Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Nicholls, A.R.; Polman, Remco C.J.; Holt, N.L. (2005)
Languages: English
Types: Article
The primary aims of this study were to investigate the effects of an imagery intervention on the intensity and frequency of flow states and golf performance. A secondary purpose was to examine participants’ experiences of the delivery of the intervention. Adopting a single subject\ud ABA research design, individualized imagery interventions were delivered over a 12-week period to four high-performance amateur golfers (one female, three male, aged 20-23 years). Golf performance was assessed via a participant-selected golf skill. Flow experiences were measured by the Flow State Scale-2, and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (Jackson & Eklund, 2002). Results suggested that three of the four participants increased mean global flow intensity, and all four golfers increased mean global flow frequency and performance during the intervention and post intervention period in comparison to baseline. The participants also perceived that their imagery ability had improved because of the intervention.\ud
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Barlow, D. H., & Hersen, M. (1984). Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior change (2nd ed.). New York: Pergamon.
    • Biddle, S. (2000). Psychology of sport and exercise: Present and future. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 1, 1-5.
    • Callow, N., Hardy, L., & Hall, C. (2001). The effect of a motivational-mastery imagery intervention on the sport confidence of three elite badminton players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 389-400.
    • Cately, D., & Duda, J. (1997). Psychological antecedents of the frequency and intensity of flow in golfers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28, 309-322.
    • Cohn, P. (1991). An exploratory study of peak performance in golf. The Sport Psychologist, 5, 1-14.
    • Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1987). Applied behavior analysis. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.
    • Cumming, J. L., & Ste-Marie, D .M. (2001). The cognitive and motivational effects of imagery training: A matter of perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 276-288.
    • Hall, C.R., Mack, D., Paivio, A., & Hausenblaus, H. A. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the sport imagery questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 73-89.
    • Hrycaiko, D. W., & Martin, G. L. (1996). Applied research studies with single subject designs: Why so few? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 8, 183-199.
    • Jackson, S. A. (1995). Factors influencing the occurrence of flow in elite athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7, 138-166.
    • Jackson, S. A. (1996). Toward a conceptual understanding of the flow experience in elite athletes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, 76-90.
    • Jackson, S. A. (1999). Joy, fun, and flow state in sport. In Y. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport. (pp. 133-135). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    • Jackson, S. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Flow in sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    • Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: The Flow State Scale-2 and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 133- 150.
    • Jackson, S. A., Kimiecik, J. C., Ford, S., & Marsh, H. W. (1998). Psychological correlates of flow in sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 20, 358-378.
    • Jackson, S. A., & Roberts, G. C. (1992). Positive performance states of athletes: Towards a conceptual understanding of peak performance. The Sports Psychologist, 6, 156-171.
    • Jackson, S. A., Thomas, P. R., Marsh, H. W., & Smethurst, C. J. (2001). Relationship between flow, self-concept, psychological skill, and performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 129-135.
    • Kazdin, A. E. (1992). Research design in clinical psychology. New York: Macmillan.
    • Kimiecik, J. C., & Jackson, S. A. (2002). Optimal experience in sport: A flow perspective. In T. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 501-553). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    • Kirschenbaum, D. S., Owens, D., & O'Connor, E. A. (1998). Smart golf: Preliminary evaluation of a simple, yet comprehensive, approach to improving and scoring the mental game. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 271-282.
    • Kratochwill, T. R. (1978). Single-subject research: Strategies for evaluating change. New York: Academic Press.
    • Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    • Martin, K. A., & Hall, C. R. (1995). Using mental imagery to enhance intrinsic motivation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 54-69.
    • Martin, K. A., Moritz, S. E., & Hall, C. R. (1999). Imagery use in sport: A literature review and applied model. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 245-268.
    • Maykut, P., & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide. Philadelphia: Falmer Press.
    • Moritz, S. E., Hall, C. R., Martin, K. A., & Vadocz, E. (1996). What are confident athletes imaging? An examination of image content. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 171-179.
    • Munroe, K. J., Giacobbi, P. R., Hall, C., & Weinberg, R. (2000). The four Ws of imagery use: Where, when, why and what. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 119-137.
    • Nicholls, A. R., Holt, N. L., & Polman, R. C. J (2004). A phenomenological analysis of effective and ineffective coping experiences among elite adolescent golfers. Poster Presented at Nicholls, A. R., Holt, N. L., Polman, R. C. J., & James, D. W. G. (in press). Stress and coping among international adolescent golfers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology.
    • Paivio, A. (1985). Cognitive and motivational functions of imagery in human performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 22-28.
    • Pates, J., Cummings, A., & Maynard, I. (2002). The effects of hypnosis on flow states and three-point shooting performance in basketball players. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 34-47.
    • Pates, J., & Maynard, I. (2000). The effects of hypnosis of flow states and golf performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 1057-1075.
    • Pates, J., Oliver, R., & Maynard, I. (2001). The effects of hypnosis on flow states and golfputting performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 341-354.
    • Poczwardowski, A., Sherman, C. P., & Henschen, K. P. (1998). A sport psychology delivery service: Building on theory and practice. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 191-207.
    • Short, S.E., Bruggeman, J. M., Engel, S. G., Marback, T. L., Wang, L. J., Willadsen, A., & Short, M. W. (2002). The effect of imagery function and imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance on a golf-putting task. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 48-67.
    • Vealey, R. S., & Greenleaf, C.A. (2001). Seeing is believing: Understanding and using imagery in sport. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (pp. 247-283). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
    • Woolfolk, R. L., Murphy, S. M., Gottesfelt, D., & Aiken, D. (1985). The effects of positive and negative imagery on motor skill performance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 335-341. intensity and precision. You are ready. (20 seconds)
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article