Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Karim, Mohammed Shamsul
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Increasing the supply of entrepreneurs reduces unemployment and accelerates economic growth (Acs, 2006; Audretsch, 2007; Santarelli et el. 2009; Campbell, 1996; Carree & Thurik, 1996). The supply of entrepreneurs depends on the entrepreneurial intention and activity of the people (Kruger & Brazeal, 1994). Existing behavioural theories explain that entrepreneurial activity is an attitude driven process which is mediated by intention and regulated by behavioural control. These theories are: Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991; 2002, 2012); Entrepreneurial Event Model (Shapiro & Shokol, 1982), and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1977; 1986; 2012). Meta-analysis of existing behavioural theories in different fields found that the theories are more effective to analyse behavioural intention and habitual behaviour, but less effective to analyse long-term and risky behaviour (McEachan et al., 2011). The objective of this dissertation is to improve entrepreneurship behaviour theory to advance our understanding of the determinants of the entrepreneurial intention and activity. To achieve this objective we asked three compelling questions in our research. These are: Firstly, why do differences exist in entrepreneurship among age groups. Secondly, how can we improve the theory to analyse entrepreneurial intention and behaviour? And, thirdly, is there any relationship between counterfactual or regretful thinking and entrepreneurial intention? We address these three questions in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of the dissertation. Earlier studies have identified that there is an inverse U shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship (Parker, 2004; Hart et al., 2004). In our study, we explain the reasons for this inverse U shape (Chapter 2). To analyse the reasons we use Cognitive Life Cycle theory and Disuse theory. We assume that the stage in the life cycle of an individual moderates the influence of opportunity identification and skill to start a business. In our study, we analyse the moderation effect in early stage entrepreneurship and in serial entrepreneurship. In Chapter 3, the limitations of existing psychological theories are discussed, and a competency value theory of entrepreneurship (CVTE) is proposed to overcome the limitations and extend existing theories. We use a ‘weighted competency’ variable instead of a ‘perceived behavioural control’ variable for the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and self-efficacy variable for social cognitive theory. Weighted competency is the perceived competency ranking assigned by an individual for his total competencies to be an entrepreneur. The proposed theory was tested in a pilot survey in the UK and in a national adult population survey in a South Asian Country. The results show a significant relationship between competencies and entrepreneurial intention, and weighted competencies and entrepreneurial behaviour as per CVTE. To improve the theory further, in Chapter 4, we test the relationship between counterfactual thinking and entrepreneurial intention. Studies in cognitive psychology identify that ‘upward counterfactual thinking’ influences intention and behaviour (Epstude & Rose, 2008; Smallman & Roese, 2009). Upward counterfactual thinking is regretful thinking for missed opportunities of a problem. This study addresses the question of how an individual’s regretful thinking affects his or her future entrepreneurial career intention. To do so, we conducted a study among students in a business school in the UK, and we found that counterfactual thinking modifies the influence of attitude and opportunity identification in entrepreneurial career intention.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Table-4.1: Descriptive Statistics......................................................................................................174 Table-4.2: Logit Regression of Entrepreneurial Career Intention....................................................177 Table-4.2a: Marginal Effects after Logit Regression.......................................................................178 Table-4.2b: Logit Regression of Entrepreneurial Career Intention (using original scale data)........179 CHAPTER ONE:
    • Figure-1.1: Theory of Planned Behaviour..........................................................................................15 Figure-1.2: Entrepreneurial Event Model ..........................................................................................19 Figure-1.3: Social Cognitive Theory..................................................................................................21 Figure-1.4: Model of Perceived behavioural Control.........................................................................23 CHAPTER TWO:
    • Figure-3.1: Competency Value theory of Entrepreneurship (CVTE)...............................................108 Figure-3.1.1: Hypotheses of the Study…………………………………………………………………..114 CHAPTER FOUR:
    • Figure4.1: Content specific pathway of functional counterfactual thinking………….………...…….161 Figure-4.2: Hypotheses on Counterfactual Thinking and Entrepreneurial Career Intention...........166 Figure-4.3: Influence of counterfactual thinking (Regret) on Entrepreneurial Career Intention......176 Figure-4.4: Margin of Interaction of Opportunity and Regret..........................................................180 Figure 4.5: Margin of Interaction of Attitude and Regret.................................................................181 Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2000). Habits as knowledge structures: automaticity in goaldirected behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 78(1), 53.
    • Acs, Z. J. (2006). How is Entrepreneurship Good for Economic Growth? Innovations, Vol. 1(1), pp. 97-107.
    • Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1977), Attitude-behaviour Relations: A theoretical Analysis and review of Empirical Research, Psychological Bulletin, 84: 888-918.
    • Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980).Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    • Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior: 1l - 39. Heidelberg: Springer.
    • Ajzen, I. (1987). Attitudes, traits, and actions: Dispositional prediction of behavior in personality and social psychology. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 20: l-63. New York: Academic Press.
    • Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Chicago: Dorsey Press.
    • Aijzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2): 179-211.
    • Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived Behavioral Control, Self‐Efficacy, Locus of Control, and the Theory of Planned Behavior1.Journal of applied social psychology, 32(4), 665-683.
    • Ajzen, I. (2011). The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections. Psychology & Health, 26(9), 1113-1127.
    • Ai, C., & Norton, E. C. (2003). Interaction terms in logit and probit models. Economics letters, 80(1), 123-129.
    • Albert, M. S., & Heaton, R. K. (1988).Intelligence testing. In: Albert, M.S., Moss, M.B. (Eds.), Geriatric Neuropsychology. Guildford Press, New York, pp.13-32.
    • Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2010). Entrepreneurship and epistemology: The philosophical underpinnings of the study of entrepreneurial opportunities. The Academy of Management Annals, 4(1), 557-583.
    • Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2007). Discovery and creation: Alternative theories of entrepreneurial action. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol 1(2) 11-26.
    • Amaral, A. M., Baptista, R., & Lima, F. (2011) Serial entrepreneurship: impact of human capital on time to re-entry. Small Business Economics, 37(1), 1-21.
    • Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 233-247.
    • Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: A metaanalytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40: 471-499.
    • Arora, P., Haynie, J. M., & Laurence, G. A. (2013) Counterfactual Thinking and Entrepreneurial Self Efficacy: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem and Dispositional Affect. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.37(2), 359-385.
    • Athayde, R. (2009), Measuring Enterprise Potential in Young People, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practices, Vol. , pp- 481-500.
    • Audet J. (2004), A longitudinal Study of the Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students, Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 10 (1).
    • Audretsch, D. B. (2007). “Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Growth,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 23(1), 63-78.
    • Baltes, P. B. (1987), Theoretical Propositions of Life-Span Developmental Psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline, Developmental Psychology, Vol 23(5), 611-626.
    • Baltes, P. B., & Lindenberger, U. (1997). Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: a new window to the study of cognitive aging? Psychology and Aging, 12(1), 12.
    • Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (1993).The search for a psychology of wisdom. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2(3), 75-80.
    • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84: 191-215.
    • Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,4(3), 359-373.
    • Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on psychological science,1(2), 164-180.
    • Bandura, A. (2008). Toward an agentic theory of the self. Advances in self research, 3, 15- 49.
    • Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9-44.
    • Baumol W. J. (1990), Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive and Destructive, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98 (5), Part - 1, pp 893-921.
    • Baumol W. J. (2004), Entrepreneurial Enterprises, Large Established Firms and Other Components of the Free-Market Growth Machine, Small Business Economics, Vol. 23(1), pp.9-21
    • Bandura, A. (2001), Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication, Media psychology, 3: 265-299.
    • Bandura, A. (2002), Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol. 51(2), pp. 269-290.
    • Bargh, J. A. (1989). Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition. Unintended thought, 3, 51-69.
    • Baron R. A. (1999), Counterfactual Thinking and Venture Formation: The Potential Effects of Thinking About “What Might Have Been”, Journal of Business Venturing, 15: 79-91
    • Baron R. A. (2000), Psychological Perspectives on Entrepreneurship: Cognitive and Social Factors in Entrepreneurs' Success, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(1): 15-18.
    • Baron R. A. (2004), The Cognitive Perspective: A Valuable Tool for Answering entrepreneurship's Basic “Why” Questions, Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 221-239.
    • Baron, R. A. (2004). Potential benefits of the cognitive perspective: expanding entrepreneurship's array of conceptual tools. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 169-172.
    • Baron, R. A., & Ward, T. B. (2004). Expanding entrepreneurial cognition's toolbox: Potential contributions from the field of cognitive science. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(6), 553-573.
    • Baron, R. A. (2006).Opportunity Recognition as Pattern Recognition: How Entrepreneurs" Connect the Dots" to Identify New Business Opportunities. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(1), 104-119.
    • Baron, R. A., & Ensley, M. D. (2006). Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns: Evidence from comparisons of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Management Science, 52(9), 1331-1344.
    • Baron, R. A. (2007). Behavioral and cognitive factors in entrepreneurship: entrepreneurs as the active element in new venture creation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1‐2), 167-182.
    • Barreto, I.A Behavioral Theory of Market Expansion Based on the Opportunity Prospects Rule. Organization Science, 23(4), 1008-1023.
    • Barreto, I. Solving the Entrepreneurial Puzzle: The Role of Entrepreneurial Interpretation in Opportunity Formation and Related Processes. Journal of Management Studies, 49(2), 356-380.
    • Baudouin, A., Clarys, D., Vanneste, S., & Isingrini, M. (2009). Executive functioning and processing speed in age-related differences in memory: contribution of a coding task. Brain and cognition, 71(3), 240-245.
    • Bergkvist, L., & Rossiter, J. R. (2007). The predictive validity of multiple-item versus singleitem measures of the same constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(2), 175-184.
    • Bernoulli, D. (1954). Exposition of a new theory on the measurement of risk. Econometrica, 22: 23- 36.
    • Bingham, C. B., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Furr, N. R. (2007). What makes a process a capability? Heuristics, strategy, and effective capture of opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1‐2), 27-47.
    • Bird, B. (1988).Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of management Review,13(3), 442-453.
    • Bjork, R.A., & Bjork, E.L. (1992), A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuations. In A. Healy, S. Kosslyn, & R. Shiffrin (Eds.), From Learning Processing to Cognitive Process: Essays in Honor of William K. Estes (vol 2, pp. 35-67). Hillsadle, NJ: Erlbauk
    • Blanchflower G. D. & Oswald A. J., (1998), What Makes an Entrepreneur? Journal of Labour Economics, 16(1): 26-60.
    • Blanchflower D.G. & Oswald A.J. (2007), What Makes a Young Entrepreneur?, IZA Discussion Paper, Paper no: IZA DP No. 3139. Web address: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp3139.pdf
    • Bohner, G., & Dickel, N. Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 391-417.
    • Bönte, W. Falck, O. &Heblich S. (2009), The Impact of Regional Age Structure on Entrepreneurship, Economic Geography, vol. 85(3), pp. 269-287.
    • Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994).The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18, 63-63.
    • Brockhaus, R. H. (1980). Risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs, Academy of Management Journal, 23(3): 509-520.
    • Brockhaus, R. H., & Horwitz, P. S. (1986).The psychology of the entrepreneur. In D. Sexton & R. Smilor (Eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship: 25-48. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    • Buis, M. (2010). Stata Tip 87: Interpretation of interactions in non-linear models, Stata Journal, 10, 305-308.
    • Busenitz, L. W. (1999). Entrepreneurial Risk and Strategic Decision Making It'sa Matter of Perspective. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35(3), 325-340.
    • Busenitz, L. W. (2007). Progress in understanding entrepreneurial behavior.Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1‐2), 183-185.
    • Bushway, S., Johnson, B. D., & Slocum, L. A. (2007). Is the magic still there? The use of the Heckman two-step correction for selection bias in criminology. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23(2), 151-178.
    • Bygrave, W.D. (1989), The entrepreneurship paradigm (I): A Philosophical Look at Its Research Methodologies, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Fall.
    • Bygrave, W., & Hofer, C. (1991).Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 13‐22.
    • Campbell iii C. M. (1996) The effects of state and industry economic conditions on new firm entry, Journal of Economics and Business 48, 167-183.
    • Carree M. A. and Thurik A. R. (1996) Entry and exit in retailing: incentives, barriers, displacement and replacement, Review of Industrial Organization 11, 155- 172.
    • Chamberlin, T. 1965/1890.The method of multiple working hypotheses. Science 186:75- 77.
    • Charness, G., & Grosskopf, B. (2001). Relative payoffs and happiness: an experimental study. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 45(3), 301-328.
    • Collins, D. F., & Moore, D. G., (1964) The enterprising man. East Lansing, Mich.: MSU Business Studies, Michigan State University.
    • Craik, F.I.M. & Bialystok E. (2006), Cognition through the lifespan mechanisms of change, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol.13(3), pp131-138.
    • Christophersen, T., & Konradt, U. (2011).Reliability, validity, and sensitivity of a single-item measure of online store usability. International journal of human-computer studies, 69(4), 269-280.
    • Cooke, R., & French, D. P. (2008). How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis. Psychology and Health, 23(7), 745-765.
    • Corbett, A. C. (2005). Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 473-491.
    • Corbett, A. C. (2007). Learning asymmetries and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 97-118.
    • Curran, J., Blackburn, R. (2001), "Older people and the enterprise society: age and selfemployment propensities", Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 15 No.4, pp.889-902.
    • Davidsson, P. (2003). The domain of entrepreneurship research: Some suggestions. Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth, 6, 315-372.
    • Davis, C. G., Lehman, D. R., Wortman, C. B., Silver, R. C., & Thompson, S. C. (1995).The undoing of traumatic life events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(2), 109-124.
    • De Houwer, J. (2009). Comparing measures of attitudes at the functional and procedural level: Analysis and implications. Attitudes: Insights from the new implicit measures, 361-390.
    • Dimov, D. (2007). Beyond the single‐person, single‐insight attribution in understanding entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(5), 713-731.
    • Dimov, D. (2007a). From opportunity insight to opportunity intention: The importance of person‐situation learning match. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(4), 561-583.
    • Dreisler P., Blanker P., & Nielsen K. (2003), Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(4): 383-392.
    • Drolet, A. L., & Morrison, D. G. (2001). Do we really need multiple-item measures in service research?.Journal of Service Research, 3(3), 196-204.
    • Ebner, N. C., Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2006). Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: From striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses. Psychology and Aging, 21(4), 664.
    • Endres A. M. & Woods C. R., (2006), Modern Theories of Entrepreneurial Behaviour: A Comparison and Appraisal, Small Business Economics, 26: 189-202.
    • Epstein, S. (1983). Aggregation and beyond: Some basic issues on the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality, 51: 360-392.
    • Epstude, K., & Roese, N. J. (2008).The functional theory of counterfactual thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12(2), 168-192.
    • Evans D. S. and Leighton L. S. (1990) Small business formation by unemployed and employed workers, Small Business Economics, 2, pp. 319-330.
    • Fairlie R.W. (2006), The Personal Computer and entrepreneurship, Management Science, Vol 52(2), pp187-203
    • Fayolle, A. (2005). Evaluation of entrepreneurship education: behaviour performing or intention increasing?. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2(1), 89-98.
    • Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1972). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior : an introduction to theory and research. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
    • Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1974).Attitudes toward objects as predictors of single and multiple behavioral criteria. Psychological Review, 81: 59-74.
    • Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975).Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    • Fisk, A. D., Hertzog, C., Lee, M. D., Rogers, W. A., & Anderson-Garlach, M. (1994). Longterm retention of skilled visual search: Do young adults retain more than old Fisk, A. D., & Hodge, K. A. (1992). Retention of trained performance in consistent mapping search after extended delay. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 34(2), 147-164.
    • Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991).Social cognition: Mcgraw-Hill Book Company.
    • Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2000). The orchestration of selection, optimization and compensation: An action-theoretical conceptualization of a theory of developmental regulation. Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness: Essays in honor of the 60th birthday of August Flammer, 35-58.
    • Friedkin, N. E. (2010). The attitude-behavior linkage in behavioral cascades. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(2), 196-213.
    • Gaglio, C. M., & Katz, J. A. (2001). The psychological basis of opportunity identification: Entrepreneurial alertness. Small Business Economics, 16(2), 95-111.
    • Gaglio, C. M. (2004).The Role of Mental Simulations and Counterfactual Thinking in the Opportunity Identification Process. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(6), 533-552.
    • Gartner, W. B. (1988). Who is an entrepreneur? Is the wrong question. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(4): 47-68.
    • Gelderen V. M, Brand M., Praag V.M., Bodewes W., Poutsama E, Gils A.V., (2006), Explaining Entrepreneurial Intentions by Means of The Theory of Planned Behavior, Research Working Paper, No (2), Massey University, ISSN 1177- 2611.
    • Gilbert, D. T., & Ebert, J. E. J. (2002). Decisions and revisions: the affective forecasting of changeable outcomes. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 82(4), 503.
    • Grégoire, D. A., Barr, P. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). Cognitive processes of opportunity recognition: The role of structural alignment. Organization Science,21(2), 413- 431.
    • Grégoire, D. A., Corbett, A. C., & McMullen, J. S. (2011). The cognitive perspective in entrepreneurship: An agenda for future research. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1443-1477.
    • Grégoire, D. A., Shepherd, D. A., & Lambert, L. S. (2010). Measuring opportunity-recognition beliefs illustrating and validating an experimental approach. Organizational Research Methods, 13(1), 114-145.
    • Greene, W. H. (1981). Sample selection bias as a specification error: A comment. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 795-798.
    • Greenwald, A. G., Smith, C. T., Sriram, N., BarA-Anan, Y., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Implicit race attitudes predicted vote in the 2008 US presidential election. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9(1), 241-253.
    • Grundy E. (2005), 'Reciprocity in relationships: socio-economic and health influences on intergenerational exchanges between Third Age parents and their adult children in Great Britain', The British Journal of Sociology, Vol: 56, No. 2, pp233-255.
    • Hansen, D. J., Shrader, R., & Monllor, J. (2011). Defragmenting Definitions of Entrepreneurial Opportunity*. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(2), 283-304.
    • Hart, M., Anyadike-Danes, M., & Blackburn, R. (2004). Entrepreneurship and age in the UK: Comparing third age and prime age new venture creation across the regions. RENT XVIII, Copenhagen.
    • Hechavarria, D. M., Renko, M., & Matthews, C. H. (2012). The nascent entrepreneurship hub: goals, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and start-up outcomes. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 685-701.
    • Heckhausen, J., Dixon, R. A., & Baltes, P. B. (1989).Gains and losses in development throughout adulthood as perceived by different adult age groups. Developmental Psychology, 25(1), 109.
    • Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica: Journal of the econometric society, 153-161.
    • Jordan, J. S., & Turner, B. A. (2008).The feasibility of single-item measures for organizational justice. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12(4), 237-257.
    • Kahneman, Daniel, & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47: 263-291.
    • Kahneman, Daniel, & Tversky, A. (1992). Advances in Prospect Theory: Cumulative Representation of Uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5: 297-323.
    • Kautonen, T., Luoto, S., & Tornikoski, E. T. Influence of work history on entrepreneurial intentions in 'prime age' and 'third age': A preliminary study. International Small Business Journal, 28(6), 583-601.
    • Kautonen, T., down, S. South L. (2008), Enterprise support for older entrepreneurs: the case of PRIME in the UK, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 14(2), 85-101.
    • Kautonen, T., Gelderen, M., & Fink, M. (2013).Robustness of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions and Actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.
    • Kautonen, T., Van Gelderen, M., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013a).Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: a test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied economics, 45(6), 697-707.
    • Kickul J., Wilson F., Marlino D., Barbosa S.D., (2008), Are Misalignments of Perceptions and Self-Efficacy Causing Gender Gaps in Entrepreneurial Intentions Among Our Nation's Teens?, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(2): 321-335.
    • Kirzner, I. 1973. Competition and entrepreneurship, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
    • Kirzner, I. M. (1997). Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of economic Literature, 35(1), 60-85.
    • Kirzner, I. M. (2009). The alert and creative entrepreneur: a clarification. Small Business Economics, 32(2), 145-152.
    • Knight, F. (1921), Risk, uncertainty and profit. Augustus Kelley, New York.
    • Kolvereid, L. (1996). Predictions of employment status choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 21(1): 47-57.
    • Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006).New business start-up and subsequent entry into selfemployment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(6), 866-885.
    • Krueger JR, N.F. (1996). Nurturing Entrepreneurial Potential, Paper presented at the USABE Conference, Atlanta, January.
    • Krueger, N.F., Reilly M.D., Carsrud A.L. (2000), Competing Models of Entrepreneurial Intention, Journal of Business Venturing, 15: 411-432.
    • Kuckertz, A., & Wagner, M. (2010).The influence of sustainability orientation on entrepreneurial intentions-investigating the role of business experience. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 524-539.
    • Laspita, S., Breugst, N., Heblich, S., & Patzelt, H. (2012).Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4), 414-435.
    • Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Foo, M. D., & Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 124-136.
    • Lee s. Y., Florida R. and Acs Z. J. (2004) Creativity and entrepreneurship: a regional analysis of new firm formation, Regional Studies, 38, 879-891.
    • Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. M. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the locus of control construct: Vol. 1. Assessment methods: 15-63. New York: Academic Press.
    • Levesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2006).The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 177-194.
    • Liñán, F. (2008). Skill and value perceptions: how do they affect entrepreneurial intentions? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(3), 257-272.
    • Liñán, F. & Chen, Y. (2009).Development and Cross-Cultural Application of a Specific Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 33(3): 593-617.
    • Loo, R. (2002).A caveat on using single-item versus multiple-item scales.Journal of managerial psychology, 17(1), 68-75.
    • Markman, G. D., Baron, R. A., & Balkin, D. B. (2004). Are perseverance and self-efficacy costless? Assessing entrepreneurs' regretful thinking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(1), 1-19.
    • Markman, K. D., Gavanski, I., Sherman, S. J., & McMullen, M. N. (1993).The mental simulation of better and worse possible worlds. Journal of experimental social psychology.
    • Markman, K. D., & McMullen, M. N. (2003). A reflection and evaluation model of comparative thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7(3), 244-267.
    • Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(6), 717-735.
    • McEachan, R. R. C., Conner, M., Taylor, N. J., & Lawton, R. J. (2011). Prospective prediction of health-related behaviours with the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5(2), 97-144.
    • Nicolaou, N., Shane, S., Cherkas, L., & Spector, T. D. (2008). The influence of sensation seeking in the heritability of entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2(1), 7-21.
    • Norton, E. C., Wang, H., & Ai, C. (2004).Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models. Stata Journal, 4, 154-167.
    • Obschonka, M., Silbereisen, R. K., & Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2010).Entrepreneurial intention as developmental outcome. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(1), 63-72.
    • Pajares, F. (1997).Current directions in self-efficacy research. Advances in motivation and achievement,10(149).
    • Parker, S. C. (2004).The economics of self-employment and entrepreneurship. Cambridge University Press.
    • Parker, S. C. (2013). Do serial entrepreneurs run successively better-performing businesses?. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(5), 652-666.
    • Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 151-161.
    • Robinson, R. B. Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C., & Hunt, H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15(2): 13-31.
    • Roese, N. J. (1994). The functional basis of counterfactual thinking. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), 805.
    • Roese, N. J. (2004). Twisted pair: Counterfactual thinking and the hindsight bias. Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making, 3, 258.
    • Roese, N. J., & Morrison, M. (2009).The psychology of counterfactual thinking. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, 16-26.
    • Roese, N. J., & Summerville, A. (2005). What we regret most... and why. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(9), 1273-1285.
    • Ronnlund, M., Nyberg, L., Backman, L., & Nilsson, L.-G. (2005). Stability, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study. Psychology and Aging, 20(1), 3.
    • Rotter, J. B. (1954).Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
    • Rotter, J. B. (1966).Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (1, Whole No. 699).
    • Sánchez García, J. C., Carballo, T., & Gutiérrez, A. (2011).The entrepreneur from a cognitive approach. Psicothema, 23(3), 433-438.
    • Short, J. C., Ketchen, D. J., Shook, C. L., & Ireland, R. D. (2010). The concept of “opportunity” in entrepreneurship research: Past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management, 36(1), 40-65.
    • Smallman, R., & Roese, N. J. (2009). Counterfactual thinking facilitates behavioral intentions. Journal of experimental social psychology, 45(4), 845-852.
    • Sobel R. S., & King A. K. (2008), Does School Choice Increase the Rate of Youth Entrepreneurship? Economics of Education Review, Vol27, pp 429-438.
    • Spencer, A. S., Kirchhoff, B. A., & White, C. (2008). Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Wealth Distribution The Essence of Creative Destruction. International Small Business Journal, 26(1), 9-26.
    • Stevenson, H. H., & Jarillo, J. C. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial management. Strategic management journal, 11(5), 17-27.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article