Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Henderson, A.C.; Hudson, C.D.; Bradley, Andrew J.; Sherwin, V.E.; Green, Martin J. (2016)
Publisher: American Dairy Science Association
Languages: English
Types: Article
The dry period is very important for mammary gland health, with the aim not only to cure existing intramammary infections (IMI) but also to prevent new IMI. Although it is known that the dry period is an important time for optimizing udder health, the probability that individual cows will succumb to a new IMI or, if infected, will fail to cure an IMI is not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifetime cow data, available through routine on-farm milk recording, could be used to predict changes in IMI status across the dry period for individual cows that were (1) deemed high somatic cell count (SCC; >199,000 cells/mL) or (2) low SCC (<200,000 cells/mL) at the last test day before drying off. Milk recording data collected between September 1994 and July 2014 from 114 herds in the United Kingdom were used. Two 2-level random effects models were built and both cure and new IMI were used as outcome variables in separate models. Cows with a smaller proportion of test days with a high SCC in the lactation before drying off, a smaller proportion of test days recording a high SCC in the lactation before the current lactation, of lower parity, producing less milk before drying off, of lower days in milk at drying off, and of lower SCC just before drying off were more likely to cure across the dry period. Dry period length had no effect on the likelihood of cure. Individual cows with a smaller proportion of test days recording a high SCC in the lactation before the current, of lower parity, of lower milk production at drying off, and fewer days in milk at drying off were less likely to develop a new IMI. Dry period length was found to have no effect on the probability of new IMI. Model predictions showed that a high level of discrimination was possible between cows with a high and low risk of both cures and new infections across the dry period.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Archer, S. C., F. Mc Coy, W. Wapenaar, and M. J. Green. 2013a. Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the lifetime milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 96:2951-2959. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6294.
    • Archer, S. C., F. Mc Coy, W. Wapenaar, and M. J. Green. 2013b. Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the longevity of Irish dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96:2939-2950. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6115.
    • Archer, S. C., F. Mc Coy, W. Wapenaar, and M. J. Green. 2014. Association between somatic cell count during the first lactation and the cumulative milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 97:2135-2144. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7158.
    • Bradley, A. J., and M. J. Green. 2000. A study of the incidence and significance of intramammary enterobacterial infections acquired during the dry period. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1957-1965. http://dx.doi. org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75072-7.
    • Church, G. T., L. K. Fox, C. T. Gaskins, D. D. Hancock, and J. M. Gay. 2008. The effect of a shortened dry period on intramammary infections during the subsequent lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 91:4219- 4225. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1377.
    • Coffey, T. J., G. D. Pullinger, R. Urwin, S. M. Wilson, M. C. Maiden, and J. A. Leigh. 2006. First insights into the evolution of Streptococcus uberis: A multilocus sequence typing scheme that enables investigation of its population biology. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:1420-1428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.2.1420- 1428.2006.
    • Cook, N. B., T. B. Bennett, K. M. Emery, and K. V. Nordlund. 2002. Monitoring nonlactating cow intramammary infection dynamics using DHI somatic cell count data. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1119-1126. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74173-8.
    • Cousins, C. L., T. M. Higgs, E. R. Jackson, F. K. Neave, and F. H. Dodd. 1980. Susceptibility of the bovine udder to bacterial infection in the dry period. J. Dairy Res. 47:11-18.
    • Dingwell, R. T., K. E. Leslie, T. F. Duffield, Y. H. Schukken, L. DesCoteaux, G. P. Keefe, D. F. Kelton, K. D. Lissemore, W. Shewfelt, P. Dick, and R. Bagg. 2003. Efficacy of intramammary tilmicosin and risk factors for cure of Staphylococcus aureus infection in the dry period. J. Dairy Sci. 86:159-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(03)73596-6.
    • Dingwell, R. T., K. E. Leslie, Y. H. Schukken, J. M. Sargeant, L. L. Timms, T. F. Duffield, G. P. Keefe, D. F. Kelton, K. D. Lissemore, and J. Conklin. 2004. Association of cow and quarter-level factors at drying-off with new intramammary infections during the dry period. Prev. Vet. Med. 63:75-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. prevetmed.2004.01.012.
    • Dohoo, I. R., and K. E. Leslie. 1991. Evaluation of changes in somatic cell counts as indicators of new intramammary infections. Prev. Vet. Med. 10:225-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167- 5877(91)90006-N.
    • Eberhart, R. J. 1986. Management of dry cows to reduce mastitis. J. Dairy Sci. 69:1721-1732. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(86)80591-4.
    • Farm Animal Welfare Council. 2009. Opinion on the Welfare of the Dairy Cow. Accessed Apr. 7, 2016. https://www.gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/325044/FAWC_opinion_on_dairy_cow_welfare.pdf.
    • Gelman, A., X.-L. Meng, and H. Stern. 1996. Posterior predictive assessment of model fitness via realized discrepancies. Stat. Sin. 6:733-807.
    • Green, M. J., A. J. Bradley, G. F. Medley, and W. J. Browne. 2007. Cow, farm, and management factors during the dry period that determine the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. J. Dairy Sci. 90:3764-3776. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0107.
    • Green, M. J., A. J. Bradley, G. F. Medley, and W. J. Browne. 2008. Cow, farm, and herd management factors in the dry period associated with raised somatic cell counts in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 91:1403-1415. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0621.
    • Green, M. J., P. R. Burton, L. E. Green, Y. H. Schukken, J. Bradley, E. J. Peeler, and G. F. Medley. 2004. The use of Markov chain Monte Carlo for analysis of correlated binary data: Patterns of somatic cells in milk and the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Prev. Vet. Med. 64:157-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. prevetmed.2004.05.006.
    • Green, M. J., L. E. Green, G. F. Medley, Y. H. Schukken, and A. J. Bradley. 2002. Influence of dry period bacterial intramammary infection on clinical mastitis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2589- 2599. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74343-9.
    • Halasa, T., M. Nielen, A. C. Whist, and O. Osterås. 2009a. Metaanalysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 2. Cure of existing intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci. 92:3150-3157. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1741.
    • Halasa, T., O. Osterås, H. Hogeveen, T. van Werven, and M. Nielen. 2009b. Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 1. Protection against new intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci. 92:3134-3149. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1740.
    • Huxley, J. N., M. J. Green, L. E. Green, and J. Bradley. 2002. Evaluation of the efficacy of an internal teat sealer during the dry period. J. Dairy Sci. 85:551-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(02)74108-8.
    • Kossaibati, M. A., and R. J. Esslemont. 1997. The costs of production diseases in dairy herds in England. Vet. J. 154:41-51. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1090-0233(05)80007-3.
    • Madouasse, A., J. N. Huxley, W. J. Browne, A. J. Bradley, and M. J. Green. 2010. Somatic cell count dynamics in a large sample of dairy herds in England and Wales. Prev. Vet. Med. 96:56-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.05.005.
    • Madouasse, A., W. J. Browne, J. N. Huxley, F. Toni, A. J. Bradley, and M. J. Green. 2012. Risk factors for a high somatic cell count at the first milk recording in a large sample of UK dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 95:1873-1884.http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4801.
    • McDermott, M. P., H. N. Erb, and R. P. Natzke. 1982. Predictability by somatic cell counts related to prevalence of intramammary infection within herds. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1535-1539. http://dx.doi. org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82378-3.
    • Newman, K. A., P. J. Rajala-Schultz, F. J. Degraves, and J. Lakritz. 2010. Association of milk yield and infection status at dry-off with intramammary infections at subsequent calving. J. Dairy Res. 77:99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029909990380.
    • Oikonomou, G., M. L. Bicalho, E. Meira, R. E. Rossi, C. Foditsch, V. S. Machado, A. G. V. Teixeira, C. Santisteban, Y. H. Schukken, and R. C. Bicalho. 2014. Microbiota of cow's milk; Distinguishing healthy, sub-clinically and clinically diseased quarters. PLoS ONE 9:e85904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085904.
    • Oikonomou, G., V. S. Machado, C. Santisteban, Y. H. Schukken, and R. C. Bicalho. 2012. Microbial diversity of bovine mastitic milk as described by pyrosequencing of metagenomic 16s rDNA. PLoS ONE 7:e47671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047671.
    • Osterås, O., V. L. Edge, and S. W. Martin. 1999. Determinants of success or failure in the elimination of major mastitis pathogens in selective dry cow therapy. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1221-1231. http:// dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75345-2.
    • Paganelli, R., A. Di Iorio, A. Cherubini, F. Lauretani, C. Mussi, S. Volpato, M. Abate, G. Abate, and L. Ferrucci. 2006. Frailty of older age: The Role of the endocrine-immune interaction. Curr. Pharm. Des. 12:3147-3159. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161206777947533.
    • Pantoja, J. C. F., C. Hulland, and P. L. Ruegg. 2009. Somatic cell count status across the dry period as a risk factor for the development of clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 92:139-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1477.
    • Peeler, E. J., M. J. Green, J. L. Fitzpatrick, and L. E. Green. 2003. The association between quarter somatic-cell counts and clinical mastitis in three British dairy herds. Prev. Vet. Med. 59:169-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(03)00076-X.
    • Pinedo, P. J., C. Fleming, and C. A. Risco. 2012. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies. J. Dairy Sci. 95:7015-7026. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5398.
    • R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
    • Rabash, J. C., C. Charlton, W.J. Browne, M. Healy, and B. Cameron. 2015. MLwiN Version 2.32. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    • Rajala-Schultz, P. J., Y. T. Gröhn, C. E. McCulloch, and C. L. Guard. 1999. Effects of clinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1213-1220. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(99)75344-0.
    • Rajala-Schultz, P. J., J. S. Hogan, and K. L. Smith. 2005. Short communication: Association between milk yield at dry-off and probability of intramammary infections at calving. J. Dairy Sci. 88:577- 579. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72720-X.
    • Rajala-Schultz, P. J., A. H. Torres, and F. J. DeGraves. 2011. Milk yield and somatic cell count during the following lactation after selective treatment of cows at dry-off. J. Dairy Res. 78:489-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000690.
    • Schepers, A. J., T. J. Lam, Y. H. Schukken, J. B. Wilmink, and W. J. Hanekamp. 1997. Estimation of variance components for somatic cell counts to determine thresholds for uninfected quarters. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1833-1840. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(97)76118-6.
    • Schukken, Y. H., J. Vanvliet, D. Vandegeer, and F. J. Grommers. 1993. A randomized blind trial on dry cow antibiotic infusion in a low somatic cell count herd. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2925-2930. http:// dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77632-8.
    • Sol, J., O. C. Sampimon, J. J. Snoep, and Y. H. Schukken. 1994. Factors associated with bacteriological cure after dry cow treatment of subclinical staphylococcal mastitis with antibiotics. J. Dairy Sci. 77:75-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)76930-7.
    • Suriyasathaporn, W., Y. H. Schukken, M. Nielen, and A. Brand. 2000. Low somatic cell count: A risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1248-1255. http://dx.doi. org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74991-5.
    • Weng, N. P. 2006. Aging of the immune system: How much can the adaptive immune system adapt? Immunity 24:495-499. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2006.05.001.
    • Whist, A. C., and O. Osterås. 2007. Associations between somatic cell counts at calving or prior to drying-off and clinical mastitis in the remaining or subsequent lactation. J. Dairy Res. 74:66-73. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002172.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article