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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ogboi, Friday Lawrence
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: TK
This thesis, addresses some aspects of the well-known, problem, experienced by designer of\ud radio frequency power amplifiers (RFPA): the efficiency/linearity trade-off. The thesis is\ud focused on finding and documenting solution to linearity problem than can be used to\ud advance the performance of radio frequency (RF) and microwave systems used by the\ud wireless communication industry. The research work, this was undertaken by performing a\ud detailed investigation of the behaviour of transistors, under complex modulation, when\ud subjected to time varying baseband signals at their output terminal: This is what in this thesis\ud will be referred to as “baseband injection”. To undertake this study a new approach to the\ud characterisation of non-linear devices (NLD) in the radio frequency (RF) region, such as\ud transistors, designated as device-under-test (DUT), subjected to time varying baseband\ud signals at its output terminal, was implemented. The study was focused on transistors that are\ud used in implementing RF power amplifiers (RFPA) for base station applications. The nonlinear\ud device under test (NL-DUT) is a generalisation to include transistors and other nonlinear\ud devices under test. Throughout this thesis, transistors will be referred to as ‘device’ or\ud ‘radio frequency power amplifier (RFPA) device’. During baseband injection investigations\ud the device is perturbed by multi-tone modulated RF signals of different complexities. The\ud wireless communication industry is very familiar with these kinds of devices and signals.\ud Also familiar to the industry are the effects that arise when these kind of signal perturb these\ud devices, such as inter-modulation distortion and linearity, power consumption/dissipation and\ud efficiency, spectral re-growth and spectral efficiency, memory effects and trapping effects.\ud While the concept of using baseband injection to linearize RFPAs is not new the\ud mathematical framework introduced and applied in this work is novel. This novel approach\ud NOVEL POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN USING NON-LINEAR MICROWAVE CHARACTERISATION AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES CARDIFF UNIVERISTY - UK\ud ABSTRACT vi\ud has provided new insight to this very complex problem and highlighted solutions to how it\ud could be a usable technique in practical amplifiers.\ud In this thesis a very rigorous and complex investigative mathematical and measurement\ud analysis on RFPA response to applied complex stimulus in a special domain called the\ud envelope domain was conducted. A novel generic formulation that can ‘engineer’ signal\ud waveforms by using special control keys with which to provide solution to some of the\ud problems highlighted above is presented.\ud The formulation is based on specific background principles, identified from the result of both\ud mathematical theoretical analysis and detailed experimental device characterisation.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] Andrei Grebennikov, “RF and Microwave Power Amplifier Design”. McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-144493-9
    • [2] Joel Vuolevi and Timo Rahkonen,” Distortion in RF Power Amplifiers”, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2003.
    • [3] John Wood, David E. Root, “Fundamentals of nonlinear behavioral modeling for RF and microwave design”. Artech House, 2005.
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    • [5] Chi-Shuen Leung, Kwok-Keung, M. Cheng, “A new approach to amplifier linearization by the generalized baseband signal injection method,” IEEE microwave and wireless components letters, vol. 12, no.9, September, 2002.
    • [6] Lei Ding, G. Tong Zhou. “Effects of Even-Order Nonlinear Terms on Power Amplifier Modelling and Predistortion Linearization”. IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, Vol. 53, No. 1, January 2004.
    • [7] Vincent W. Leung, Junxiong Deng, Prasad S. Gudem, and Lawrence E. Larson. “Analysis of Envelope Signal Injection for Improvement of RF Amplifier Intermodulation Distortion”, IEEE Journal of solid-state circuits, vol. 40, no. 9, September 2005
    • [8] Akmal, M.; Lees, J.; Jiangtao, S.; Carrubba, V.; Yusoff, Z.; Woodington, S.; Benedikt, J.; Tasker, P.J.; Bensmida, S.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J., "An enhanced modulated waveform measurement system for the robust characterization of microwave devices under modulated excitation," Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), 2011 European , vol., no., pp.180,183, 10-11 Oct. 2011
    • [9] Akmal, M.; Carrubba, V.; Lees, J.; Bensmida, S.; Benedikt, J.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J.; Tasker, P.J., "Linearity enhancement of GaN HEMTs under complex modulated excitation by optimizing the baseband impedance environment," Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International , vol., no., pp.1,4, 5-10 June 2011. doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2011.5972833
    • [10] Akmal, M.; Ogboi, F.L.; Yusoff, Z.; Lees, J.; Carrubba, V.; Choi, H.; Bensmida, S.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J.; Benedikt, J.; Tasker, P.J., "Characterization of electrical memory effects for complex multi-tone excitations using broadband active baseband loadpull," Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2012 42nd European , vol., no., pp.1265,1268, Oct. 29 2012-Nov. 1 2012
    • [11] Akmal, M.; Lees, J.; Bensmida, S.; Woodington, S.; Carrubba, V.; Cripps, S.; Benedikt, J.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J.; Tasker, P.J., "The effect of baseband impedance termination on the linearity of GaN HEMTs," Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2010 European , vol., no., pp.1046,1049, 28-30 Sept. 2010
    • [12] Akmal, M.; Lees, J.; Bensmida, S.; Woodington, S.; Benedikt, J.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J.; Tasker, P.J., "The impact of baseband electrical memory effects on the dynamic transfer characteristics of microwave power transistors," Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Circuits (INMMIC), 2010 Workshop on , vol., no., pp.148,151, 26-27 April 2010 doi: 10.1109/INMMIC.2010.5480111
    • [13] Akmal, M.; Lees, J.; Carrubba, V.; Bensmida, S.; Woodington, S.; Benedikt, J.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J.; Tasker, P.J., "Minimization of baseband electrical memory effects in GaN HEMTs using active IF load-pull," Microwave Conference Proceedings (APMC), 2010 Asia-Pacific , vol., no., pp.5,8, 7-10 Dec. 2010
    • [14] Benedikt, J.; Tasker, P.J., "High-power time-domain measurement bench for power amplifier development," ARFTG Conference Digest,Fall2002.60th,vol.,no.,pp.107,110,5-6Dec.2002, doi: 10.1109/ARFTGF.2002.1218692
    • [15] Lees, J.; Akmal, M.; Bensmida, S.; Woodington, S.; Cripps, S.; Benedikt, J.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J.; Tasker, P., "Waveform engineering applied to linear-efficient PA design," Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), 2010 IEEE11thAnnual,vol.,no.,pp.1,5,12-13April2010 doi: 10.1109/WAMICON.2010.5461847
    • [16] Lees, J.; Williams, T.; Woodington, S.; McGovern, P.; Cripps, S.; Benedikt, J.; Tasker, P., "Demystifying Device related Memory Effects using Waveform Engineering and Envelope Domain Analysis," Microwave Conference, 2008. EuMC 2008. 38th European , vol.,no.,pp.753,756,27-31Oct.2008doi: 10.1109/EUMC.2008.4751562
    • [17] Ogboi, F.L.; Tasker, P.J.; Akmal, M.; Lees, J.; Benedikt, J.; Bensmida, S.; Morris, K.; Beach, M.; McGeehan, J., "A LSNA configured to perform baseband engineering for device linearity investigations under modulated excitations," Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2013 European , vol., no., pp.684,687, 6-10 Oct. 2013
    • [18] Tasker, P.J., "RF Waveform Measurement and Engineering," Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium, 2009. CISC 2009.AnnualIEEEvol.,no.,pp.1,4,11-14Oct.2009doi: 10.1109/csics.2009.5315818 [19]Tasker,P.J.,"Practical waveform doi: 10.1109/MMM.2009.934518
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    • [21] Tasker, P.J.; Reinert, W.; Braunstein, J.; Schlechtweg, M., "Direct Extraction of All Four Transistor Noise Parameters from a Single Noise Figure Measurement," Microwave Conference, 1992. 22nd European , vol.1, no., pp.157,162, 5-9 Sept. 1992 doi: 10.1109/EUMA.1992.335733
    • [22] Williams, D.J.; Leckey, J.; Tasker, P.J., "Envelope domain analysis of measured time domain voltage and current waveforms provide for improved understanding of factors effecting linearity," Microwave Symposium Digest, 2003 IEEE MTT-S International , vol.2, no., pp.1411,1414vol.2,8-13June2003doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2003.1212636
    • [23] Williams, D.J.; Leckey, J.; Tasker, P.J., "A study of the effect of envelope impedance on intermodulation asymmetry using a two-tone time domain measurement system," Microwave Symposium Digest, 2002 IEEE MTT-S International , vol.3, no., pp.1841,1844 vol.3, 2- 7June2002doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2002.1012221
    • [24] Williams, D.; Tasker, P.J., "Thermal parameter extraction technique using DC I-V data for HBT transistors," High Frequency PostgraduateStudentColloquium,2000,vol.,no.,pp.71,75,2000doi: 10.1109/HFPSC.2000.874085
    • [25] Williams, D.J.; Tasker, P.J., "An automated active source and load pull measurement system," High Frequency Postgraduate Student Colloquium,2001.6thIEEE,vol.,no.,pp.7,12,2001doi: 10.1109/HFPSC.2001.962150 how the fundamental output power remains constant and independent of the modulation frequency. With regard to the ACPR distortion ACPRL and ACPRH, it is clear that the symmetry level of ACPR is degraded at a higher modulation frequency after 5 MHz and this is due to impedance variations in higher baseband components (IF3 and IF4), as shown in Fig.
    • 8. It is important to note that the observed variations in ACPRL and ACPRH magnitude observed below 1 MHz are not related to variations in baseband impedance and attributable to other sources of memory.
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