Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Bongers, CCWG; Thijssen, DHJ; Veltmeijer, MTW; Hopman, MTE; Eijsvogels, TM
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RC1200
Background Exercise increases core body temperature (Tc), which is necessary to optimise physiological processes. However, excessive increase in Tc may impair performance and places participants at risk for the development of heat-related illnesses. Cooling is an effective strategy to attenuate the increase in Tc. This meta-analysis compares the effects of cooling before (precooling) and during exercise (percooling) on performance and physiological outcomes. Methods A computerised literature search, citation tracking and hand search were performed up to May 2013. 28 studies met the inclusion criteria, which were trials that examined the effects of cooling strategies on exercise performance in men, while exercise was performed in the heat (>30°C). 20 studies used precooling, while 8 studies used percooling. Results The overall effect of precooling and percooling interventions on exercise performance was +6.7±0.9% (effect size (ES)=0.43). We found a comparable effect (p=0.82) of precooling (+5.7±1.0% (ES=0.44)) and percooling (+9.9±1.9% (ES=0.40)) to improve exercise performance. A lower finishing Tc was found in precooling (38.9°C) compared with control condition (39.1°C, p=0.03), while Tc was comparable between conditions in percooling studies. No correlation between Tc and performance was found. We found significant differences between cooling strategies, with a combination of multiple techniques being most effective for precooling (p<0.01) and ice vest for percooling (p=0.02). Conclusions Cooling can significantly improve exercise performance in the heat. We found a comparable ES for precooling and percooling on exercise performance, while the type of cooling technique importantly impacts the effects. Precooling lowered the finishing core temperature, while there was no correlation between Tc and performance.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Duffield R. Cooling interventions for the protection and recovery of exercise performance from exercise-induced heat stress. Med Sport Sci. 2008;53:89-103.
    • 2. Wendt D, van Loon LJ, Lichtenbelt WD. Thermoregulation during exercise in the heat: strategies for maintaining health and performance. Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ. 2007;37:669-82.
    • 3. Maughan R, Shirreffs S. Exercise in the heat: challenges and opportunities. Journal of sports sciences. 2004;22:917-27.
    • 4. Marino FE. Methods, advantages, and limitations of body cooling for exercise performance. British journal of sports medicine. 2002;36:89-94.
    • 5. Quod MJ, Martin DT, Laursen PB. Cooling athletes before competition in the heat: comparison of techniques and practical considerations. Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ. 2006;36:671-82.
    • 6. Siegel R, Laursen PB. Keeping your cool: possible mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance in the heat with internal cooling methods. Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ.42:89- 98.
    • 7. Wegmann M, Faude O, Poppendieck W, et al. Pre-cooling and sports performance: a meta-analytical review. Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ. 2012;42:545-64.
    • 8. Bolster DR, Trappe SW, Short KR, et al. Effects of precooling on thermoregulation during subsequent exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1999;31:251-7.
    • 9. Kenefick RW, Cheuvront SN, Sawka MN. Thermoregulatory function during the marathon. Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ. 2007;37:312-5.
    • 10. Tyler CJ, Sunderland C, Cheung SS. The effect of cooling prior to and during exercise on exercise performance and capacity in the heat: a meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine. 2013.
    • 11. Arngrimsson SA, Petitt DS, Stueck MG, et al. Cooling vest worn during active warmup improves 5-km run performance in the heat. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96:1867-74.
    • 12. Minett GM, Duffield R, Marino FE, et al. Duration-dependant response of mixedmethod pre-cooling for intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. European journal of applied physiology. 2012;112:3655-66.
    • 13. Stannard AB, Brandenburg JP, Pitney WA, et al. Effects of wearing a cooling vest during the warm-up on 10-km run performance. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association.25:2018-24.
    • 14. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioralsciences. 2 ed. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988. 567 p.
    • 15. Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994;50:1088-101.
    • 16. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, et al. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Bmj. 1997;315:629-34.
    • 17. Sterne JA, Egger M, Smith GD. Systematic reviews in health care: Investigating and dealing with publication and other biases in meta-analysis. Bmj. 2001;323:101-5.
    • 18. Castle PC, Macdonald AL, Philp A, et al. Precooling leg muscle improves intermittent sprint exercise performance in hot, humid conditions. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100:1377-84.
    • 19. Cotter JD, Sleivert GG, Roberts WS, et al. Effect of pre-cooling, with and without thigh cooling, on strain and endurance exercise performance in the heat. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001;128:667-77.
    • 20. Duffield R, Dawson B, Bishop D, et al. Effect of wearing an ice cooling jacket on repeat sprint performance in warm/humid conditions. British journal of sports medicine. 2003;37:164-9.
    • 21. Duffield R, Green R, Castle P, et al. Precooling can prevent the reduction of self-paced exercise intensity in the heat. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2010;42:577-84.
    • 22. Duffield R, Marino FE. Effects of pre-cooling procedures on intermittent-sprint exercise performance in warm conditions. European journal of applied physiology. 2007;100:727-35.
    • 23. Duffield R, Steinbacher G, Fairchild TJ. The use of mixed-method, part-body precooling procedures for team-sport athletes training in the heat. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. 2009;23:2524-32.
    • 24. Hsu AR, Hagobian TA, Jacobs KA, et al. Effects of heat removal through the hand on metabolism and performance during cycling exercise in the heat. Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquee. 2005;30:87-104.
    • 25. Kay D, Taaffe DR, Marino FE. Whole-body pre-cooling and heat storage during selfpaced cycling performance in warm humid conditions. Journal of sports sciences. 1999;17:937-44.
    • 26. Luomala MO, J., Salmi J, Linnamo V, et al. Adding Adding Adding vest during cycling improves performance in warm and humid conditions. Journal of Thermal Biology. 2012;37:47-55.
    • 27. Minett GM, Duffield R, Marino FE, et al. Volume-dependent response of precooling for intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2011;43:1760-9.
    • 28. Minniti A, Tyler CJ, Sunderland C. Effects of a cooling collar on affect, ratings of perceived exertion, and running performance in the heat. Eur J Sport Sci. 2011;11:419-29.
    • 29. Mundel T, King J, Collacott E, et al. Drink temperature influences fluid intake and endurance capacity in men during exercise in a hot, dry environment. Experimental physiology. 2006;91:925-33.
    • 30. Quod MJ, Martin DT, Laursen PB, et al. Practical precooling: effect on cycling time trial performance in warm conditions. Journal of sports sciences. 2008;26:1477-87.
    • 31. Siegel R, Mate J, Watson G, et al. Pre-cooling with ice slurry ingestion leads to similar run times to exhaustion in the heat as cold water immersion. Journal of sports sciences. 2012;30:155-65.
    • 32. Stanley J, Leveritt M, Peake JM. Thermoregulatory responses to ice-slush beverage ingestion and exercise in the heat. European journal of applied physiology. 2010;110:1163- 73.
    • 33. Tyler CJ, Sunderland C. Cooling the neck region during exercise in the heat. Journal of athletic training.46:61-8.
    • 34. Tyler CJ, Sunderland C. Neck cooling and running performance in the heat: single versus repeated application. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2011;43:2388-95.
    • 35. Tyler CJ, Wild P, Sunderland C. Practical neck cooling and time-trial running performance in a hot environment. European journal of applied physiology.110:1063-74.
    • 36. Uckert S, Joch W. Effects of warm-up and precooling on endurance performance in the heat. British journal of sports medicine. 2007;41:380-4.
    • 37. Byrne C, Owen C, Cosnefroy A, et al. Self-paced exercise performance in the heat after pre-exercise cold-fluid ingestion. Journal of athletic training. 2011;46:592-9.
    • 38. Duffield R, Coutts A, McCall A, et al. Pre-cooling for football training and competition in hot and humid conditions. Eur J Sport Sci. 2013;13:58-67.
    • 39. Ihsan M, Landers G, Brearley M, et al. Beneficial effects of ice ingestion as a precooling strategy on 40-km cycling time-trial performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5:140-51.
    • 40. Scheadler CM, Saunders NW, Hanson NJ, et al. Palm Cooling Does not Improve Running Performance. Int J Sports Med. 2013.
    • 41. Skein M, Duffield R, Cannon J, et al. Self-paced intermittent-sprint performance and pacing strategies following respective pre-cooling and heating. European journal of applied physiology. 2012;112:253-66.
    • 42. Stevens CJ, Dascombe B, Boyko A, et al. Ice slurry ingestion during cycling improves Olympic distance triathlon performance in the heat. Journal of sports sciences. 2013;31:1271- 9.
    • 43. Burdon CA, Hoon MW, Johnson NA, et al. The Effect of Ice Slushy Ingestion and Mouthwash on Thermoregulation and Endurance Performance in the Heat. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2013.
    • 44. Jones PR, Barton C, Morrissey D, et al. Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review. Bmc Med. 2012;10:166.
    • 45. Reilly T, Drust B, Gregson W. Thermoregulation in elite athletes. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 2006;9:666-71.
    • 46. Hasegawa H, Takatori T, Komura T, et al. Combined effects of pre-cooling and water ingestion on thermoregulation and physical capacity during exercise in a hot environment. Journal of sports sciences. 2006;24:3-9.
    • 47. Tucker R, Rauch L, Harley YX, et al. Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatory reduction in skeletal muscle recruitment. Pflugers Arch. 2004;448:422-30.
    • 48. Merrick MA, Jutte LS, Smith ME. Cold Modalities With Different Thermodynamic Properties Produce Different Surface and Intramuscular Temperatures. Journal of athletic training. 2003;38:28-33.
    • 49. Yeo ZW, Fan PW, Nio AQ, et al. Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:859-66.
    • 50. Daanen HA, van Es EM, de Graaf JL. Heat strain and gross efficiency during endurance exercise after lower, upper, or whole body precooling in the heat. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27:379-88.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Funded by projects

Cite this article