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Attar, Karen (2014)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: HIS
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    • 1. H. Hale Bellot, University College London, 1826-1929 (London, 1929), 418.
    • 2. Bernard Naylor, 'The Libraries of the University of London to the 1960s', in Alistair Black & Peter Hoare (eds), The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, iii: 1850-2000 (Cambridge, 2006), 345-56, 346-7. The Bentham Collection is mentioned in Catalogue of Books in the General Library and in the South Library of University College, London (3 vols, London, 1879), i. p. iv. For the Marsden Collection, see: 1833-1834, Statement of the Arrangements for Conducting the Various Departments of Kings College London (London, 1833), 5; King's College Archives, no ref.: Council Report, 29 April 1835. The Marsden Collection is listed in: William Marsden, Bibliotheca Marsdeniana Philologica et Orientalis: A Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts Collected with a View to the General Comparison of Languages, and to the Study of Oriental Literature (London, 1827). The College library does not feature in F.J.C. Hearnshaw, The Centenary History of King's College London, 1828-1978 (London, 1929).
    • 3. C.E. Whiting, The University of Durham 1832-1932 (London, 1932), 274-5. A briefer account of the early library at the University of Durham and Van Mildert's role in it can be found in J.T.D. Hall, 'Introduction', in Richard Gameson (ed.), Treasures of Durham University Library (London, 2007), 18-29, 20.
    • 4. For specific institutions, see Hywel Berwyn Evans, The Library over a Hundred Years (1880-1980) ([Birmingham], 1981); Edward Fiddes, Chapters in the History of Owens College and of Manchester University 1851- 1914 (Manchester, 1937), 203, 207; Thomas Kelly, For Advancement of Learning: The University of Liverpool 1881-1981 (Liverpool, 1981), 46-7, 82 and 537; James Thompson, A Centennial History of the Library of the University of Birmingham, 1880-1995 (Birmingham, 2000). For an assessment of the general academic atmosphere of the homes of the civic universities, including library provision, see F.W. Ratcliffe, 'The Civic Universities and their Libraries', in The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, iii: 1850-2000, 357-76, 357-65. For a connection between cities boasting institutions which became civic universities and public libraries, see David R. Jones, The Origins of Civic Universities: Manchester, Leeds and Liverpool (London, 1988), 20.
    • 5. Bellot, University College London, 418.
    • 6. The purpose of the university is stated in its charter of 1836, reproduced in University of London, The Historical Record (1836-1912), Being a Supplement to the Calendar Completed to September 1913, 1st issue (London, 1912), 26-30. For a more accessible summary, see Negley Harte, The University of London 1836-1986: An Illustrated History (London, 1986), 80.
    • 7. A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution Systematically Classed, Preceded by an Historical and Bibliographical Account of the Establishment., i: The General Library (London, 1835), pp. vi-xxiii. For further information about the library of the London Institution, see K.A. Manley, 'E.B. Nicholson and the London Institution', Journal of Librarianship 5 (1973), 52-77.
    • 8. See Edward Wedlake Brayley, A Catalogue of the Library of the Russell Institution (London, 1835) (for subject coverage); idem, Appendix to the Catalogue of the Library of the Russell Institution (London, 1837), p. vi (for size). Catalogues of the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street, in London's West End, are silent about its extent: William Harris, A Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Institution of Great Britain (2nd edn, London, 1821); Benjamin Vincent, A New Classified Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Institution of Great Britain (London, 1857).
    • 9. See William Baker, The Early History of the London Library (Lewiston, 1992), 72.
    • 10. P.R. Harris, A History of the British Museum Library 1753-1973 (London, 1998), 766.
    • 11. Anonymous, 'The University of London - its History and Position', The London University Magazine 1 (1856), 257-64, 259-60.
    • 12. Ibid., 260-1.
    • 13. For the most accessible early history of the University of London Library, see J.H.P. Pafford, 'The University of London Library', in Raymond Irwin & Ronald Staveley (eds), The Libraries of London (2nd edn, London, 1961), 140-56. Pafford devotes just six lines to the Library 1838-70, 143.
    • 14. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/1: unnumbered Senate minute, 15 Nov. 1837.
    • 15. Catalogue of the Library of the University of London, Including the Libraries of George Grote and Augustus De Morgan (London, 1876). The missing title is Victor Cousin, E´ cole Normale: Re´glements, Programmes et Rapports (Paris, 1837).
    • 16. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/1: unnumbered Senate minute, 12 June 1839.
    • 17. Reginald Arthur Rye, The Students' Guide to the Libraries of London: With an Account of the Most Important Archives and Other Aids to Study (3rd edn, London, 1927), 185.
    • 18. See F.M.L. Thompson, 'The Humanities', in idem (ed.), The University of London and the World of Learning (London, 1990), 57-79, 62.
    • 19. 'Convocation of the University of London', The Times, 25 Nov. 1858, 10.
    • 20. 'University of London', The Times, 12 May 1859, 12; editorial, 'Man Proposes, but a Higher Power Disposes', The Times, 13 May 1859, 8.
    • 21. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/6: Senate minute 151, 6 July 1864. The following list of requirements underlines that the request is for a social space rather than a repository of books, not repeating the word 'library' but listing as point no. 20: 'A Reading-Room, about 25 feet by 20, with such other Apartments of smaller size as can be conveniently introduced for the occasional use of Members of the University' (minute 152).
    • 22. University of London Archive, UoL/ULC/PC28/24; reproduced in Harte, University of London, 124.
    • 23. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/7, Library committee minutes of May 14 1872. The resolution thus to protect the books is recorded in Senate minute 194, 26 June 1871.
    • 24. 'The University of London', The Times, 9 May 1870, 6. Three days later, The Times reported Queen Victoria passing through the Library and the Examination-room when opening the University ('Court Circular', 9).
    • 25. For discontent with the divorce between teaching and examinations, see Harte, Univesity of London, 139ff; F.M.G. Willson, The University of London, 1858-1900: The Politics of Senate and Convocation (Woodbridge, 2004), 221-4.
    • 26. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/8, Senate minute 96, 22 Apr. 1874.
    • 27. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/8, Senate minute 53, 15 Mar. 1871.
    • 28. The National Archives, 'Currency Converter', available at: http://www. nationalarchives.gov.uk/currency/(accessed 14 Sept. 2012).
    • 29. For a detailed contemporary account of De Morgan which includes reference to his bibliographical interests, see his anonymous obituary in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 32 (1872), 112-18. For a readily accessible recent account, see Leslie Stephen, 'Morgan, Augustus De (1806-1871)', rev. I. Grattan-Guinness, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004); online edn, May 2006: http://www.oxforddnb. com/view/article/7470 (accessed 11 Sept. 2013).
    • 30. 'News of the Week', The Spectator, 1 Apr. 1871, 371; see also 'Miscellaneous', Birmingham Daily Post, 7 Apr. 1871, 6; 'Multiple News Items', The Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, 7 Apr. 1871, 3.
    • 31. 'News of the Week', The Spectator, 13 May 1871, 563.
    • 32. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/8, Senate minute 156, 14 June 1871; letter from Lord Overstone to W.B. Carpenter, Registrar, 10 June 1871; cited in Catalogue of the Library of the University of London, p. [iv].
    • 33. Catalogue of the Library of the University of London, p. [iii]. Praise of De Morgan's library continues into the twentieth century: for example, A.N.L. Munby, as a librarian interested in the history of collecting, termed De Morgan's library 'one of the best surviving collections of early scientific books formed at this date' and 'one of the major surviving collections formed before the present [i.e. twentieth] century' (A.N.L. Munby, The History and Bibliography of Science in England: The First Phase, 1833- 1845 (Berkeley, 1968), 12) and Adrian Rice, a mathematical historian, praised it as 'one of the finest accumulations of books on the history of mathematics in the country' ('Augustus De Morgan: Historian of Science', History of Science, 34 (1996), 201-40, 222).
    • 34. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/8: Senate minutes 1871, 125, 'Presents'.
    • 35. Rye, Reginald Arthur, The Libraries of London: A Guide for Students (London, 1908), 24. This is the source that has been followed since.
    • 36. Ibid., 24.
    • 37. A twenty-second book, Johannes de Muris, Arithmetices Compendium ex Boetij Libris ([Central Germany, c.1520]) is included in Senate House Library's incunabula collection and has been described with the incunabula (Margery F. Wild, Incunabula in the Libraries of the University of London: A Hand-List (London, 1964), no. 67), on the basis of De Morgan's tentative attribution to the book of incunabular status ('certainly of the very earliest part of the sixteenth century, if not of the fifteenth', Augustus De Morgan, Arithmetical Books from the Invention of Printing to the Present Time: Being Brief Notices of a Large Number of Works Drawn up from Actual Inspection (London, 1847), 3).
    • 38. Yvonne Fernillot uncovered a second copy in the Sorbonne in 1995. See Yvonne Fernillot, Catalogues Re´gionaux des Incunables des Bibliothe`ques Publiques de France, xii: Bibliothe`que de la Sorbonne . . . (Paris, 1995), no. 287 (118).
    • 39. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan, Memoir of Augustus De Morgan (London, 1881), 58.
    • 40. For extracts from Grote's diaries from 1818-19 showing the breadth of his reading, see Harriet Grote, The Personal Life of George Grote (2nd edn, London, 1873), 29-37; these have been transcribed in 'The Reading Experience Database (RED), 1450-1945', available at: http://www.open.ac. uk/Arts/reading/UK/. For more general reference, see also M.L. Clarke, George Grote: A Biography (London, 1962), 17-18; 174-5. Grote's bookishness is also noted in: Joseph Hamburger, 'Grote, George (1794-1871)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004); online edn, May 2008: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/11677 (accessed 11 Sept. 2013). For a comparison of De Morgan's and Grote's book collecting, see K.E. Attar, 'Victorian Readers and their Library Records Today', in Matthew Bradley & Juliet John (eds), Reading and the Victorians (Farnham, forthcoming).
    • 41. Rye, Libraries of London, 24.
    • 42. E.g. John Barrow, An Account of Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa in the Years 1897 and 1798 (London, 1801); Mary Carpenter, Six Months in India (London, 1868); Morris Birkbeck, Letters from Illinois (3rd edn, London, 1818); Joseph Businger, Luzern und seine Umgebungen (Lucerne, 1833); Samuel Marwell, Narrative of Voyages to New South Wales and the East Indies in 1840, 1841, 1842, and 1843, and to New York and the West Indies, in 1843 and 1844 (London, 1846).
    • 43. 'Presents', Senate minutes 1873, p. 132; Senate minute 148, 21 June 1876; Senate minute 279, 27 Oct. 1880; 'Presents', Senate minutes 1884, p. 164.
    • 44. The range of prices for academic books is taken from advertisements for books published by Macmillan and by Oxford University Press at the front of University of London calendars from the 1870s.
    • 45. Wing (2nd edn) M2492; ESTC R201294.
    • 46. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/7: University of London, Minutes of Committees, 1867-1880.
    • 47. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/10: Senate minute 76, 30 March 1881.
    • 48. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/8: Senate minutes 312-3, 18 Dec. 1872.
    • 49. See Willson, University of London for brief information about Milman and the other nineteenth-century Assistant Registrars. Further information about Milman is to be found in Senate minute 57, 13 Mar. 1873, 26-7.
    • 50. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/8: Senate minute 96, 15 May 1872.
    • 51. Letter from Treasury Chambers, 31 May 1872, reported in University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/8: Senate minute 151, 24 July 1872.
    • 52. Thomas Nichols, A Handbook for Readers at the British Museum (London, 1866); A Handy-Book of the British Museum for Everyday Readers (London, 1870). The Handbook includes an explanation for readers of the British Museum cataloguing rules ('New catalogue of printed books', 38-54). The Handy-Book is less relevant, consisting primarily of narrative descriptions of items in the Egyptian and Assyrian Departments and Classical Antiquities, but shows Nichols's propensity for extra-curricular listing, Nichols explaining in the preface that it was 'prepared during the author's own leisure moments, from notes taken on personal examination of everything in the collections which he has mentioned' (p. [iii]).
    • 53. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/2/2/8: Senate minute 62, 13 Mar 1873. The number of volumes of bound pamphlets was probably 317: see volumes currently classified at (B.P.) 1-303; * (IV) Cd (B.P.1-14); [DeM] Z (B.P. 304-334), [DeM] Z (B.P. 354-363); [DeM] Z (B.P. 366); [DeM] Z (B.P. 370); [DeM] K (B.P.1-2); [DeM] L (B.P.1) SSR; [DeM] L (B.P.21) SSR; [DeM] L.1 (B.P.1) fol.; [DeM] L.1 [B.P.1] SSR.
    • 54. University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/8: Report of the Library Committee presented to the Senate at its meeting of 18 Nov. 1874. As an indication of the difference the payment made to Nichols's income, in 1874 the salary for Senior Assistants in the British Museum ranged from £200 to £400 (Harris, History of the British Museum Library, 294).
    • 55. Senate minute 311 of 18 December 1872 ordered: 'That the Catalogue now being prepared be printed in slip, the type remaining undistributed until further orders' (University of London Archive, UoL/ST/3/2/8). No clue remains of the earliest catalogue as a finding aid.
    • 56. Present in the Library's card catalogue, and stated there to be a presentation copy. See University of London Library card catalogue, http://cards.ull.ac. uk, drawer Rich to Richa, card 371.
    • 57. B.P. 145 (Boucherett); B.P. 148 (Martin and Schomburgk).
    • 58. [before DeM] Z (B.P.355-9). There are exceptions, such as an entry for a Mallet-Bachelier catalogue of 1860 in 'DeM] Z (B.P.357), although not for two other Mallet-Bachelier catalogues in the same volume.
    • 59. University of London Archive, UoL/UL/1/1/1: Minutes of the Library and Gazette and Calendar Committee, 21 Jan. 1907.
    • 60. See University of London, The Calendar for the Year 1877 (London, 1877), 175, and subsequent years. For the first presentation of the new rules allowing for loans, see University of London, The Calendar for the Year 1880 (London, 1880), 190-2.
    • 61. See University College London, Calendar, Session MDCCCLXXVIILXXVIII (London, 1877), 225-6; King's College, London, The Calendar of King's College, London, for 1846 (London, 1846).
    • 62. Rules are also readily accessible for Mason's Science College Library, Birmingham (Thompson, Centennial History, 6-7). Loan conditions at Birmingham were three books for fifteen days. Only teaching staff and those permitted by the trustees could borrow books.
    • 63. See Rosemary Dixon, 'Libraries: Presbyterian/Unitarian', in Isabel Rivers & David Wykes (ed.), A History of the Dissenting Academies in the British Isles, 1660-1860 (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).
    • 64. For example, in a survey of 1909, 'Organisation of the University Libraries', the University of London Library stated as its constituents 'Especially Members of Convocation, Post-graduate Students and External Students', and Library Committee minute 79 of 27 June 1910, suggesting that the University Library should hold a copy of every book set as a Special Subject for university examinations, added: 'It is of course not intended that such a plan should apply to the ordinary Classical books or common text books' (University of London Archive, UoL/UL/1/1). A summary of the function of the University Library in 1930, repeating a scheme laid before the Senate in 1923, mentions post-graduates and special students' books but not undergraduates ('Report on the University Library, B: Function and Purpose since 1900', University of London Archive, UoL/UL/1/4).
    • 65. These are 449 titles printed 1831-40 (the beginning of the machine-press period), 586 printed 1841-50, 383 printed 1851-60 and 321 printed 1861- 71. The titles admittedly include a large number of offprints and some sale catalogues. Grote's books are harder to quantify because the only source of information is the 1877 printed catalogue.
    • 66. For the Victorian mathematical scene, see Raymond Flood, Adrian Rice & Robin Wilson (eds), Mathematics in Victorian Britain (Oxford, 2011).
    • 67. Thompson, 'The Humanities', 61-2.
    • 68. Information about the curriculum and examinations is taken from University of London, The Calendar for the Year 1877; references to requirements for 1876 are from University of London, The Calendar for the Year 1875.
    • 69. Required authors were Virgil, Horace, Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, Homer, Xenophon, Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Xenophon, and Demosthenes.
    • 70. Authors present were Milton, Chaucer, Pope, Bacon, Spenser, and Shakespeare. If the examination is extended to 1876, three further authors are wanting: Ascham, Toxophilus and The Schoolmaster, Cowper, and Tennyson's Arthurian Poems.
    • 71. If the curricula for 1875 and 1876 are taken into account, two textbooks are present and five absent.
    • 72. The library held Guizot's Essai sur l'histoire de France but not works by Alfred de Vigny, Casimir Delavigne, Montesquieu, Cardinal de Retz, Victor Hugo, nor Saint-Marc Girardin's Cours de litterature dramatique.
    • 73. One of these, Histoire de la le´gislation romaine et ge´ne´ralisation du droit romain (the Institutes of Justinian with Ortolan's commentary) is listed in the catalogue of 1900.
    • 74. See Catalogue of Books in the General Library and in the South Library of University College London and, for Whitney, Supplement to the Catalogue of Books . . . (London, 1897). The five examination authors/titles not held by University College London were Kington Oliphant, Sources of Standard English (1873); William Dwight Whitney, Language and its Study (1876); Alfred de Vigny, Eloa and Mo¨ıse; Saint-Marc Girardin, Cours de litterature dramatique (1845 or later editions); and Walter Bagehot, Physics and Politics (1872).
    • 75. The most significant gifts whose donors particularly wanted London to be the recipient were the Goldsmiths' Library of Economic Literature (1903) and the Sterling Library (1956); see Karen Attar, 'Senate House Library: The First Hundred Years', in Christopher Pressler & Karen Attar (eds), Senate House Library, University of London (London, 2012), x-xxi. For the establishment of the University of London Library's role, see quinquennial reports held in the University of London Archive: UoL/UL/1/1.
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