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Husband, S.; Boxall, J. (2015)
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Languages: English
Types: Article
This paper presents predictive discolouration modelling and subsequent field trial validation for a cast iron trunk main network. This enabled a UK water company to propose an ‘operational flow conditioning’ maintenance plan that reduces discolouration risk, improves network resilience and asset condition and yet does not require the trunk main to be decommissioned for invasive cleaning. This represents substantial time and cost benefits. Pre- and post-trial turbidity monitoring data are presented which identified a daily flux of material, a factor in the regeneration of material layers that have been shown to cause discolouration when mobilised. Additional data showing the occurrence of pressure transients are also presented, the latter being a possible cause of contaminant ingress and asset failure. After 6 months a second flow trial was conducted and modelled, confirming the regeneration of particulate discolouration material across the range of mobilising forces applied during the trial. It also indicated full layer development, or maximum discolouration risk, may occur in just over 2 years for this cast iron main. This highlights the need for appropriate maintenance strategies, such as periodic flow conditioning identified here, to mitigate discolouration risk and help safeguard water quality.
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    • Boxall, J. B. & Prince, R. 2006 Modelling discolouration in a Melbourne (Australia) potable water distribution System J. Water Supply Res. Technol.-AQUA 55, 207 219.
    • Boxall, J. B. & Saul, A. J. 2005 Modelling discolouration in potable water distribution systems. J. Environ. Eng. ASCE 131, 716 725.
    • Boxall, J. B., Saul, A. J. & Skipworth, P. J. 2001 A novel approach to modelling sediment movement in distribution mains based on particle characteristics. In: B. Ulanicki, B. Coulbeck & J. P. Rance (eds.) Water Software Systems: v. 1: Theory and Applications (Water Engineering & Management). Research Studies Press, Hertfordshire, UK.
    • Collins, R., Boxall, J., Karney, B., Brunone, B. & Meniconi, S. 2012 How severe can transients be due to a sudden depressurization. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 104, 67 68.
    • Dwi 2000. The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000. 2000 No.3184. DWI.
    • Furnass, W. R., Collins, R. P., Boxall, J. B., Husband, S., Sharpe, R. L. & Mounce, S. 2012 Modelling both the continual erosion and regeneration of discolouration material in drinking water distribution systems. IWA New Developments in IT & Water Conference. Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    • Gauthier, V., Barbeau, B., Millette, R., Block, J.-C. & Prevost, M. 2001 Suspended particles in the drinking water of two distribution systems. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply 1(4), 237 245.
    • Husband, P. S. & Boxall, J. B. 2010 Field studies of discolouration in water distribution systems: model verification and practical implications. J. Environ. Eng. 136, 86 94.
    • Husband, P. S. & Boxall, J. B. 2011 Asset deterioration and discolouration in water distribution systems. Water Res. 45, 113 124.
    • Husband, P. S., Boxall, J. B. & Saul, A. J. 2008 Laboratory studies investigating the processes leading to discolouration in water distribution networks. Water Res. 42, 4309 4318.
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