changes in initial teacher education: a National Union of Teachers viewpoint', in Griffiths, V. and Owen, P. (Eds.), Schools in Partnership. London, Paul Chapman, pp. 139-147.
    • Rivalland, D., (1993), The trouble with school-based training', Managing Schools. 2, 9, pp. 16-18.
    • Roberts, A. (1998), The androgynous mentor: bridging gender stereotypes in mentoring', Mentoring and Tutoring. 6, 1/2, pp. 19-30.
    • Roberts, A. (1999), 'An empirical study to examine for androgynous mentoring behaviour in the field of education', Mentoring and Tutoring. 7, 3, pp. 203-222.
    • Roberts, M. (1994), Letter: 'Changing the course of History', Times Educational Supplement. London, Times Newspapers, 24th June.
    • Robertson, J.C. (1990), Letter: 'Insular history', Times Educational Supplement. London, Times Newspapers, 4th May.
    • Robinson, M. (1994), The mentoring scheme of Warwick University and its school partners - one year on', in Field, B. and Field, T. (Eds.), Teachers as Mentors. London, Falmer Press, pp. 135-150.
    • Robinson, M. (1999), 'Initial teacher education in a changing South Africa: experiences and challenges', Journal of Education for Teaching. 25, 3, pp. 101-201.
    • Robinson, P. (1971), The student view1 , in Burgess, T. (Ed.), Dear Lord James: A Critique of Teacher Education, Harmondsworth, Penguin, pp. 47-58.
    • Robinson, R. and Robinson, J. (1999), 'Learning to live with inconsistency in student entitlement and partnership provision', Mentoring and Tutoinq, 7, 3, pp. 223-239.
    • Robson, J., Cox, A., Bailey, B. and Humphreys, J. (1995), 'A new approach to teacher training: an evaluation of a further and higher education partnership', Journal of Further and Higher Education, 19, 2, pp. 79-92.
    • Roehler, L., Duffy, G., Herrmann, B., Conley, M. and Johnson, J. (1988), 'Knowledge structures as evidence of the personal: bridging the gap from thought to practice', Journal of Curriculum Studies, 20, pp. 155-165.
    • Rose, D. and Sullivan, O. (1993), Introducing Data Analysis For Social Scientists. Buckingham, Open University Press.
    • Rosenberg, M. (1968), The Logic of Survey Analysis, New York, Basic Books.
    • Rosenberg, M. (1984), The meaning of relationships in social-survey analysis', in Bulmer, M. (Ed.), Sociological Research Methods, London, Macmillan, pp. 65-81, 2nd edn.
    • Rosenholtz, S.J. (1991), Teachers' Workplace. New York, Teachers' College Press.
    • Rosenholtz, S.J. and Kyle, S.J. (1984), Teacher isolation: barrier to professionalism', American Educator. Winter, pp. 10-15.
    • Rosie, A.J. and Fuller, M.I. (1997), 'Social theory, rationization and school-based teacher education1 , in Fuller, M.I. and Rosie, A.J. (Eds.), Teacher Education and School Partnerships. Lampeter, The Edwin Mellen Press, pp. 1-18.
    • Ross, A. (1990a), The control of teacher education: A General Teaching Council for England and Wales', in Graves, N. (Ed.), Initial Teacher Education. London, Kogan Page, pp. 124- 143.
    • Ross, A. (1990b), The universities and the BEd degree', in Thomas, J.B. (Ed.), British Universities and Teacher Education: A Century of Change, Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 58- 72.
    • Ross, D.D. (1990), 'Programmatic structures for the preparation of reflective teachers', in Clift, R.T., Houston R.W. and Pugarch, M.C. (Eds.), Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education: An Analysis of Issues and Programs. New York, Teachers' College Press, pp. 97-118.
    • Ross, W. and Hannay, L (1986), Towards a critical theory of reflective inquiry' Journal of Teacher Education. 37, 4, pp. 9-15.
    • Roth, R. (1994), The university can't train teachers? Transformation of a profession', Journal of Teacher Education. 54, 4, pp. 261-268.
    • Rothenberg, J.J., McDermott, P.C. and Gormley, K.A. (1993), 'A comparison of studentteacher and supervisor perception of student teaching', Journal of Education for Teaching, 19, 3, pp. 272-277.
    • Rothera, H., Howkins, S. and Hendry, J. (1991), The role of the subject mentor in further education', British Journal of In-service Education. 17, 2, pp. 126-137.
    • Rothwell, S., Nardi, E. and Mclntyre, D. (1994), The perceived values of the role activities of mentors and curricular, professional and general tutors', in Reid, I., Constable, C. and Griffiths, R. (Eds.), Teacher Education Reform, Current Research. London, Paul Chapman, London, Paul Chapman, pp. 19-39.
    • Roy, W. (1983), Teaching Under Attack. London, Croom Helm.
    • Rubinson, R and Ralph, J. (1986), 'Methodological issues in the study of educational change' in Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, pp. 275-304.
    • Ruddock, J. (1985), 'A case for case records?: A discussion of some aspects of Lawrence Stenhouse's work in case study methodology', in Burgess, R.G. (Ed.), Strategies of Educational Research. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 101-119.
    • Ruddock, J. (1991), The landscape of consciousness and the landscape of action: tensions in teacher education1, British Educational Research Journal. 17, ,
    • Ruddock, J. (1992b), 'Universities in partnership with schools and school systems: les liaisons dangereuses?', in Hargreaves, A. and Fullan, M. (Eds.), Teacher Development and Educational Change. London, Falmer Press, pp. 194-212.
    • Ruddock, J. and Sigsworth, A. (1985), 'Partnership supervision: or Goldhammer revisited', in Hopkins, D. and Reid, K. (Eds.), Rethinking Teacher Education. London, Groom Helm, pp. 153-171.
    • Russ, J. (1995), Values and reflective practice: a necessary relationship?', Paper presented at the European Educational Research Association Conference, University of Bath, September.
    • Russell, C. (1963), Tradition and change in the concept of the ideal teacher1, in Fereday, G.Z.F. and Lauwerys, J.A. (Eds.), Yearbook of Education 1963: The Education and Training of Teachers. London, Evans Brothers, pp. 16-25.
    • Russell, T. (1988), 'From pre-service teacher education to first year of teaching: a study of theory and practice1, in Calderhead, J. (Ed.), Teachers' Professional Learning. London, Falmer Press, pp. 13-34.
    • Russell, T. (1993a), 'Critical attributes of a reflective teacher: is agreement possible?1, in Calderhead J and Gates P. (Eds.), Conceptualising Reflection in Teacher Development. London, Falmer Press, pp. 144-153.
    • Russell, T. (1993b), Teachers' professional knowledge and the future of teacher education", in Giiroy, P and Smith, M. (Eds.), JET Paper 1: International Analyses of Teacher Education, pp. 205-215.
    • Rutter, J. (1990), Letter: Thatcher's agenda', Times Educational Supplement. London, Times Newspapers, 27th April.
    • Selman M (1988) 'Schon's gate is square: but is it art?', in Grimmett, P.P. and Erickson, G.L. (Eds.)', Reflection in Teacher Education. New York, Teachers' College Press, pp. 177-192.
    • Sexton, S. (1987), Our Schools - A Radical Policy. London, Institute for Economic Affairs.
    • Sharpies, D. (1984), The growth of CNAA involvement in teacher education', in Alexander R.J., Craft, M. and Lynch, J. (Eds.), Change in Teacher Education. Context and Provision since Robbins. London, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 71-83.
    • Shattock, M. and Berdahl, R. (1985), The British University Grants Committee 1919-83', in McNay I. and Ozga, J. (Eds.), Pol icy-Making in Education: The Breakdown of Consensus, Oxford, Pergamon Press, pp. 173-194.
    • Shaughnessy, J. (1996), 'Developing a curriculum for reflective practice in initial teacher education', paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. University of Lancaster, September.
    • Shaw, B. (1987), Teacher training: the misdirection of British teaching', in O'Keefe, D. (Ed.), The Wayward Curriculum, London, Social Affairs Unit.
    • Shaw, R. (1992a), 'Can mentoring raise achievement in schools?', in Wilkin, M. (Ed.), Mentoring in Schools. London, Kogan Page, pp. 82-95.
    • Shaw, R. (1992b), 'School-based training: the view from the schools', Cambridge Journal of Education. 22, 3, pp. 363-375.
    • Shaw, R. (1992c), Teacher Training in Secondary Schools. Kogan Page, London.
    • Shaw, R. (1995a), 'Developing teacher education in a secondary school', in Bines, H. and Welton, J.M. (Eds.), Managing Partnership in Teacher Training and Development. London, Routledge, pp. 33-44.
    • Shaw, R. (1995b), 'New partnerships in initial teacher education: the secondary school perspective', Head Teachers Review. Spring, pp. 8-9.
    • Shaw, R. (1996), Teacher Training in Secondary Schools. Kogan Page, London, 2nd edn.
    • Shilling, H., Williams, A. and Woodhouse, J. (1995), 'Partnership in physical education', in Williams, A. (Ed.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Education. London, David Fulton, pp. 83-93.
    • Shipman, M. (1985), The contribution of research to decision-making in education', in Shipman, M. (Ed.), Educational Research: Principles, Policies and Practices, Lewes, Palmer Press, pp. 7-16.
    • Shipman, M.D. (1967), Theory and practice in the education of teachers', Educational Research. 9, pp. 208-212.
    • Shulman, L.S. (1986), Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching', Educational Researcher, 15, 1, pp. 4-14.
    • Shulman. L.S. (1987), 'Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform', Harvard Educational Review. 57, pp. 1-22.
    • Sidgwick, S., Mahony, P. and Hextall. I. (1994), 'A gap in the market? A consideration of market relations in teacher education', British Journal of Sociology, 15, 4, pp. 467-479.
    • Sikes P., Measor L. and Woods, P (1985), Teacher Careers: Crises and Continuities, London, Palmer Press.
    • Sikes, P (1992), 'Imposed change and the experienced teacher1 , in Fullan, M. and Hargreaves, A. (Eds.), Teacher Development and Educational Change. London, Palmer Press, pp. 36-55.
    • Sikes, P. (1994), 'A question of quality? Reflections on the "New Partnership" in initial teacher education', Mentoring. 1, 3, pp. 13-20.
    • Sikes, P (1995), 'Equal opportunities in school-based ITE: a view from one secondary course', Mentoring and Tutoring. 3, 1, pp. 38-46.
    • Sikes, P.J. (1991), '"Nature took its course?" Student teachers and gender awareness', Gender and Education, 3, 2, pp. 145-162.
    • Silver, H. (1990), Education. Change and the Policy Process. Lewes, Palmer Press.
    • Silverman, D. (1985), Qualitative Methodology and Sociology. Aldershot, Gower.
    • Simon, B. (1985), Does Education Matter?. London, Lawrence and Wishart.
    • Simon, B. (1988), Bending the Rules. London, Lawrence and Wishart.
    • Simon, B. (1990), The study of education as a university subject1 , in Thomas, J.B. (Ed.), British Universities and Teacher Education: A Century of Change. Lewes, Palmer Press, pp. 125-142.
    • Simons, H (1988), 'Process evaluation in schools', in Lacey, C. and Lawton, D. (Eds.), Essays in Evaluation and Accountability. London, Methuen, pp. 114-144.
    • Sinkinson, A. (1997), The changing beliefs of trainee teachers', Mathematics Education Review, 8, pp. 1-15.
    • Siraj-Blatchford, I. (1993), 'Social justice and teacher education in the U.K.', in Verma, G.K. (Ed.), Inegualitv and Teacher Education: An International Perspective. London, Palmer Press, pp. 89-99.
    • Stephens, P. (1996), Essential Mentoring Skills: A Practical Handbook. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes.
    • Stephenson, J. (1994), The anatomy of a development.', in Yeomans, R. and Sampson, J. (Eds.), Mentorinq in the Primary School, London, Palmer Press, pp. 19-31.
    • Stephenson, J. and Sampson, J. (1995), 'What are the essential workplace pre-requisites for successful mentorship?', Mentorinq and Tutoring. 2, 3, pp. 14-17.
    • Stiasny, M. (1995), 'Mentoring in partnership: frameworks and challenges', in Stiasny, M. and Barnes, T. (Eds.), Mentoring: Making it Work, Southampton, Bassett Press, pp. 109-114.
    • Stidder, G. and Hayes, S. (1998), 'Mentoring - rhetoric and reality', Mentoring and Tutoring. 5, 3, pp. 57-64.
    • Stirling, R. (1990), 'A double vision: the experiences of a Head and Principal', in Booth, M.B., Furlong, V.J. and Wilkin, M. (Eds.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Training. London, Cassell, pp. 166-171.
    • Stodolsky, S.S. and Grossman, P.L. (1995), The impact of subject matter on curricular activity: an analysis of five academic subjects', American Educational Research Journal. 32, pp. 227-249.
    • Stoeker, R. (1991), 'Evaluating and rethinking case study', Sociological Review. 39, pp. 88-112.
    • Stoiber, K.C. (1991), 'Effect of technological and reflective preservice instruction on pedagogical reasoning and problem solving', Journal of Teacher Education. 42, 2, pp. 131- 139.
    • Stones, E. (1975), 'How long is a piece of string? (Problems in evaluating teaching practice)', in SRHE (Ed.), How Long is a Piece of String?: Research into the Evaluation of Teaching Practices. London, Society for Research into Higher Education, pp. 3-13.
    • Stones, E. (1994), 'Reform in teacher education: the power and the pedagogy1 , Journal of Teacher Education. 45, 4, pp. 310-318.
    • Stronach, I. (1989), 'A critique of the "new assessment": from currency to carnival?', in Simons H. and Elliott, J. (Eds.), Rethinking Appraisal and Assessment, Milton Keynes, Open University Press, pp. 158-177.
    • Stufflebeam, D.L. (1971), Educational Evaluation and Decision Making, mimeo.
    • Sudman, S. and Presser, N.M. (1982), Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
    • Swanwick, J. (1990), The necessity of teacher education,' in Graves, N. (Ed.), Initial Teacher Education. London, Kogan Page, pp. 93-108.
    • Sweetman, J. (1992), 'History in the unmaking', in Education Guardian, London, The Guardian, 10th November.
    • Sweetman, J. (1994), 'National Curriculum: English to be offered a carrot or two', Education Guardian. London, The Guardian, 29th November.
    • Sykes, W. and Hoinville, G. (1985), Telephone Interviewing on a Survey of Social Attitudes, London, Social and Community Planning Research.
    • Taba, H. (1962), Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York, Harcort, Brace and World.
    • Tabachnick, B.R. and Zeichner, K.M. (1984), The impact of the student teaching experience on the development of teaching perspectives', Journal of Teacher Education, 35,6, pp. 28-36.
    • Tabachnick, B.R. and Zeichner, K.M. (1991a), Issues and Practices in Inquiry-Oriented Teacher Education, London, Falmer Press.
    • Tabachnick, B.R. and Zeichner, K.M. (1991b), 'Reflections on reflective teaching', in Tabachnick, B.R. and Zeichner, K.M. (Eds.), Issues and Practices in Inguiry-Oriented Teacher Education, London, Falmer Press, pp. 1-21.
    • Talbert. J.E. and McLaughin, M.W. (1994), Teacher professionalism in local school contexts', American Journal of Education. 102, pp. 123-153.
    • Talbot, C. (1991), Towards school based training', School Organisation, 11, 1, pp. 87-97.
    • Tann, S. (1993), 'Eliciting student teachers' personal theories', in Calderhead, J. and Gates, P. (Eds.), Conceptualising Reflection in Teacher Development, London, Falmer Press, pp. 53-69.
    • Tann, S. (1994), 'Supporting the student teacher in the classroom', in Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 94-106.
    • Taylor, D. (1995), 'A school based view of school based teaching', in National Primary Teacher Education Conference. Occasional Paper 1. York, University College of Ripon and York, pp. 18-23.
    • Taylor, L.C. (1971), Resources for Learning, Harmondsworth, Penguin, Middlesex.
    • Taylor, M. (1995), 'Partnership', in Glover, D. and Mardle, G. (Eds.), The Management of Mentoring: Policy Issues. London, Kogan Page, pp. 98-114.
    • Taylor, P.M. (1970), How Teachers Plan Their Courses, Slough, NFER.
    • Taylor, W. (1962), The Secondary Modem School, London, Faber and Faber.
    • Taylor, W. (1969), (Ed.), Society and the Education of Teachers. London, Faber and Faber.
    • Taylor, W. (1978), Research and Reform in Teacher Education. Windsor, NFER.
    • Taylor, W. (1980), 'Professional development or personal development', in Hoyle, E. and Megarry, J. (Eds.), World Yearbook of Education, 1980: the Professional Development of Teachers, London, Kogan Page, pp. 327-339.
    • Taylor, W. (1990), The control of teacher education: the council for the accreditation of teacher education1 , in Graves, N. (Ed.), Initial Teacher Education. London, Kogan Page, pp. 109-123.
    • Taylor, W. (1991), 'Ideology, accountability and improvement in teacher education', Evaluation and Research in Education. 5, 1 and 2, pp. 57-66.
    • Taylor, W. (1994), 'Quality assurance', in Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 161-173.
    • Teitel, L. (1994), 'Can school-university partnerships lead to the simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education?', Journal of Teacher Education. 45, 4, pp. 245-252.
    • Terrell, C. (1990), 'Practical school experiences: who teaches the student teacher?', in Booth, M.B., Furlong, V.J. and Wilkin, M. (Eds.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Training. London, Cassell, pp. 153-165.
    • Tesch, R. (1990), Quantitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools. London, Falmer Press.
    • Tesch, R. (1991), 'Software for qualitative researchers: analysis needs and program capabilities', in Fielding, N.G. and Lee, R.M. (Eds.), Using Computers in Qualitative Research. London, Sage, pp. 6-37.
    • Thomas, J.B. (1990), 'Day training college to department of education', in Thomas, J.B. (Ed.), British Universities and Teacher Education: A Century of Change, Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 19-38.
    • Thomas, L. and Wood, K. (1996), 'Whose framework? School mentors' different understandings of what it takes to learn to teach and what it takes to teach to teach', paper presented at Exploring Futures in Initial Teacher Education: First International Symposium. Institute of Education, University of London, September.
    • Thompson, A.G. (1984), The relationship of teachers' conceptions of teaching of mathematics and mathematic teaching instructional practice', Educational Studies in Mathematics. 15, pp. 105-127.
    • Thompson, M. (1989), 'Appraisal and equal opportunities', in Evans, A. and Tomlinson, J. (Eds.), Teacher Appraisal: A Nationwide Approach. London, Jessica Kingsley, pp. 102-116.
    • Tibbie J.W. (1971), The organisation and supervision of school practice', in Tibbie J.W. (Ed.), The Future of Teacher Education. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 100-110.
    • Tickle, L. (1987), Learning Teaching. Teaching Teaching: A Study of Partnership in Teacher Education, Lewes, Falmer Press.
    • Tickle, L. (1989), 'New teachers and the development of professionalism', in Holly, M.L.H. and McLoughlin, C.S. (Eds.), Perspectives on Teachers' Professional Development. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 93-115.
    • Tickle, L. (1993), The wish of Odysseus? New teachers' receptiveness to mentoring', in Mclntyre, D, Hagger, H, and Wilkin, M., (Eds.), Mentoring: Perspectives on School-Based Teacher Education London, Kogan Page, pp. 54-67.
    • Tickle, L. (1995), The first year of teaching as a learning experience, in Bridges, D. and Kerry, T. (Eds.), Developing Teachers Professionally. London, Routledge, pp. 79-92
    • Tiegland, J.J. (1966), The relationship between measured teacher attitude change and certain personality characteristics', Journal of Educational Research. 60, 2, pp. 84-88.
    • Tight, M. (1996), 'University typologies re-examined', Higher Education Review. 28, 1, pp. 57-77.
    • Tillema, H. and Veenman, S. (1987), 'Conceptualizing training methods in teacher education', International Journal of Educational Research, 11, pp. 519-529.
    • Tillema, H. H. (1998), 'Stability and change in student teachers' beliefs about teaching', Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 4, 2, pp. 217-228.
    • Tippins, D.J., Tobil, K.G. and Hook, K. (1993), 'Ethical decisions at the heart of teaching: Making sense from a constructivist perspective', Journal of Moral Education. 22, 3, pp. 221-240.
    • Tom, A. (1985), 'Inquiring into inquiry-oriented teacher education', Journal of Teacher Education. 36, 5, pp. 35-44.
    • Tom, A. (1987), 'Replacing pedagogical knowledge with pedagogical questions', in Smyth, J. (Ed.), Educating Teachers. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 9-17.
    • Tomley, D. (1993), 'Individual action planning in initial teacher training', British Journal of InService Education. 19, 2, pp. 41-49.
    • Tomlinson, J. (1995), 'Professional development and control: a General Teaching Council', in Bines, H. and Welton, J.M. (Eds.), Managing Partnership in Teacher Training and Development. London, Routledge, pp. 175-188.
    • Tomlinson, P- (1985), Training intelligently skilled teachers', in Francis, H. (Ed.), Learning to Teach: Psychology in Teacher Training. Lewes, Palmer Press, pp. 102-118.
    • Tomlinson, P. (1995a), 'Can competence profiling work for effective teacher preparation? Part 1 General Issues', Oxford Review of Education. 21, 2, 179-194.
    • Tomlinson, P- (1995b), Understanding Mentoring: Reflective Strategies for School-Based Teacher Preparation. Buckingham, Open University Press.
    • Tomlinson, P (1999), 'Conscious reflection and implicit learning in teacher preparation. Part II: implications for a balanced approach', Oxford Review of Education. 25, 4, pp. 533-544.
    • Tomlinson, S. (1996), Teacher education for a multicultural Britain', in Craft, M. (Ed.), Teacher Education in Plural Societies: An International Review. London, Palmer Press, pp. 27-44.
    • Tooley, J. (1993), 'Equality of educational opportunity without the state' Studies in Philosophy of Education. 12, pp. 153-163.
    • Totterdeil, M. and Lambert, D. (1998), The professional formation of teachers: a case study in reconstructing initial teacher education through an evolving model of partnership in training and learning', Teacher Development. 2, 3, pp. 351-371.
    • Trim, P.R.J. (2001), 'An analysis of a partnership arrangement between an institution of Further Education and an institution of Higher Education', Journal of Further and Higher Education. 25, 1, pp. 107-116.
    • Tripp, D.H. (1987), Teachers, journals and collaborative research', in Smyth, J. (Ed.), Educating Teachers. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 179-191.
    • Tropp, A. (1957), The School Teachers. London, Heinemann.
    • TTA (1996a), Corporate Plan: 1996-97 Launch. London, Teacher Training Agency.
    • TTA (1996b), Effective Training for Partnership: A Pack of Working Papers on Secondary Partnership from the TTA. London, Teacher Training Agency.
    • TTA (1996c), New Funds to Support School Involvement in Initial Teacher Training. TTA 4/96, London, Teacher Training Agency.
    • TTA (1997a), Career Entry Profiles For Newly Qualified Teachers. London, Teacher Training Agency,
    • TTA (1997b), Training Curriculum and Standards for New Teachers: Proposed New Initial Teacher Training Course Requirements. London, Teacher Training Agency.
    • TTA (2000), Gaining Qualified Teacher Status While You Teach: Information for Candidates about the Graduate and Registered Teacher Programmes 2000/2001. London, Teacher Training Agency.
    • Tula, G. (1986), Democracy in One School, Lewes, Falmer Press.
    • Turner, J. D. (1990), The area training organisations', in Thomas, J.B. (Ed.), British Universities and Teacher Education: A Century of Change. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 39-57.
    • Turner, M. (1993a), 'Complementary role of the headteacher, the mentor and the advisory teacher in induction and school-based teacher training', Mentoring. 1, 2, pp. 30-36.
    • Turner, M. (1993b), The role of mentors and teacher tutors in school-based teacher education and induction', British Journal of In-service Education. 19, 1, pp. 36-45.
    • Tuson, J. (1996), The use of competences in a PGCE (secondary) course', paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. University of Lancaster, September.
    • Tyler, D. (1993), 'English: the experts: the inside story: those in the know speak out', The Guardian. London, The Guardian, 20th April.
    • Tyler, R.W. (1949), Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago, University of Chicago.
    • UCET (1971), The Education of Teachers: Looking to the Future, London, UCET.
    • UCET (1979), The PGCE Course and the Training of Specialist Teachers for Secondary Schools: A Consultative Report, London, UCET.
    • UCET (1992), Response to the Government's Consultation Document "Reform of Initial Teacher Training". London, UCET.
    • UCET (1994), Developing Partnerships in Initial Teacher Education. London, UCET.
    • Useem M. (1995), 'Reaching corporate executives', in Hertz, R. and Imber, J.B. (Eds.), Study Elites Using Qualitative Methods. Calif., Sage, pp. 18-39.
    • Usher, R. and Edwards, R. (1994), Postmodernism and Education. London, Routledge.
    • UWE (1998), Modular Programme for Initial Teacher Training: PGCE Secondary. All Courses. Award Handbook. 1998-99. Bristol, University of the West of England.
    • Valli, L (1990), 'Moral approaches to reflective practice1 , in Clift, R.T., Houston, W.R. and Pugach, M.C. (Eds.), Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education: An Analysis of Issues and Programs. New York, Teachers' College Press, pp. 39-56.
    • Valli, L. (1992), Reflective Teacher Education: Case and Critiques. New York, SUNY Press.
    • Valli, L. (1993), 'Reflective teacher education programs: an analysis of case studies', in Calderhead J and Gates P. (Eds.), Conceptualising Reflection in Teacher Development, London, Falmer Press, pp. 11-22.
    • Van Manen, M. (1977), 'Linking ways of knowing with ways of being practical', Curriculum Inquiry, 6, 3, pp. 205-228.
    • Van Manen, M. (1995), 'On the epistemology of reflective practice', Teachers and Teaching 1,1, pp. 33-50.
    • Voiels, V. (1996), The inner self and becoming a teacher1 , in Steiner, M. (Ed.), Developing the Global Teacher Theory and Practice in Initial Teacher Education. Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books, pp. 153-159.
    • Walker, D. (1993), 'What is British culture?', Times Educational Supplement. London, Times Newspapers, 5th February.
    • Walker, J., Halse, C. and Craigie, D. (1997), 'Expertise of novice teachers in internship', paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference. University of York, September.
    • Walker, R. (1985), 'An introduction to applied qualitative research', in Walker, R. (Ed.), Applied Qualitative Research. Aldershot, Gower, pp. 3-26.
    • Wall. M. and Smith, P. (1993), 'Mentoring and newfy qualified teachers', in Smith, P (Ed.), Mentorinq in the Effective School. Hariow, Longman, pp. 40-65.
    • Wallace, G. (1995), 'Review symposium: "Changing teachers, changing times: teachers' work and culture in the postmodern age", British Journal of Sociology of Education. 16, 1, pp. 109-113.
    • Waller, W. (1932), The Sociology of Teaching. New York, Wiley.
    • Walsh, K. (1988), 'Appraising the teachers: professionalism and control', in Dale, R., Fergusson, R. and Robinson, A. (Eds.), Frameworks for Teaching: Readings for the Intending Secondary Teacher. London, Hodder and Stoughton, pp. 350-369.
    • Wang, J. (2001), 'Contexts of mentoring and opportunities for learning to teach: a comparative study of mentoring practice', Teaching and Teacher Education. 17, pp. 51-73.
    • Wamock, M. (1988), A Common Policy for Education. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    • Watkins, C. (1992), 'An experiment in mentor training', in Wilkin, M. (Ed.), Mentoring in Schools. London, Kogan Page, pp. 97-115.
    • Watkins, C. and Whalley, C. (1993a), 'Mentoring beginner teachers - issues for schools to anticipate and manage', School Organisation. 13, 2, pp. 129-138.
    • Watkins, C. and Whalley, C. (1993b), Mentoring: Resources for School-based Development. Hariow, Longman.
    • Watson D. (1992), The changing shape of professional education' in Bines, H. and Watson, D. (Eds.), Developing Professional Education'. Buckingham, Open University Press, pp. 1- 10.
    • Watson, N. and Fullan, M.G. (1992), 'Beyond school district-university partnerships', in Fullan, M.G. and Hargreaves, A. (Eds.), Teacher Development and Educational Change. London, Falmer Press, pp. 213-242.
    • Watson, T. (1995), 'Partnership in initial teacher education: an HEI consortium solution, paper presented at the European Educational Research Association Conference. University of Bath, September.
    • Watts, R. (1995), 'Partnership in history: the use of site visits', in Williams, A. (Ed.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Education. London, David Fulton, pp. 39-49.
    • Weaver, A. and Atkinson, P. (1994), Microcomputing and Qualitative Data Analysis. Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing.
    • Webb, M. and Wilkinson, M. (1980), Theory into practice or practice into theory', in Alexander R. and Whittaker, J. (Eds.), Developments in PGCE Courses. Guildford, SRHE, pp. 56-61.
    • Webb, R. and Ashton, P.T. (1985), Teacher motivation and the conditions of teaching: a call for ecological reform', in Walker S. and Barton, S. (Eds.), Changing Policies. Changing Teachers. Buckingham, Open University Press, pp. 22-40
    • Weiler, H. (1989), 'Why reforms fail: the politics of education in France and the Federal Republic of Germany', Journal of Curriculum Studies. 22, 1, pp. 291-305.
    • Weir, A.D. (1997), 'Professions under change', in Watson, K., Modgil, C. and Modgil, S. (Eds.), Education Dilemmas: Debate and Diversity: Vol. 1: Teachers, Teacher Education and Training. London, Cassell, pp. 18-26.
    • Wellens, J. (1959), The anti-intellectual tradition in the west', British Journal of Educational Studies, 8. 1, pp. 22-28.
    • Welton, J.M., Howson, J. and Bines, H. (1995), 'Managing partnership', in Welton, J.M. and Bines, H. (Eds.), Partnership in Teacher Training and Development. Routledge, pp. 207- 226.
    • West-Burnham, J. (1993), 'Mentoring and management development', in Smith, P. (Ed.), Mentoring in the Effective School. Harlow, Longman, pp. 124-138.
    • West-Bumham, J. and Smith, P. (1993), 'Mentoring and appraisal', in Smith, P. (Ed.), Mentoring in the Effective School. Harlow, Longman, pp. 93-106.
    • Westwood, L.J. (1967), The role of the teacher -1', Educational Research. 9, 2, pp. 122-134.
    • Westwood, L.J. (1967), The role of the teacher - II', Educational Research. 10, 1, pp. 21-37.
    • Wharfe, L. and Burrows, A. (1990), 'Partnership: a CNAA perspective', in Booth, M.B., Furlong, V.J. and Wilkin, M. (Eds.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Training. London, Cassell, pp. 33-43.
    • Whitbread, N. (1983), 'Distorting teacher training', Forum. 25, 3, pp. 71-73.
    • White, B.C. (2000), 'Pre-service teachers' epistemology viewed through perspectives on problematic classroom situations', Journal of Education and Teaching. 26, 3, pp. 279-305.
    • White, D. (1975), 'Replacing nellies in a teaching model', Education for Teaching. 97, pp. 78- 87.
    • White, J. (1982), The Aims of Education Restated. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • White, J. (1988), Two National Curricula - Baker's and Stalin's. Towards a liberal alternative', British Journal of Educational Studies, 36, 3, pp. 218-31.
    • White, J. (1990), Education and the Good Life: Beyond the National Curriculum. London, Kogan Page.
    • Whitehead, A.N. (1932), Aims in Education. London, Williams and Norgate.
    • Whitehead, J. and Menter, I. with Stainton, R. (1996), The reform of initial teacher training: the fragility of the new school-based approach and questions of quality', Research Papers in Education. 11,3, pp. 307-21.
    • Whiting, C., Whitty, G., Furlong, J. Miles, S. and Barton, L. (1996), Partnership in Initial Teacher Education A Topography. London, Institute of Education, University of London.
    • Whitty, (1985), Sociology and School Knowledge. London, Metnuen.
    • Whitty, G. (1994), The use of competences in teacher education', in Williams, A. (Ed.), Perspectives on Partnership - Secondary Initial Teacher Training. London, Falmer Press, pp. 47-62.
    • Whitty, G. and Wilmott, E. (1991), 'Competence-based teacher education: approaches and issues', Cambridge Journal of Education. 21, 3, pp. 309-318.
    • Whitty, G. and Young, M.F.D. (1977), (Eds.), Explorations in the Politics of School Knowledge. Driffield, Nafferton Books.
    • Whitty, G., Barrett, E., Barton, L., Furlong, J., Galvin, C. and Miles, S. (1992), 'Initial teacher training in England and Wales: A survey of current practices and concerns', Cambridge Journal of Education. 22, 3, pp. 293-306.
    • Whitty, G., Barton, L. and Pollard, A. (1987), 'Ideology and control in teacher education: a review of recent experience in England1, in Popkewrtz, T.S. (Ed.), Critical Studies in Teacher Education: Its Folklore. Theory and Practice. Lewes, Falmer Press, pp. 161-183.
    • Wiener, M.J. (1981), English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial State. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    • Wildman, T.G., Magliaro, S.G., Miles, R.A. and Miles, J. (1992), Teacher mentoring: an analysis of roles, activities and conditions', Journal of Teacher Education. 43, 3, pp. 205- 213.
    • Wildman, T.M., Magliaro, S.G., Niles, J.A. and McLaughin, R.A. (1990), 'Promoting reflective practice among beginning and experienced teachers', in Clift, R.T., Houston, W.R. and Pugach, M.C. (Eds.), Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education: An Analysis of Issues and Programs. New York, Teachers' College Press, pp. 139-162.
    • Wiliam, D. (1994), 'I'm sorry, but there's not enough money for a third practice visit', in Reid, I., Constable, H. and Griffiths, R. (Eds.), Teacher Education Reform: Current Research. London, Paul Chapman, pp. 76-86.
    • Wilkin, M. (1987), The sociology of education and the theory-practice relationship in teacher training', in Woods, P. and Pollard, A. (Eds.), Sociology and the Teacher. London, Groom Helm, pp. 23-53.
    • Wilkin, M. (1990), The development of partnership in the United Kingdom', in Booth, M.B., Furlong, V.J. and Wilkin, M. (Eds.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Training. London, Cassell, pp. 3-23.
    • Wilkin, M. (1992a), (Ed.), Mentoring in Schools. London, Kogan Page.
    • Wilkin, M. (1992b), 'On the cusp: from supervision to mentoring in initial teacher training', Cambridge Journal of Education. 22, 1, pp. 79-90.
    • Wilkin, M. (1992c), The challenge of diversity', Cambridge Journal of Education. 22, 3, pp. 307-322.
    • Wilkin, M. (1993), 'Initial training as a case of postmodern development: Some implications for mentoring', in Mclntyre, D, Hagger, H, and Wilkin, M., (Eds.), Mentorinq: Perspectives on School-Based Teacher Education. London, Kogan Page, pp. 37-53.
    • Wilkin, M. (1994), Ideology and the Initial Teacher Training Curriculum (1969-1990). PhD Thesis no. D063090, Wolfson College and the Department of Education, University of Cambridge.
    • Wilkin, M. (1996a), Initial Teacher Training: the Dialogue of Ideology and Culture. London, Palmer Press.
    • Wilkin, M. (1996b), 'Reasserting professionalism: a polemic', in Furlong, J. and Smith, R. (Eds.), The Role of Higher Education in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page, pp. 139-150.
    • Wilkin, M. (1997), 'Links between schools and HEIs: relationship or partnership? State or process?', discussion paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. University of York, September.
    • Wilkin, M. and Sankey, D. (1994), (Eds.), Collaboration and Transition in Initial Teacher Training. London, Kogan Page.
    • Wilkin, M., Everton, T. and Younger, M. (1996), Teachers as professional partners in ITT', paper presented at Exploring Futures in Initial Teacher Education: First International Symposium. Institute of Education, University of London, September.
    • Wilkin, M., Furlong, J. and Maynard, T. (1997), The Subject Mentor Handbook for the Secondary School. London, Kogan Page.
    • Willey, F.T. and Maddison, R.E. (1971), An Enquiry Into Teacher Training. London, University of London Press.
    • Williams, A. (1993), Teacher perceptions of their needs as mentors in the context of developing school-based initial teacher education', British Educational Research Journal. 19, 4, pp. 407-420.
    • Williams, A. (1995b), (Ed.), Partnership in Secondary Initial Teacher Education. London, David Fulton.
    • Williams, A. (1995c), Supporting student teachers in school-based work: some policy implications', Educational Management and Administration. 23, pp. 188-196.
    • Williams, A. (1997), 'Quality Assessment in initial teacher education: lessons from the 1993/94 OFSTED experience', Higher Education Quarterly. 51, 2, pp. 189-200.
    • Williams, A. and Scares, A. (2000), The role of the higher education tutor in the initial training of secondary school teachers: the views of the key participants', Journal of Education for Teaching. 26, 3, pp. 227-244.
    • Williams, A.E. (1994d), 'Setting the scene', in Williams, A.E. (Ed.), Perspectives on Partnership. London, Falmer Press, pp. 1-11.
    • Williams, A.E. (1994e), The mentor1 , in Williams, A.E. (Ed.), Perspectives on Partnership, London, Falmer Press, pp. 134-150.
    • Williams, A.E. (Ed.), (1994a), Perspectives on Partnership. London, Falmer Press.
    • Williams, A.E., (1994b), 'Roles and responsibilities in initial teacher training - students' views', in Williams, A.E. (Ed.), Perspectives on Partnership. London, Falmer Press, pp. 93-108.
    • Williams, E.A. (1994c), 'Roles and responsibilities in initial teacher training - students views', Educational Studies. 20, 2, pp. 167-180.
    • Williams, E.A. (1995a), 'An English perspective on change in initial teacher education', South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. 23, 1, pp. 5-16.
    • Williams, E.A., Butt, G.W. and Scares, A. (1992), 'Student perceptions of a secondary postgraduate certificate in education course', Journal of Education for Teaching. 19, 2, pp. 297-309.
    • Williams, R. (1961), The Long Revolution. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    • Williams, R. (1976), Keywords. London, Fontana.
    • Williams, S.R. (1999), 'Mathematics (grades 7-12)', in McCormick, R. and Paechter, C. (Eds.), Learning and Knowledge. London, Paul Chapman, pp. 198-220.
    • Willson, M. and Adamczyk, P. (1995), The Sussex secondary PGCE pilot profile scheme', Proceedings of the 1995 ASET Conference, London, University of Greenwich.
    • Wilson, B.R. 1969), The teacher's role: a sociological analysis', British Journal of Sociology. 13, tpp. 15-32.
    • WHson, J. (1989), 'Authority, teacher education and educational studies', Cambridge Journal of Education. 19, 1, pp. 5-13.
    • Wilson, J.B. (1975), Philosophy and the Education of Teachers. Slough, NFER.
    • Wilson, S. and Wineburg, S. (1991), 'Wrinkles in time and place: using performance indicators to understand the knowledge of history teachers', paper presented at the American Research Educational Association, Boston, mimeo.
    • Wilson, S., Hine, A., Dobbins, R., Bromsgrove, E. and Elterman, J. (1995), The use of reflective journals in undergraduate teacher education courses: a multi-campus perspective', South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. 23, 2, pp. 165-176.
    • Wilson, S.M., Shulman, L.S. and Richert, E. (1987), '150 different ways of knowing: representations of knowledge in teaching', in Calderhead, J. (Ed.), Exploring Teachers' Thinking. London, Cassell, pp. 104-124.
    • Windsor, J. (1995), The development of a school-based initial teacher training and mentor support programme', in Griffiths, V. and Owen, P (Eds.), Schools in Partnership. London, Paul Chapman, pp. 112-122.
    • Winsor, P.J.T., Butt, R.L and Reeves, H. (1999), 'Portraying professional development in preservice teacher education: can portfolios do the job7, Teachers and Teaching. 5, 1, pp. 9-31.
    • Winter, R. (1989), 'Problems in teacher appraisal: an action research solution', in Simons, H. and Elliott, J. (Eds.), Rethinking Appraisal and Assessment. Milton Keynes, Open University Press, pp. 45-54.
    • Wolf, A. (1989), 'Can competence and knowledge mix?', in Burke, J.W. (Ed.), Competency Based Education and Training. London, Palmer Press, pp. 39-53.
    • Wood, K. and Thomas, L. (1996), 'Assessing meaningful teacher learning', paper presented at Exploring Futures in Initial Teacher Education: First International Symposium. Institute of Education, University of London, September.
    • Wood, P.O. (1991), The co-operating teacher's role in nurturing reflective teaching', in Tabachnick, B.R. and Zeichner, K.M. (Eds.), Issues and Practices in Inquiry-Oriented Teacher Education. London, Palmer Press, pp. 202-210.
    • Woodd, M. (1997), 'Gender differences in mentoring: a biographical reflection', Educational Management and Administration. 25, 1, pp. 25-34.
    • Woodrow, D. (1997), 'Democratic education - does it exist - especially for mathematics education?, paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. University of York, September.
    • Woods, P. (1987), 'Life histories and teacher knowledge', in Smyth, J. (Ed.), Educating Teachers. Lewes, Palmer Press, pp. 121-135.
    • Woods, P. (1997), 'Is teaching a science or an art?", in Watson, K., Modgil, C. and Modgil, S. (Eds.), Education Dilemmas: Debate and Diversity: Vol. 1: Teachers. Teacher Education and Training. London, Cassell, pp. 3-17.
    • Woods, P and Jeffrey, R. (1996), 'A new professional discourse?', in Woods, P (Ed.), Contemporary Issues in Teaching and Learning. London, Routledge, pp. 38-56.
    • Woodward, H. and Sinclair, C. (1998), 'Reflective journal writing: can student teachers be taught to be reflective?', Reflect. 4, 1, pp. 32-38.
    • Woolford, G.A. (1969), Teacher influence in a college of education', Educational Research. 2, pp. 148-152.
    • Woolnough, B., Pell, D. and Wynn, B. (1990), 'Being a teacher whole-school aspects of the internship scheme', in Benton, P. (Ed.), The Oxford Internship Scheme. London, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, pp. 85-99.
    • Woolridge, I. (1994), 'Researching mentors and schools: background, methods and contexts', in Yeomans, R. and Sampson, J. (Eds.), Mentoring in the Primary School. London, Palmer Press, pp. 32-46.
    • Woolridge, I. and Yeomans, R. (1994), 'Induction, acculturation and education in schoolbased initial teacher education', in Yeomans, R. and Sampson, J. (Eds.), Mentoring in the Primary School. London, Palmer Press, pp. 139-158.
    • Wragg, T. (1990), The two routes into teaching', in Booth, M.B., Furlong, V.J. and Wilkin, M. (Eds.), Partnership in Initial Teacher Training. London, Cassell, 24-32.
    • Wright N. and Moore, J. (1994), 'Students' perceptions of consistency and coherence', in Reid, I., Constable, H. and Griffiths, R. (Eds.), Teacher Education Reform: Current Research. London, Paul Chapman, pp. 131-163.
    • Wright, N. and Bottery, M. (1997), 'Perceptions of professionalism by the mentors of student teachers', Journal of Education for Teaching. 23, 3, pp. 235-252.
    • Wrigley, J. (1969), 'Discussion: the balance of studies in colleges of education', in Taylor, W. (Ed.), Towards a Policy for the Education of Teachers. Colston Papers, 20, London, Butterworths, pp. 117-121.
    • Wynn, B. (1994), 'Partnership - a headteacher's view1 , in Williams, A.E. (Ed.), Perspectives
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article