Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Taylor, Anna Magdalena; Ratcliffe, Victoria Frances; McComb, Karen; Reby, David (2014)
Publisher: Elsevier Inc.
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: QL0750
Domestic dogs produce a range of vocalisations, including barks, growls, and whimpers, which are shared with other canid species. The source–filter model of vocal production can be used as a theoretical and applied framework to explain how and why the acoustic properties of some vocalisations are constrained by physical characteristics of the caller, whereas others are more dynamic, influenced by transient states such as arousal or motivation. This chapter thus reviews how and why particular call types are produced to transmit specific types of information, and how such information may be perceived by receivers. As domestication is thought to have caused a divergence in the vocal behaviour of dogs as compared to the ancestral wolf, evidence of both dog–human and human–dog communication is considered. Overall, it is clear that domestic dogs have the potential to acoustically broadcast a range of information, which is available to conspecific and human receivers. Moreover, dogs are highly attentive to human speech and are able to extract speaker identity, emotional state, and even some types of semantic information.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adachi, I., Fujita, K., 2007. Cross-modal representation of human caretakers in squirrel monkeys. Behav. Processes 74 (1), 27-32.
    • Adachi, I., Kuwahata, H., Fujita, K., 2007. Dogs recall their owner's face upon hearing their owner's voice. Anim. Cogn. 10 (1), 17-21.
    • Archer, J., Monton, S., 2011. Preferences for infant facial features in pet dogs and cats. Ethology 117 (3), 217-226.
    • Ashdown, R.R., Lea, T., 1979. The larynx of the basenji dog. J. Small Anim. Pract. 20 (11), 675-679.
    • Aubergé, V., Cathiard, M., 2003. Can we hear the prosody of smile? Speech Comm. 40, 87-97.
    • August, P.V., Anderson, J.G., 1987. Mammal sounds and motivation-structural rules: a test of the hypothesis. J. Mammal., 1-9.
    • Bachorowski, J.A., Owren, M.J., 1999. Acoustic correlates of talker sex and individual talker identity are present in a short vowel segment produced in running speech. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 106, 1054.
    • Bachorowski, J., Owren, M.J., 2008. Vocal expressions of emotion. In: Lewis, M., HavilandJones, J.M., Feldman, L. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions, 3rd ed. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 196-210.
    • Bahrick, L.E., Hernandez-Reif, M., Flom, R., 2005. The development of infant learning about specific face-voice relations. Develop. Psychol. 41 (3), 541.
    • Banse, R., Scherer, K.R., 1996. Acoustic profiles in vocal emotion expression. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 70 (3), 614.
    • Baru, A.V., 1975. Discrimination of synthesized vowels [a] and [i] with varying parameters (fundamental frequency, intensity, duration and number of formants) in dog. Aud. Anal. Percept. Speech, 91-101.
    • Bekoff, M., 1974. Social play and play-soliciting by infant canids. Am. Zoologist 14 (1), 323-340.
    • Bekoff, M., Diamond, J., Mitton, J.B., 1981. Life-history patterns and sociality in canids: body size, reproduction, and behavior. Oecologia 50 (3), 386-390.
    • Bloom, P., 2004. Can a dog learn a word? Science 304 (5677), 1605-1606.
    • Bradshaw, J., Nott, H., 1995. Social and communication behaviour of the dog. In: Serpell, J. (Ed.), The domestic dog: its evolution, behaviour, and interactions with people. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 116-130.
    • Brady, C.A., 1981. The vocal repertoires of the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), and maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Anim. Behav. 29 (3), 649-669.
    • Bryant, G.A., Barrett, H.C., 2007. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech evidence for universals. Psychol. Sci. 18 (8), 746-751.
    • Burnham, D., Kitamura, C., Vollmer-Conna, U., 2002. What's new, pussycat? On talking to babies and animals. Science 296 (5572), 1435.
    • Buttelmann, D., Tomasello, M., 2012. Can domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use referential emotional expressions to locate hidden food? Anim. Cogn. 16 (1), 137-145.
    • Cain, A.O., 1985. Pets as family members. Marriage Fam. Rev. 8 (3-4), 5-10.
    • Chuenwattanapranithi, S., Xu, Y., Thipakorn, B., 2008. Encoding emotions in speech with the size code-a perceptual investigation. Phonetica 65, 210-230.
    • Cohen, J.A., Fox, M.W., 1976. Vocalizations in wild canids and possible effects of domestication. Behav. Processes 1 (1), 77-92.
    • Coleman, R.O., 1976. A comparison of the contributions of two voice quality characteristics to the perception of maleness and femaleness in the voice. Lang. Hear. Res. 14, 2-3.
    • Coppinger, R., Feinstein, M., 1991. Hark-hark, the dogs do bark and bark and bark-whether barking is an adaptive trait and has a purpose. Smithsonian 21 (10), 119.
    • Corbett, L.K., 1995. The dingo in Australia and Asia. Comstock/Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
    • Coren, S., 2005. How to speak dog: the age of dog-human communication. Pocket Books, Simon and Schuster, London.
    • Custance, D., Mayer, J., 2012. Empathic-like responding by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to distress in humans: an exploratory study. Anim. Cogn. 15 (5), 851-859.
    • Deaux, E.C., Clarke, J.A., 2013. Dingo (Canis lupus dingo) acoustic repertoire: form and contexts. Behaviour 150 (1), 75-101.
    • Düpjan, S., Schön, P.C., Puppe, B., Tuchscherer, A., Manteuffel, G., 2008. Differential vocal responses to physical and mental stressors in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 114 (1), 105-115.
    • Estes, R.D., 1991. The behavior guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Oxford.
    • Fant, G., 1970. Acoustic theory of speech production (No. 2). Walter de Gruyter, New York.
    • Faragó, T., Pongrácz, P., Miklósi, Á., Huber, L., Virányi, Z., Range, F., 2010. Dogs' expectation about signalers' body size by virtue of their growls. PLoS One 5 (12), e15175.
    • Fedderden-Petersen, D., 2004. Communication in wolves and dogs. In: Bekoff, M. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of animal behaviour, vol. 1. Garland SMTP Press, New York, pp. 385-394.
    • Feddersen-Petersen, D.U., 2000. Vocalization of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus L.) and various dog breeds (Canis lupus f. fam.). Archiv fur Tierzucht 43 (4), 387-398.
    • Fernald, A., 1989. Intonation and communicative intent in mothers' speech to infants: is the melody the message? Child Dev. 60 (6), 1497-1510.
    • Fernald, A., Kuhl, P., 1987. Acoustic determinants of infant directed preference for motherese speech. Infant Behav. Dev. 10 (3), 279-293.
    • Fitch, W.T., 1997. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 102, 1213.
    • Fitch, W.T., 2000a. The evolution of speech: a comparative review. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4 (7), 258-267.
    • Fitch, W.T., 2000b. The phonetic potential of nonhuman vocal tracts: comparative cineradiographic observations of vocalizing animals. Phonetica 57 (2-4), 205-218.
    • Fitch, W.T., 2000c. Skull dimensions in relation to body size in nonhuman mammals: the causal bases for acoustic allometry. Zoology-Anal. Complex Syst. 103 (1-2), 40-58.
    • Fitch, W.T., Giedd, J., 1999. Morphology and development of the human vocal tract: a study using magnetic resonance imaging. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 106 (3), 1511-1522.
    • Fitch, W.T., Hauser, M.D., 2004. Computational constraints on syntactic processing in nonhuman primate. Science 303 (5656), 377-380.
    • Fitch, W.T., Reby, D., 2001. The descended larynx is not uniquely human. Proc. Royal Soc. London. Series B: Biol. Sci. 268 (1477), 1669-1675.
    • Fox, M.W., 1984. Behaviour of wolves, dogs, and related canids. Krieger Publishing Co, Malabar, FL.
    • Frank, H., Frank, M.G., 1982. On the effects of domestication on canine social development and behavior. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 8 (6), 507-525.
    • Frynta, D., Baudyšová, J., Hradcová, P., Faltusová, K., Kratochvíl, L., 2012. Allometry of sexual size dimorphism in domestic dog. PloS One 7 (9), e46125.
    • Fukuzawa, M., Mills, D.S., Cooper, J.J., 2005. The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). J. Comp. Psychol. 119 (1), 117.
    • Ghazanfar, A.A., Turesson, H.K., Maier, J.X., van Dinther, R., Patterson, R.D., Logothetis, N.K., 2007. Vocal-tract resonances as indexical cues in rhesus monkeys. Curr. Biol. 17 (5), 425-430.
    • Gisiner, R., Schusterman, R.J., 1992. Sequence, syntax, and semantics: responses of a languagetrained sea lion (Zalophus californianus) to novel sign combinations. J. Comp. Psychol. 106 (1), 78-91.
    • Gittleman, J.L., 1989. Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution. Cornell University Press, New York.
    • Griebel, U., Oller, D.K., 2012. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words. PloS One 7 (2), e30182.
    • Hare, B., Tomasello, M., 1999. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use human and conspecific cues to locate hidden food. Comp. Psychol. 113 (2), 173-177.
    • Harrington, F., Mech, L., 1978. Wolf vocalization. In: Hall, R.L., Sharp, H.S. (Eds.), Wolf and man: evolution in parallel. Academic Press, New York, pp. 109-132.
    • Hauser, M.D., 2000. The sound and the fury: primate vocalizations as reflections of emotion and thought. In: Wallin, N.L., Merker, B., Brown, S. (Eds.), The origins of music. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 77-102.
    • Herman, L.M., Forestell, P.H., 1985. Reporting presence and absence of named objects by a language-trained dolphin. Neurosci. Behav. Rev. 9 (4), 667-681.
    • Herrel, A., Gibb, A.C., 2006. Ontogeny of performance in vertebrates. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 79 (1), 1-6.
    • Hillis, T.L., Mallory, F.F., 1996. Sexual dimorphism in wolves (Canis lupus) of the Keewatin District, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 74 (4), 721-725.
    • Hirsh-Pasek, K., Treiman, R., 1982. Doggerel: motherese in a new context. J. Child Lang. 9 (1), 229-237.
    • Jaeger, M.M., Pandit, R.K., Haque, E., 1996. Seasonal differences in territorial behavior by golden jackals in Bangladesh: howling versus confrontation. J. Mammal, 768-775.
    • Joslin, P.W.B., 1967. Movements and home sites of timber wolves in Algonquin Park. Am. Zoologist 7 (2), 279-288.
    • Kaminski, J., Call, J., Fischer, J., 2004. Word learning in a domestic dog: evidence for 'fast mapping'. Science 304 (5677), 1682-1683.
    • Koler-Matznick, J., Brisbin, I.L., Feinstein, M., Bulmer, S., 2003. An updated description of the New Guinea singing dog (Canis hallstromi). J. Zool. 261 (2), 109-118.
    • Landau, B., Smith, L.B., Jones, S.S., 1988. The importance of shape in early lexical learning. Cogn. Dev. 3, 299-321.
    • Leaver, S.D.A., Reimchen, T.E., 2008. Behavioural responses of Canis familiaris to different tail lengths of a remotely-controlled life-size dog replica. Behaviour 145 (3), 377-390.
    • Lieberman, P., Blumstein, S., 1988. Speech physiology, speech perception, and acoustic phonetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • MacNulty, D.R., Smith, D.W., Mech, L.D., Eberly, L.E., 2009. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: is bigger better? J. Anim. Ecol. 78 (3), 532-539.
    • Markman, E.M., Abelev, M., 2004. Word learning in dogs? Trends Cogn. Sci. 8 (11), 479-481.
    • Marós, K., Pongrácz, P., Bárdos, G., Molnár, C., Faragó, T., Miklósi, A., 2008. Dogs can discriminate barks from different situations. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 114, 159-167.
    • Mazzini, F., Townsend, S.W., Virányi, Z., Range, F., 2013. Wolf howling is mediated by relationship quality rather than underlying emotional stress. Curr. Biol. 23 (17), 1677-1680.
    • McComb, K., Taylor, A.M., Charlton, B., Wilson, C., 2009. The cry embedded within the purr. Curr. Biol. 19, 507-508.
    • McConnell, P.B., 1990. Acoustic structure and receiver response in domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. Anim. Behav. 39 (5), 897-904.
    • Merola, I., Prato-Previde, E., Lazzaroni, M., Marshall-Pescini, S., 2013. Dogs' comprehension of referential emotional expressions: familiar people and familiar emotions are easier. Anim. Cogn. 2013 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Miklósi, Á., Polgárdi, R., Topál, J., Csányi, V., 1998. Use of experimenter-given cues in domestic dogs. Anim. Cogn. 1, 113-121.
    • Miles, H.L., Harper, S.E., 1994. 'Ape language' studies and human language origins. Hominid Cult. in Primate Perspect., 253-278.
    • Mills, D.S., Fukuzawa, M., Cooper, J.J., 2005. The effect of emotional content of verbal commands on the response of dogs. In: Current issues and research in veterinary behavioural medicine. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, IN (pp. 207-220). Papers presented at the 5th International Veterinary Behavior Meeting.
    • Moehlman, P.D., 1983. Socioecology of silverbacked and golden jackals (Canis mesomelas and Canis aureus). Adv. Study Mammal. Behav. 7, 423-453.
    • Molnár, C., Kaplan, F., Roy, P., Pachet, F., Pongrácz, P., Dóka, A., Miklósi, Á., 2008. Classification of dog barks: a machine learning approach. Anim. Cogn. 11, 389-400.
    • Molnár, C., Pongrácz, P., Dóka, A., Miklósi, A., 2006. Can humans discriminate between dogs on the base of the acoustic parameters of barks? Behav. Proces. 73, 76-83.
    • Molnár, C., Pongrácz, P., Faragó, T., Dóka, A., Miklósi, Á., 2009. Dogs discriminate between barks: the effect of context and identity of the caller. Behav. Processes 82, 198-201.
    • Morton, E.S., 1977. On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. Am. Nat., 855-869.
    • Ohala, J., 1984. An ethological perspective on common cross-language utilization of F0 of voice. Phonetica 41, 1-16.
    • Ohala, J., 1996. Ethological theory and the expression of emotion in the voice. In: Proc. ICSLP 96, [4th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Philadelphia], 3-6 October, 1996, Vol. 3, University of Delaware, Wilmington, DE, pp. 1812-1815. Accessed online 12 June, 2008. http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/phonlab/users/ohala/papers/emotion_in_the_ voice.pdf.
    • Owings, D., Morton, E., 1998. Animal vocal communication: a new approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Owren, M.J., Rendall, D., 1997. An affect-conditioning model of nonhuman primate vocal signalling. Perspect. Ethol. 12, 299-346.
    • Owren, M.J., Rendall, D., 2001. Sound on the rebound: bringing form and function back to the forefront in understanding nonhuman primate vocal signalling. Evolutionary Anthropol.: Issues, News, Rev. 10 (2), 58-71.
    • Pepperberg, I.M., 1981. Functional vocalizations by an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Ethology 55 (2), 139-160.
    • Peters, R.H., 1986. The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Piérard, J.A.M., 1963. Comparative anatomy of the carnivore larynx: with special reference to the cartilages and muscles of the larynx in the dog. Cornell University, New York.
    • Pilley, J.W., 2013. Border collie comprehends sentences containing prepositional object, verb, and direct object. Learn. Motiv. 44 (4), 229-240.
    • Pilley, J.W., Reid, A.K., 2011. Border collie comprehends object names as verbal referents. Behav. Processes 86 (2), 184-195.
    • Plotsky, K., Rendall, D., Riede, T., Chase, K., 2013. Radiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid species. J. Zool. 291 (1), 76-86.
    • Pongrácz, P., Molnár, C., Miklósi, Á., 2006. Acoustic parameters of dog barks carry emotional information for humans. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 100 (3), 228-240.
    • Pongrácz, P., Molnár, C., Miklósi, Á., Csányi, V., 2005. Human listeners are able to classify dog (Canis familiaris) barks recorded in different situations. J. Comp. Psychol. 119 (2), 136.
    • Prato-Previde, E., Fallani, G., Valsecchi, P., 2006. Gender differences in owners interacting with pet dogs: an observational study. Ethology 112 (1), 64-73.
    • Price, E.O., 1999. Behavioral development in animals undergoing domestication. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 65 (3), 245-271.
    • Proops, L., McComb, K., Reby, D., 2009. Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106 (3), 947-951.
    • Puts, D.A., Gaulin, S.J., Verdolini, K., 2006. Dominance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in human voice pitch. Evolution Hum. Behav. 27 (4), 283-296.
    • Puts, D.A., Hodges, C.R., Cárdenas, R.A., Gaulin, S.J., 2007. Men's voices as dominance signals: vocal fundamental and formant frequencies influence dominance attributions among men. Evolution Hum. Behav. 28 (5), 340-344.
    • Ramos, D., Ades, C., 2012. Two-item sentence comprehension by a dog (Canis familiaris). Plos One 7 (2), e29689.
    • Reby, D., McComb, K., 2003. Anatomical constraints generate honesty: acoustic cues to age and weight in the roars of red deer stags. Anim. Behav. 65, 519-530.
    • Rendall, D., 2003. The affective basis of referential grunt variants in baboons. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 113, 3390-3402.
    • Rendall, D., Kollias, S., Ney, C., Lloyd, P., 2005. Pitch (F0) and formant profiles of human vowels and vowel-like baboon grunts: the role of vocalizer body size and voice-acoustic allometry. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 117, 944-955.
    • Riede, T., Fitch, T., 1999. Vocal tract length and acoustics of vocalisation in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). J. Exp. Biol. 202, 2859-2867.
    • Robbins, R.L., 2000. Vocal communication in free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Behaviour 137 (10), 1271-1298.
    • Rutter, R., Pimlott, D., 1968. The world of the wolf. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA.
    • Ryalls, J.H., Lieberman, P., 1982. Fundamental-frequency and vowel perception. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 72, 1631-1634.
    • Sauter, D.A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., Scott, S.K., 2009. Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 107 (6), 2408-2412.
    • Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Murphy, J., Sevcik, R.A., Brakke, K.E., Williams, S.L., Rumbaugh, D.M., Bates, E., 1993. Language comprehension in ape and child. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. i-252.
    • Schassburger, R.M., 1993. Vocal communication in the timber wolf, Canis lupus: structure, motivation, and ontogeny. Paul Parey Scientific Publishers, Berlin.
    • Scheider, L., Grassmann, S., Kaminski, J., Tomasello, M., 2011. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture. Plos One 6 (7), e21676.
    • Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1975. Scaling in biology: the consequences of size. J. Exp. Zool. 194 (1), 287-307.
    • Shamir, M.H., Leisner, S., Klement, E., Gonen, E., Johnston, D.E., 2002. Dog bite wounds in dogs and cats: a retrospective study of 196 cases. J. Vet. Med. Series A. 49 (2), 107-112.
    • Sillero-Zubiri, C., Gottelli, D., 1994. Canis simensis. Mammalian Species 485, 1-6.
    • Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M., Macdonald, D.D.W. (Eds.), 2004. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs: status survey and conservation action plan, vol. 62. IUCN, Oxford.
    • Smith, D., Patterson, R., 2005. The interaction of glottal pulse rate and vocal tract length in judgement of speaker's size, sex and age. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 118, 3177-3186.
    • Taylor, A.M., Reby, D., 2010. The contribution of the source-filter theory to mammal vocal communication. J. Zool. 280 (3), 221-236.
    • Taylor, A.M., Reby, D., McComb, K., 2008. Human listeners attend to size information in domestic dog growls. J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 123, 2903.
    • Taylor, A.M., Reby, D., McComb, K., 2009. Context-related variation in the vocal growling behaviour of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Ethology 115 (10), 905-915.
    • Taylor, A.M., Reby, D., McComb, K., 2010a. Size communication in domestic dog (Canis familiaris) growls. Anim. Behav. 79, 205-210.
    • Taylor, A.M., Reby, D., McComb, K., 2010b. Why do large dogs sound more aggressive to human listeners: acoustic bases of motivational misattributions. Ethology 116, 1155-1162.
    • Taylor, A.M., Reby, D., McComb, K., 2011. Cross modal perception of body size in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). PLoS One 6 (2), e17069.
    • Theberge, J.A., Falls, J.B., 1967. Howling as a means of communication in timber wolves. Am. Zoologist 7 (2), 331-338.
    • Titze, I.R., 1994. Principles of vocal production. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    • Titze, I.R., 2000. Principles of voice production. National Centre for Voice and Speech, Iowa City, IA.
    • Van der Zee, E., Zulch, H., Mills, D., 2012. Word generalization by a dog (Canis familiaris): is shape important? Plos One 7 (11), e49382.
    • Vitulli, W.F., 2006. Attitudes towards empathy in domestic dogs and cats 1, 2. Psychol. Rep. 99 (3), 981-991.
    • Volodin, I.A., Volodina, E.V., Isaeva, I.V., 2001. Vocal repertoire in the dhole Cuon alpinus (Carnivora, Canidae) in captivity. Entomol. Rev. 81 (2), S346.
    • Wayne, R.K., 1993. Molecular evolution of the dog family. Trends Genetics 9 (6), 218-224.
    • Yin, S., 2002. A new perspective on barking in dogs (Canis familiaris). J. Comp. Psychol 116, 189-193.
    • Yin, S., McCowan, B., 2004. Barking in domestic dogs: context specificity and individual identification. Anim. Behav. 68, 343-355.
    • Zaccaroni, M., Passilongo, D., Buccianti, A., Dessì-Fulgheri, F., Facchini, C., Gazzola, A., Apollonio, M., 2012. Group specific vocal signature in free-ranging wolf packs. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 24 (4), 322-331.
    • Zuberbuhler, K., 2002. A syntactic rule in forest monkey communication. Anim. Behav. 63, 293-299.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article