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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Levy, Amir (2015)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: GB
Groundwater-surface water exchange significantly impacts proglacial hydrology and ecology. This study applies a multidisciplinary approach to investigate groundwater-surface water exchange in the proglacial zones of two retreating glaciers in SE Iceland. Mapping of decadal changes in the extent of proglacial groundwater seeps in the large outwash plain of Skeiðarársandur has shown a 97% decline, as well as substantial falls in groundwater levels. Field and laboratory measurements suggested high spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity at the Skaftafellsjökull foreland. The highest hydraulic conductivity was measured in areas underlain by glaciofluvial deposits whilst the lowest hydraulic conductivities were associated with glacial tills and lacustrine deposits.\ud Precipitation was identified as an important control on groundwater levels on various temporal scales. Automated monitoring of meltwater and groundwater levels also identified fluctuations in meltwater level as an important control on hydraulic heads, whose importance on groundwater levels has been observed during various flow regimes. The close connection between meltwater and groundwater levels suggest high meltwater-aquifer exchange. However, high meltwater-aquifer exchange is contested by significantly different geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and meltwater. Hydrogeological flux estimates suggest high spatial variability in groundwater seepage into the Instrumented Lake, which was attributed to the high variability in hydraulic conductivity around the lakeshores. These are also supported by high –resolution temperature mapping at the lake bed, which suggested that groundwater upwelling in the fine-grained lakeshore took place at discrete locations.\ud This study suggests climate and glacier margin fluctuations as primary controls on proglacial groundwater-surface water exchange. It also highlights the importance of groundwater contributions to water quality and ecology, with groundwater-fed bodies possibly sustaining important ecological niches. However, proglacial groundwater-fed features are transient and are threatened by changes in precipitation and glacier retreat. Further declines in groundwater-fed hydrological systems are therefore projected to adversely impact proglacial groundwater-surface water interaction.
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    • 1.1. Scientific rationale ...................................................................................................1 2.2. Water sources in glaciated catchments................................................................8 2.3. Groundwater flow in glaciated environments .....................................................13 2.3.2. Processes of groundwater flow in glaciated environments..........................14 2.3.4. The impact of geomorphology on proglacial groundwater flow....................20 2.3.5. The impact of glacial thermal regime on groundwater flow .........................22 2.3.6.
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7368. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7368 Rutter N, Hodson A, Irvine-Fynn T, Kristensen Solås. 2011 Hydrology and hydrochemistry of a deglaciating high-Arctic catchment, Svalbard. Journal of Hydrology 410: 39-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.001 Saulnier-Talbot E, Leng MJ, Pienitz R. 2007. Recent climate and stable isotopes in modern surface waters of northernmost Ungava Peninsula, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 44: 171-180.
    • Sawyer AH, Cardenas MB. 2009. Hyporheic flow and residence time distributions in heterogeneous cross-bedded sediment. Water Resources Research 45: W08406, DOI:10.1029/2008WR007632, Sawyer AH, Cardenas MB, Bomar A, Mackey M. 2009. Impact of dam operations on hyporheic exchange in the riparian zone of a regulated river. Hydrological Processes 23: 2129-2137. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7324 Scheidegger JM, Bense VF. 2014. Impacts of glacially recharged groundwater flow systems on talik evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research Earth Surface 119: 758-778, doi:10.1002/2013JF002894 Scheidegger JM, Bense VF, Grasby SE. 2012. Transient nature of Arctic spring systems driven by subglacial meltwater. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L12405, doi:10.1029/2012GL051445.
    • Sigurðsson O. 1998: Glacier variations in Iceland 1930-1995 - from the database of the Icelandic Glaciological Society. Jökull 45: 3-25.
    • Sigurðsson F, Einarsson K. 1988. Groundwater resources of Iceland - availability and demand. Jökull 38: 35-53.
    • Solberg IL, Hansen L, Rokoengen K, Sveian H, Olsen L. 2008. Deglaciation history and landscape development of fjord-valley deposits in Buvika, Mid-Norway. Boreas 37: 297- 315. DOI: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2007.00020.x 10.56
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