LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic; Orbell, Sheina (1995)
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Inc
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF
A social comparison theory approach to the relation between unemployment, self-esteem, and depression was tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire design (N = 88). Personal attributes were used as the domain of comparison, and four types of comparisons - intrapersonal, interpersonal, intragroup, and intergroup - were operationalized. Employment status affected the salience of intrapersonal comparisons. Comparisons with the past self were highly predictive of psychological distress among unemployed respondents, whereas comparisons with the ideal self predicted distress among the employed. Individual-level and group-level social comparisons had different associations with the dependent measures for unemployed respondents. Intrapersonal and interpersonal comparisons were significantly related to depression and self-esteem scores, whereas intragroup and intergroup comparisons were related only to self-esteem. Social comparisons with unemployed people were related to reduced depression levels among employed respondents. Results also showed that unemployed people had more negative social comparison scores relative to their employed counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of recent developments in social comparison theory. Suggestions for future research are outlined.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abrams, D., & Emler, N. (1992). Self-denial as a paradox of political and regional identity: Findings from a study of 16 and 18 year olds. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 279-295.
    • Abrams, D., & Hogg, M. A. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and minimal intergroup discrimination.European Journal of Social Psychol00,18, 317-334.
    • Abrams, D., & Hogg, M. A. (Eds.). (1990). Social identity theory: Constructive and critical advances. New York: Springer.
    • Ahrens, A. H., Zeiss, A. M.,& Kanfer, R. (1988). Dysphoric deficits in interpersonal standards, self-efficacy and social comparisons. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 53-67.
    • Albert, S. (1977). Temporal comparison theory. Psychological Review, 84, 485-503.
    • Bakke, E. W. (1933). The unemployed man. London: Nisbet.
    • Banks, M.H. (1983). Validation of the General Health Questionnairein a young community sample. Psychological Medicine, 13, 349-353.
    • Breakwell, G. M. (1985). Abusing the unemployed: An invisible injustice. Journal of Moral Education, 14, 56-62.
    • Brickman, P., & Bulman, R. (1977). Pleasure and pain in social comparison. In J. M. Suls & R. L. Miller (Eds.), Social comparison processes (pp. 149-186). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
    • Buunk, B. P., Taylor, S. E., Collins, R. L., VanYperen, N. W., & Dakof, G. A. (1990). The affective consequences of social comparison: Either direction has its ups and downs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1238-1249.
    • Clocker, J., Kayne, N., &Alloy, L. B. (1985). Comparingthe self with others in depressed and nondepressed college students: Reply to McCauley. Journal of Personality and Social P S Y C ~ O ~4O8,~1Y57,9-1583.
    • Crosby, F. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Doise. W. (1986). Levels of explanation in social psychology. Cambridge, England: CambridgeUniversity Press.
    • Eisenberg, P., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1938). The psychological effects of unemployment. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 338-3390.
    • Feather, N. T. (1982). Unemployment and its psychological correlates: A study of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, Protestant Ethic values, attributional style and apathy. Australian Journal of Psychology, 34, 309-323.
    • Feather, N. T., & O'Brien, G. E. (1986). A longitudinal study of the effects of employment and unemployment on school-leavers. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 121-144.
    • Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.
    • Fryer, D. M., & Payne, R. L. (1986). Being unemployed: A review of the literature on the psychological experience of unemployment. In C. L. Cooper & I. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizationalpsychology (pp. 235-278). Chichester, England: Wiley.
    • Furnham, A. (1982). Explanations for unemployment in Britain. European Journal of Social P~y~holog1y2, , 335-352.
    • Furnham, A. (1984). Unemployment, attribution theory and mental health. International Journal of Mental Health, 13, 51-67.
    • Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (1991). Downward comparison and coping with threat. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 317-346). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
    • Goldberg, D. P. (1978). Manual for the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, England: National Foundation for Educational Research.
    • Gould, T., & Kenyon, J. (1972). Storiesfrom the Dole Queue. London: Temple Smith.
    • Hayes, J., & Nutman, P. (1981). Understanding the unemployed: Thepsychological effects of unemployment. London: Tavistock.
    • Health Education Bureau. (1987). Provisional Irish Social Class Scale. (Available from the Health Education Bureau, 68 Lower Baggot Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland)
    • Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.
    • Hoge, D. R., & McCarthy, J. D. (1983). Issues of validity and reliability in the use of real-ideal discrepancy scores to measure self-regard. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1048-1055.
    • Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1993). Towards a single-processuncertainty-reductionmodel of social motivation in groups. In M. A. Hogg & D. Abrams (Eds.), Group motivation: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 173-190). London: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.
    • Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of group processes and intergroup relations. London: Methuen.
    • Jahoda, M. (1982). Employment and unemployment. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263-291.
    • Kaufman, H. G. (1982). Professionals in search of work. New York: Wiley.
    • Kelvin, P., & Jarret, J. E. (1985). Unemployment:Its socialpsychological effects. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • Kinch, J. W. (1963). A formalizedtheory of the self-concept. American Journal of Sociology, 68, 207-216.
    • Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1987). Social comparison and outcome evaluation in group contexts. In J. C. Masters & W. Smith (Eds.), Social comparison, relative deprivation and social justice (pp. 105-127). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Pnc.
    • Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1991). Self-esteem and intergroup comparisons: Towards a theory of collective self-esteem. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 211-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
    • Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one's social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 302-318.
    • Major, B., Testa, M., & Bylsma, W. H. (1991). Responses to upward and downward social comparisons: The impact of esteem-relevance and perceived control. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 237-260). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
    • Manis, M. (1958). Personal adjustment, assumed similarityto parents and inferred evaluations of the self. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29, 150-154.
    • Marsden, D., & Duff, E. (1975). Workless. Hammondsworth, England: Pelican.
    • Menaghen, E. (1982). Measuring coping effectiveness: A panel analysis of marital problems and coping efforts. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 220-234.
    • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond actual self ratings. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 108-123.
    • Morse, S., & Gergen, K. J. (1970). Social comparison, self-consistencyand the concept of self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 148-156.
    • Rijsman, J. (1983). The dynamics of social competition in personal and categorical social comparison. In W. Doise & S. Mascovici (Eds.), Current issues in European social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 239-312). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    • Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.
    • Runciman, W. G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Salovey, P., & Rodin, J. (1984). Some antecedents and consequences of social comparison jealously. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 780-792.
    • Shamir, B. (1986). Self-esteem and the psychological impact of unemployment. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 61-72.
    • Sheeran, P., & Abraham, C. (1994). Unemployment and self-conception: A symbolic interactionist analysis. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 4, 115-129.
    • Sheeran, P., & McCarthy, E. (1990). The impact of unemployment upon self-conception: Evaluation, affection, consistency and involvement dimensions. Social Behavior, 5, 351-359.
    • Sheeran, P., & McCarthy, E. (1992). Social structure, self-conception and well-being: An examination of four models with unemployed people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 117-133.
    • Spears, R., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1989). The social context of stereotyping and differentiation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 101-122.
    • Stouffer, S. A., Sucman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., &Williams, R. M., Jr. (1949). The American soldier: Adjustment during Army IIfe (Vol. 1). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    • Tajfel, H. (1974). Intergroup behavior, social comparison and social change. Unpublished Katz-Newcomb lectures presented at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    • Tajfel, H. (Ed.). (1982). Social identity and integroup relations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    • Teichman,M. (1972). Cognitive differentiation between self-conceptand imageof self ascribed to parents in boys on the verge of delinquency. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34, 573-574.
    • Tesser, A., & Campbell, J. (1983). Self-definition and self-evaluation maintenance. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 1, pp. 33-66). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
    • Thibaut, J . W., &Kelly, H. (1959). The socialpsychology of groups. New York: Wiley.
    • Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherall, M. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. New York: Blackwell.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article