Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Zhao, X; Liu, J; Yang, H; Duarte, R; Tillotson, MR; Hubacek, K (2016)
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Languages: English
Types: Article
Much attention has been paid to burden-shifting of CO2 emissions from developed regions to developing regions through trade. However, less discussed is that trade also acts as a mechanism enabling wealthy consumers to shift water quantity and quality stress to their trading partners. In this study we investigate how Shanghai, the largest mega-city in China, draws water resources from all over China and outsources its pollution through virtual quantity and quality water flows associated with trade. The results show that Shanghai’s consumption of goods and services in 2007 led to 11.6 billion m3 of freshwater consumption, 796 thousand tons of COD, and 16.2 thousand tons of NH3-N in discharged wastewater. Of this, 79% of freshwater consumption, 82.9% of COD and 82.5% of NH3-N occurred in other Chinese Provinces which provide goods and services to Shanghai. Thirteen Provinces with severe and extreme water quantity stress accounted for 60% of net virtual water import to Shanghai, while 19 Provinces experiencing water quality stress endured 79% of net COD outsourcing and 75.5% of net NH3-N outsourcing from Shanghai. In accordance with the three ‘redlines’ recently put forward by the Chinese central government to control water pollution and cap total water use in all provinces, we suggest that Shanghai should share its responsibility for reducing water quantity and quality stress in its trading partners through taking measures at provincial, industrial and consumer levels. In the meantime, Shanghai needs to enhance demand side management by promoting low water intensity consumption.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adamson, D., and A. Loch (2014), Possible negative feedbacks from 'gold-plating'irrigation infrastructure, Agric. Water Manage., 145, 134-144.
    • Allan, T. (1992), Fortunately there are substitutes for water: Otherwise our hydropolitical futures would be impossible, paper presented at Priorities for Water Resources Allocation and Management, Overseas Development Administration (ODA), Southampton, London.
    • Arto, I., and E. Dietzenbacher (2014), Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48(10), 5388-5394.
    • Davis, S. J., and K. Caldeira (2010), Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107(12), 5687-5692.
    • Ding, H., Q. Liu, and L. Zheng (2016), Assessing the economic performance of an environmental sustainable supply chain in reducing environmental externalities, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 255(2), 463-480.
    • Editorial Board of First Pollution Census Data (2011), Pollution Census Dataset, China Environ. Sci. Press, Beijing.
    • Ewing, B. R., T. R. Hawkins, T. O. Wiedmann, A. Galli, A. Ertug Ercin, J. Weinzettel, and K. Steen-Olsen (2012), Integrating ecological and water footprint accounting in a multi-regional input-output framework, Ecol. Indic., 23, 1-8.
    • Feng, K., A. Chapagain, S. Suh, S. Pfister, and K. Hubacek (2011), Comparison of bottom-up and top-down approaches to calculating the water footprints of nations, Econ. Syst. Res., 23(4), 371-385.
    • Feng, K., Y. L. Siu, D. Guan, and K. Hubacek (2012), Assessing regional virtual water flows and water footprints in the Yellow River Basin, China: A consumption based approach, Appl. Geogr., 32(2), 691-701.
    • Feng, K., S. J. Davis, L. Sun, X. Li, D. Guan, W. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. Hubacek (2013), Outsourcing CO2 within China, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 110(28), 11,654-11,659.
    • Feng, K., K. Hubacek, S. Pfister, Y. Yu, and L. Sun (2014), Virtual scarce water in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48(14), 7704-7713.
    • Finlayson, B. L., J. Barnett, T. Wei, M. Webber, M. Li, M. Y. Wang, J. Chen, H. Xu, and Z. Chen (2013), The drivers of risk to water security in Shanghai, Reg. Environ. Change, 13(2), 329-340.
    • Gomez, C. M., and C. Gutierrez (2011), Enhancing irrigation efficiency but increasing water use: The Jevons' paradox, paper presented at EAAE Congress: Change and Uncertainty Challenges for Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE), Zurich, Switzerland.
    • Guan, D., and K. Hubacek (2007), Assessment of regional trade and virtual water flows in China, Ecol. Econ., 61(1), 159-170.
    • Hoekstra, A. Y., and M. M. Mekonnen (2012), The water footprint of humanity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 109(9), 3232-3237.
    • Hoekstra, A. Y., A. K. Chapagain, M. M. Aldaya, and M. M. Mekonnen (2011), The Water Footprint Assessment Manual: Setting the Global Standard, 224 pp., Earthscan, London, Washington, D. C.
    • Jiao, W., Q. Min, A. M. Fuller, Z. Yuan, J. Li, S. Cheng, and W. Li (2015), Evaluating environmental sustainability with the Waste Absorption Footprint (WAF): An application in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, Ecol. Indic., 49, 39-45.
    • Kanemoto, K., D. Moran, M. Lenzen, and A. Geschke (2014), International trade undermines national emission reduction targets: New evidence from air pollution, Global Environ. Change, 24, 52-59.
    • Lenzen, M., J. Murray, F. Sack, and T. Wiedmann (2007), Shared producer and consumer responsibility: Theory and practice, Ecol. Econ., 61(1), 27-42.
    • Lenzen, M., D. Moran, K. Kanemoto, B. Foran, L. Lobefaro, and A. Geschke (2012), International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations, Nature, 486(7401), 109-112.
    • Lenzen, M., D. Moran, A. Bhaduri, K. Kanemoto, M. Bekchanov, A. Geschke, and B. Foran (2013), International trade of scarce water, Ecol. Econ., 94, 78-85.
    • Li, E., J. Endter-Wada, and S. Li (2015), Characterizing and contextualizing the water challenges of megacities, J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc., 51(3), 589-613.
    • Li, Y., Y. Lu, X. Zhang, L. Liu, M. Wang, and X. Jiang (2016), Propensity of green consumption behaviors in representative cities in China, J. Clean Prod., 133, 1328-1336.
    • Lin, J., D. Pan, S. J. Davis, Q. Zhang, K. He, C. Wang, D. G. Streets, D. J. Wuebbles, and D. Guan (2014), China's international trade and air pollution in the United States, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111(5), 1736-1741.
    • Liu, J., C. Zang, S. Tian, J. Liu, H. Yang, S. Jia, L. You, B. Liu, and M. Zhang (2013), Water conservancy projects in China: Achievements, challenges and way forward, Global Environ Change, 23(3), 633-643.
    • Liu, J., Q. Liu, and H. Yang (2016), Assessing water scarcity by simultaneously considering environmental flow requirements, water quantity, and water quality, Ecol. Indic., 60, 434-441.
    • Loch, A., and D. Adamson (2015), Drought and the rebound effect: A Murray-Darling Basin example, Nat. Hazards, 79(3), 1429-1449.
    • Lutter, S., S. Pfister, S. Giljum, H. Wieland, and C. Mutel (2016), Spatially explicit assessment of water embodied in European trade: A product-level multi-regional input-output analysis, Global Environ. Change, 38, 171-182.
    • Ministry of Environment Protection of China (2002), Environmental QualityStandards for Surface Water [GB3838-2002], Stand. Press of China, Beijing, China.
    • Okadera, T., M. Watanabe, and K. Xu (2006), Analysis of water demand and water pollutant discharge using a regional input-output table: An application to the City of Chongqing, upstream of the Three Gorges Dam in China, Ecol. Econ., 58(2), 22--237.
    • Oki, T., and S. Kanae (2004), Virtual water trade and world water resources, Water Sci. Technol., 49(7), 203-209.
    • Peters, G. P., and E. G. Hertwich (2008), CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(5), 1401-1407.
    • Peters, G. P., J. C. Minx, C. L. Weber, and O. Edenhofer (2011), Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 108(21), 8903-8908.
    • Provincial Water Resources Bureau (PWRB) (2007), Water Resource Bulletin [in Chinese], China Water Power Press, Beijing.
    • The State Council Leading Group Office of Second China Economic Census (2008), Chinese Economic Census Yearbook, China Stat. Press, Beijing, China.
    • Scanlon, B. R., I. Jolly, M. Sophocleous, and L. Zhang (2007), Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality, Water Resour. Res., 43, W03437, doi:10.1029/2006WR005486.
    • Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Statistics (198122011), Shanghai Statistical Yearbook, China Stat. Press, Beijing.
    • Shanghai Water Resources Bureau (2007), Shanghai Water Resources Bulletin, China Water Power Press, Beijing.
    • Shanghai Water Resources Bureau (2010), Shanghai Water Resource Bulletin [in Chinese], China Water Power Press, Beijing.
    • Shen, J. (2012), Understanding the determinants of consumers' willingness to pay for eco-labeled products: An empirical analysis of the china environmental label, J. Serv. Sci. Manage., 5(1), 87-94.
    • Tamea, S., J. A. Carr, F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi (2014), Drivers of the virtual water trade, Water Resour. Res., 50, 17-28, doi:10.1002/ 2013WR014707.
    • United Nations (2010), World urbanization prospects: The 2009 Revision, technical report number: ESA/P/WP/215, U. N. Dep. of Econ. and Soc. Affairs/Popul. Div., N. Y.
    • Wang, R., and J. Zimmerman (2016), Hybrid analysis of blue water consumption and water scarcity implications at the global, national, and basin levels in an increasingly globalized world, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50(10), 5143-5153.
    • Ward, F. A., and M. Pulido-Velazquez (2008), Water conservation in irrigation can increase water use, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 105(47), 18,215-18,220.
    • Weber, C. L., and G. P. Peters (2009), Climate change policy and international trade: Policy considerations in the US, Energy Policy, 37(2), 432-440.
    • Wiedmann, T. O., H. Schandl, M. Lenzen, D. Moran, S. Suh, J. West, and K. Kanemoto (2015), The material footprint of nations, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112(20), 6271-6276.
    • Wiedmann, T. (2009), A review of recent multi-region input-output models used for consumption-based emission and resource accounting, Ecol. Econ., 69(2), 211-222.
    • Yao, L., J. Liu, T. Zhou, and R. Wang (2016), An analysis of the driving forces behind pollutant emission reduction in Chinese industry, J. Clean Prod., 112, 1395-1400.
    • Yin, Z.Y., S. Walcott, B. Kaplan, J. Cao, W. Lin, M. Chen, D. Liu, and Y. Ning (2005), An analysis of the relationship between spatial patterns of water quality and urban development in Shanghai, China, Comput. Environ. Urban, 29(2), 197-221.
    • Zeng, Z., J. Liu, and H. H. G. Savenije (2013), A simple approach to assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality, Ecol. Indic., 34, 441-449.
    • Zhang, C., and L. D. Anadon (2014), A multi-regional input-output analysis of domestic virtual water trade and provincial water footprint in China, Ecol. Econ., 100, 159-172.
    • Zhang, Z., H. Yang, and M. Shi (2011), Analyses of water footprint of Beijing in an interregional input-output framework, Ecol. Econ., 70(12), 2494-2502.
    • Zhao, X., H. Yang, Z. Yang, B. Chen, and Y. Qin (2010), Applying the input-output method to account for water footprint and virtual water trade in the Haihe River Basin in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44(23), 9150-9156.
    • Zhao, X., J. Liu, Q. Liu, M. R. Tillotson, D. Guan, and K. Hubacek (2015), Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 112(4), 1031-1035.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

Cite this article