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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
(2013)
Publisher: Routledge
Languages: English
Types: Other
Subjects: 2700
Within the classical Islamic tradition, the field of Qur'anic exegesis, more commonly referred to as tafsir, occupies a revered place among the traditional Muslim sciences. In the same way that the study of hadith, jurisprudence, variae lectiones (liturgical readings of the Qur’an), theology, and the linguistic disciplines were all separately defined traditions of learning, tafsir carved out a exclusive niche for itself among the traditional religious sciences. Historically, some of the earliest forms of Qur’anic exegesis were initially inspired by the efforts to preserve and enshrine the sacred text; this endeavour was meticulously broached through reference to features of the Qur’an’s distinctive language. However, the need to flesh out and contextualize the text’s content and teachings soon witnessed the development of broader and more comprehensive explanatory treatments of the Qur’an. Critically, methodologies and strategies aimed at regulating such activity were soon devised by classical scholarship. Such was the rapidity and sophistication with which the genre of tafsir developed that by the end of the third/ninth century not only had voluminous commentaries been devoted to the Qur’an, but likewise texts which set out principles and guidelines for the pursuit of tafsir had become prolific.
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    • f o . 1 tea 999 999 99 99 00 9 9 0 D 1 1 1 1 2 , 1 3 . . , 7 ,61 litao .47 ,1-21 lIsam O,85-8 :72 eR 51- :81 nad :81 ,isedu lisum :,621 ,isedu Rircab,iseud t 4 t A t V V I I I I i rend lisa k z t o a E , i an re itr ,s o w . u m r m d pp sm lt i e i u e D sh C f li R , a ra c, . 1 u 1 id ce ro ub from oMuhm -4 av ien on P r . is 9 R 0 o ic e A -J 3 D cS H m app .S la 2 , ch yb fok :201 d , n y in e d A rea ed ro P,d d isa oph ise ca pw liso tu lli . r l o and new York: routledge, 2006, pp. 16-46. Idem. 'Epigraphy and the Linguistic Background to the Qur'an.' In G. reynolds (ed.), The Qur”An in its Historical Context. London: routledge, 2008, pp. 51-69. Idem. 'new documentary Evidence and the Early Islamic State' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (2006:69.3), pp. 395-416. Mustafa Azami. Studies in Early LadCth Literature: with a Critical Edition of Some Early Texts, 3rd edi. Indianapolis: American trust Publications, 1992. n. J. coulson 'European criticism of Hadith Literature', in Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, pp. 317-321. Wael Hallaq. 'Groundwork of the Moral Law: A new Look at the Qur'an and the Genesis of Sharc'a.' Islamic Law and Society (2009:16.3.4), pp. 239-279.
    • 245 It was based on enlarged versions of a series of lectures he delivered at uppsala universitet. Goldziher speaks of being indebted to the work of theodor nöldeke, Geschichte des QorAns. Jacob Lassner, 'Abraham Geiger: A nineteenth-century Jewish reformer on the origins of Islam' in The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Edited by Martin Kramer. tel Aviv: Moshe dayan center, 1999, pp. 103-36.
    • 246 Joseph Schacht. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. 2nd edi. oxford: oxford university Press, 195, p. 4 and Idem. 'A revaluation of Islamic traditions'. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1949), pp. 143-54.
    • 247 John Wansbrough. Qur”Anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation. oxford: oxford university Press, 1977, p. 101.
    • 248 John Wansbrough. Qur”Anic Studies, p. 121.
    • 249 Andrew rippin's 'TafsCr Ibn “ AbbAs' for his discussion of the authorship of al-Kalbc's text, pp. 51-56.
    • 250 See claude Gilliot. 'the Beginnings of Qur'anic Exegesis'. In The Qur”An: Formative Interpretation. Edited by Andrew rippin. Aldershot: Variorum, 1999. Pp. 1-27, p. 17.
    • 251 John Wansbrough. Qur”Anic Studies, p. 144. And in the same vein works attributed to Ibn 'Abbas contained elements 'considerably posterior to the activity' of that ¼gure. cf. pp. 158 f in which it is argued that 'the historical processes of tafsCr cannot be reconstructed before the beginning of the third/ninth century.'
    • 252 John Wansbrough. Qur”Anic Studies, pp. 217-9. In al-Suyesc, there is a reference to the Kefan grammarian Ibn al-Anbarc defending this practice against objections raised by a number of critics. ItqAn, vol. 1, pp. 242-43.
    • 253 Wansbrough's theory rests on the belief that the whole of the exegetical literature from the early third/ninth century is aimed at presupposing the existence of a ¼xed canon. Wansbrough refers to a promotion of the exegesis of language, probing shifts in literary styles, aims, and the functional utility of the materials as a means of gauging historical fact.
    • 255 He states that 'all that we have is what we have been told.' John Wansbrough. 'res Ipsa Loquitor: History and Mimesis.' reproduced in Herbert Berg (ed.), Method and Theory, pp. 3-19, pp. 6-7. Wansbrough made the case that historical 'fact' is not decisively determined by archival or indeed archaeological artifact, but rather, to all intents and purposes, it furtively resides in the literary countenance and features of given texts. Wansbrough's admission that the structural features and formulaic phraseology he used to identify discrete exegetical layers of scripture and their historical depth in the early Islamic source material, were in his own words, an 'experiment'. Berg argues that Wansbrough's principal contribution to the debate on Islamic origins rests with his advocating a return to critical scholarship in approaches to issues of authenticity and ascription as far as the Islamic sources are concerned. With regards to the principles of exegesis, his view was that these were perfected by the time of Ibn Qutayba and that 'thereafter few, if any, methodological innovations were introduced.'
    • 257 See François déroche. La Transmission écrite du Coran dans les débuts de l'islam: Le Codex Parisino-petropolitanus. Leiden; Boston: E.J. Brill, 2009. See pp. 172- 79 for an English summary. the Le Codex Parisino-petropolitanus consists of a number of fragments which originally belonged to an ancient Qur'anic manuscript discovered in the mosque of 'Amr ibn al-'fr mosque in the old city of Fustat, the former Egyptian capital; they were brought back to France by Jean-Joseph Marcel (1776-1856) and supplemented with Qur'anic folios also brought back from Egypt by Jean-Louis Asselin de cherville (1772-1822). Asselin's folios were acquired by the Bibliothèque royale, while Marcel's folios ventually ended up in the national Library of russia in Saint Petersburg. other related mater ials were in the possession of the Vatican and the david Khalili collection. the portion of the manuscript covers about 45% of the Qur'anic text and déroche suggested that the codex originally comprised between 210-220 folios, adding that ¼ve scribes worked on the text. It is only following the recent restoration of the folios that the work could be examined. déroche also outlines some of the physical problems with manuscripts of this nature. cf. Adam Gacek. Arabic Manuscripts: a Vademecum for Readers. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2009.
    • 259 Even in the light of recent studies of manuscript evidence, it has been argued the imposition of the consonantal skeleton (rasm) of the Qur'an, around which the readings were constellated, is considerably later than the periods suggested in the 'traditional' narratives. See for example: david Powers, MuQammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men: The Making of the Last Prophet. Philadelphia: university of Pennsylvania, 2009, pp. 227-8. there is a detailed refutation of the thesis advanced by Powers set forth in a review Article by Walid Saleh in Comparative Islamic Studies (2010:6.1.2), pp. 251-264; also see: Gerald Hawting. review of MuQammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men: The Making of the Last Prophet.' Islamic Law and Society 2011 (2011.18.1) pp. 116-119. david Powers. Studies in Qur”An and LadCth: the Formation of the Islamic Law of Inheritance. Berkeley: university of california Press, 1986; and Agostino cilardo. The Qur'Anic Term KalAla: Studies in Arabic Language and Poetry, LadC| and Fiqh. Notes on the Origins of Islamic Law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh university Press, 2005. Pavel Pavlovitch. 'Some Sunnc LadCth on the Qur'anic term KalAla An Attempt at Historical reconstruction.' Islamic Law and Society (2012:19.1.2), pp. 86-159.
    • 260 François déroche. La Transmission, p. 178.
    • 263 rippin's comments were made back in 1982: Andrew rippin. 'the Present Status of TafsCr Studies.' The Muslim World (1982:72), pp. 224-238, p. 228. t his is taken up further in rippin's study of the naskh text attributed to al-Zuhrc (see below). However, rippin does acknowledge that Sezgin's work draws attention to 'a substantial body of material coming from at least the second and third centuries.' (p. 228).
    • 264 Gregor Schoeler. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam, p. 29; Stephen Shoemaker. 'In Search of 'urwa's Scra: Some Methodological Issues in the Quest for 'Authenticity' in the Life of Muqammad.' Der Islam (2011:85), pp. 257-344.
    • 265 Gregor Schoeler. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam, p. 29. Gregor Schoeler. 'the codi¼cation of the Qur'an: A comment on the Hypotheses of Burton and Wansbrough.' In The Qur”An in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qur”Anic Milieu. Edited by Angelika neuwirth, nicolai Sinai, and Michael Marx, Leiden: Brill, 2010, pp. 779-794.
    • 266 Gregor Schoeler. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam, p. 29. Schoeler did suggest that the aversion to reliance on the written word alone was also a factor in play: 'do not take knowledge from the RaQa¼yyCn'; and, 'a RaQafC should not be allowed to issue edicts for people, nor should a muRQafC teach them readings (qirA”a)' are viewed as dicta comprising examples of this attitude; moreover, he pointed to analogues within the context of the prohibition to writing down Prophetic QAdCtQ. For more on issues of transmission see Joseph Kister, 'LA taqra”E 'l-Qur”Ana “alA muRQa¼yyCn wa-lA taQmilE 'l-“ilma “anC l-RaQa¼yyCn: Some notes on the transmission of ladcth.' Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (1998:22), pp. 127-62.
    • 267 Gregor Schoeler. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam, p. 33. It would be argued that scholars did not leave 'behind or edit books in the sense of ¼nal, revised redactions of their material.' one issue which remains unresolved within the context of the framework suggested by Schoeler is the fact that the biographical traditions and materials, upon which Schoeler often relied, do speak of ¼xed texts being bequeathed and written.
    • 268 Gregor Schoeler. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam, pp. 28-31, 36-9, and 43. Wansbrough commented that 'despite careful and often illuminating analysis of technical terminology, the studies of both authors (Abbott and Sezgin) suffer, in my opinion, from an ingenuous acceptance of the isnAd apparatus, but represent at the same time a not altogether unexpected reaction to the work of Goldziher and Schacht.' John Wansbrough. Qur”Anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation, p. 140.
    • 269 Gregor Schoeler. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam, p. 47.
    • 271 See: Kees Versteegh. Arabic Grammar and Qur”Anic Exegesis in Early Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993, p. 200 f.
    • 272 Kees Versteegh. Arabic Grammar and Qur”Anic Exegesis in Early Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993, p. 178 and p. 180.
    • 273 Kees Versteegh. 'Grammar and Exegesis: the origins of Kefan Grammar and the TafsCr MuqAtil.' Der Islam (1990:67:2), pp. 206-42. See pp. 238-9. In Kees Versteegh. Arabic Grammar and Qur”Anic Exegesis, the point is made that the text of Kalbc procedes 'the emergence of grammar as we know it', p. 115. See Muqammad al-Kalbc TafsCr. Ms. chester Beatty, no. 4224.
    • 274 this has been a theme in the work of uri rubin.
    • 275 In a related context see for example Patricia crone 'two Legal Problems Bearing on the Early History of the Qur'an.' Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (1994:18), pp. 1-37, pp. 1-2. And more generally Patricia crone. 'How did the Qur”Anic Pagans Make a Living?' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (2005:68), pp. 387-99. Patricia crone. 'the religion of the Qur'anic Pagans: God and the Lesser deities.' Arabica (2012:57.2.3), pp. 151-200. She argues that the legal discussions on the import of 'kalAla, kitAb in Q.24:33, were unintelligible to the early commentators, as were several non-legal phrases and passages (al-Ramad, possibly al-rajCm, the mysterious letters and Surat Quraysh).' In the former article she concludes that only an abandonment of 'the conventional account of how the Qur'an was born' would explain why this was so. For an alternative explanation of the genesis of the traditional sciences see John Burton. 'Qur'an and Sunnah, a case of cultural disjunction.' In Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins. Edited by Herbert Berg. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2003, pp. 137-157.
    • 276 Patricia crone 'two Legal Problems, p. 2. John Burton 'Law and Exegesis: the Penalty for Adultery in Islam.' Approaches to the Qur”An, pp. 269-284. Arthur Jeffery. The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur”An. Leiden: Brill, 2006 (reprint of 1938 edi.) (Includes a Preface by Gerhard Böwering and Jane dammen McAuliffe).
    • 277 Fred donner. 'the Historical context'. In Cambridge Companion to the Qur”An, pp. 23-39. Idem. the Qur'an in recent Scholarship: challenges and desiderata.' In The Qur”An in its Historical Context. pp. 29-50, 2008. Idem. MuQammad and the Believers. cambridge Massachusetts; London: Harvard university Press: 2010.
    • 280 the issue of the quest for distinctivenes is developed by todd Lawson in his treatment of the Islamic narratives on the cruci¼xion; the doctrine is viewed as a re½ection of a 'communal desideratum to show just how distinctive, in a sectarian milieu, this new religion was.' todd Lawson. The Cruci¼xion and the Qur”An: A Study in the History of Muslim Thought. oxford: one World Publications, 2009, p. 20. See the review of this in Journal of Qur'anic Studies (2010:12), pp. 191-203.
    • 281 It should be noted here that although colin turner's Qur'an collection in the same series did include a con¼ned number of articles which covered aspects of tafsCr, it was principally concerned with general treatments and studies of the Qur'an; whereas, this collection seeks to broach the Qur'an extensively through the classical discipline of tafsCr with regards to academic scholarship which probes the development of early tafsCr; concepts and hermeneutics; medieval exegetes and their works; themes and genres of classical exegesis; and aspects of modern approaches to the text.
    • 283 Fred Leemhuis. 'origins and Early development of the tafsCr tradition. In Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur”An. Edited by Andrew rippin. oxford: oxford university Press, 1988, pp. 13-30. (chapter 2 in the collection). Georg Stauth. Die Überlieferung des Korankommentars MuYAhid b. Vabr's. Zur Frage der Rekonstruktion der in den Sammelwerken des 3. Jh. d. H. benutzten frühislamischen Quellenwerke. Phd dissertation, universität Giessen, 1969. Fred Leemhuis. 'Ms 1075 tafsCr of the cairene da r al-Kutub and Muyahid's tafsCr.' In Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the Union Européene des Arabisants et Islamisants. Edited by r. Peters. Leiden: Brill, 1981, pp. 169-80. cf. Fred Leemhuis. 'discussion and debate in Early commentaries of the Qur'an.' In With Reverence for the Word: Medieval Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, pp. 320-328.
    • 284 dimitry Frolow. 'Ibn al-nadcm on the History of Qur'anic exegesis.' Wiener Zeitschrift fuer die Kunde des Morgenlandes (1997:87), pp. 65-81. cf. devin Stewart. 'the Structure of the Fihrist: Ibn al-nadcm as Historian of Islamic Legal and theological Schools.' International Journal of Middle East Studies (2007:39.3), pp. 369-387.
    • 285 Bruce Fudge. 'Qur'anic Exegesis in Medieval Islam and Modern orientalism'. Die Welt des Islams (2006:46.2), pp. 115-147. Idem. 'Signs of Scripture in “the city of Brass”.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2006:8.1), pp. 88-118. Idem. the Men of the cave: tafsCr, tragedy and tawfcq al-lakcm.' Arabica: Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies (2007:54.1), pp. 67-93.
    • 286 A. rezvan, 'the Qur'An and its World: IX. the triumph of diversity: Muslim Exegesis'. Manuscripta Orientalia (1999:5.2), pp. 37-57.
    • 287 claude Gilliot. 'the Beginnings of Qur'anic Exegesis. In The Qur”An: Formative Interpretation, pp. 1-27.
    • 288 Kees Versteegh. 'Grammar and Exegesis: the origins of Kefan Grammar and the tafsCr MuqAtil.' Der Islam (1990:67.2), pp. 206-42. the thesis was ½eshed out with greater vigour in Kees Versteegh. Arabic Grammar and Qur”Anic Exegesis in Early Islam. cf. the review by rafael. talmon, 'review of Arabic Grammar and Qur”Anic Exegesis in Early Islam' by Kees Versteegh. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (1996:20), pp. 287-292. Kees Versteegh. 'Freedom of the Speaker?: the term IttisA“ and related notions in Arabic Grammar.' In Studies in the History of Arabic Grammar II. Edited by Michael carter and Kees Versteegh. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1990, pp. 281-93. Idem. 'three is a crowd; Lawyers and Linguists on Qur'an 4/11.' Zeitschrift fEr arabische Linguistik (1993:23), pp. 302-15. Kees Versteegh. 'Linguistic Attitudes and the origin of Speech in the Arab World.' In Understanding Arabic: Essays in Contemporary Arabic Linguistics in Honor of El-Said Badawi. Edited by Alaa El-Gibali. cairo: the American university in cairo Press, 1996, pp. 15-31. Kees Versteegh. The Arabic Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh university Press, 2001. translations from seminal linguistic texts are provided in Kees Versteegh. Landmarks in Linguistic Thought III: the Arabic Linguistic Tradition, London, new York: routledge, 1997.
    • 289 Kees Versteegh. 'Zayd ibn 'Alc's commentary on the Qur'an.' In Arabic Grammar and Linguistics. Edited by Yasir Suleiman. richmond: curzon, 1999, pp. 9-29.
    • 290 Andrew rippin. 'Studying Early TafsCr texts'. Miszellen: Der Islam (1995:72), pp. 310-23.
    • 292 Josef van Ess. Ungenützte Texte zur KarrAmCya. Eine Materialsammlung. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophischhistorische Klasse, Jahrgang 6. Abhandlung. Heidelberg, 1980.
    • 300 Haggai Ben-Shammai. 'the Status of Parable and Simile in the Qur'an and early tafsCr: Polemic, Exegetical and theological Aspects.' Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (2005:30), pp. 154-169.
    • 301 Issa J. Boullata. 'Poetry citation as Interpretive Illustration in Qur'an Exegesis: MasA”il NAfC “ Ibn al-Azraq.' In Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams. Edited by Wael Hallaq and donald Little. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991, pp. 27-40. Ibn al-Anbarc, Abe Bakr Muqammad ibn al-Qasim. KitAb CPAQ al-waqf wa'l-ibtidA”. Edited by Muqyc al-dcn 'Abd al-raqman ramapan. 2 vols. damascus: Majma' al-Lugha al-'Arabiyya, 1971. Ibn al-Anbarc, Muqammad ibn al-Qasim. KitAb al-aPdAd. Edited by Muqammad Abe'l-Fapl Ibrahcm. Beirut, Sidon: al-Maktabat al-'Arriyya, 1987. cf. the arguments about the primacy of the Qurayshc dialect in the introduction to: Ibn Faris, Abe 'l-lusayn Aqmad b. Zakariyya'. n.d. al-MAQibC fC ¼qh al-lugha ”l- “arabiyya wa-sunan al-“Arab fC kalAmihA. Edited by Aqmad maqr. cairo: dar Iqya' al-Kutub al-'Arabiyya. Many of these topics are discussed by Lothar Kopf in 'religious In½uences on Medieval Arabic Philology.' Studia Islamica (1956:5): 33-59. Also see James Montgomery. 'Sundry observations on the Fate of Poetry in the Early Islamic Period.' In Jack Smart. Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language and Literature. richmond: curzon, 1996, pp. 49-60.
    • 302 John Wansbrough, Qur”Anic Studies, pp. 216-17.
    • 303 al-naysaberc, al-lasan ibn Muqammad. TafsCr gharA”ib al-Qur”An, vol. 1, p. 6.
    • 304 Leah Kinberg. 'MuQkamAt and mutashAbihAt (Koran 3/7): Implications of a Koranic Pair of terms in Medieval Exegesis.' Arabica (1988:35), pp. 143-72. Jane McAuliffe. 'text and textuality: Q.3:7 as a Point of Intersection.' Published in Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qur”An. Edited by I. J. Boullata. London: curzon Press, 2000, pp. 56-76. Stefan Wild. 'the Self-referentiality of the Qur'an: Sera 3:7 as an Exegetical challenge. In With Reverence for the Word: Medieval Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, pp. 422-36. M. Lagarde. 'de l'ambiguite (mutashabih) dans le coran: tentatives d'explication des esegetes musulmans.' Quaderni di Studi Arabi (1985:3), pp. 45-62.
    • 305 See Goldziher, Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung, p. 58. 'Es fand sich eine Menge neugieriger Schriftgelehrter, die die Luecken des Korans aus dem Verkehr mit Juden und christen ausfuellten und die von ihnen erhaltenen, oft in sehr missverstandener Weise wiedergegebenen Erzaehlungen noch aus eigener Phantasie ergaenzten und als Erklaerungen des Korans preisgaben.' He is speaking of the interest in legendary tales and materials from christian and Jewish sources which were used by scholars to embellish the Qur'an's narrative.
    • 306 Harris Birkeland. 'Old Muslim Opposition Against Interpretation of the Qur”An.' Avhandliger Utgitt ab De Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i oslo, II. Hist. Filos. Klasse 1. oslo: 1955. Birkeland also includes a study of the dictum in which Aqmad ibn lanbal declared his aversion to tafsCr, malAQim, and maghAzC, pp. 9-18. cf. nabia Abbott, Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri II, Qur”Anic Commentary, pp. 106-112.
    • 307 A parallel here is provided perhaps by the arguments about the opposition to writing down traditions and the arguments put forward by Gregor Schoeler and Michael cook. When Schoeler referred to the umayyads' opposition to the writing down of traditions, cook countered by stating that the position taken by Schoeler assumes that the reports are authentic. cf. Wansbrough, Qur”Anic Studies, pp. 158-60. this is also an argument used by rippin to question Versteegh's study of early exegetical texts: namely, how can one draw conclusions of an historical nature about the content of literary materials and concepts, when the very texts used to formulate and construct such assumptions have a problematic provenance? While the counter view is that the sophistication of the texts is overlooked by the focus on issues of historicity.
    • 308 Leah Kinberg. 'MuQkamAt and mutashAbihAt (Koran 3/7): Implications of a Koranic Pair of terms in Medieval Exegesis'. Arabica (1988:35), pp. 143-72.
    • 309 Muhammad Abul Quasem. 'Al-Ghazalc's theory of Qur'an Exegesis According to one's Personal opinion.' pp. 69-91. International congress for the Study of the Qur'an, Australian national university, canberra, 8-13 May, 1981. canberra: Australian national university, 1981.
    • 310 Mesut okumu]. 'the In½uence of Ibn Scna on al-Ghazzalc in Qur'anic Hermeneutics.' The Muslim World (2012:102.2.1), pp. 390-411. See also his 'the In½uence of al-Ghazzalc on the Hermeneutics of Ibn rushd.' Der Islam (2011:86.2), pp. 286-311. cf. r ichard Frank. Al-GhazAlC and the Ash“arite School. cited above. Also see Jules Janssens. 'Al-Ghazalc between Philosophy (Falsafa) and Su¼sm (TaRawwuf ): His c omplex Attitude in the Marvels of the Heart (“AjA”ib al-Qalb) of the IQyA” “UlEm al-DCn. Muslim World (2011:101.4), pp. 614-632. richard Frank. Creation and the Cosmic System: al-GhazAlC and Avicenna. Heidelberg: carl Winter, universitätsverlag, 1992. Idem. 'Ghazalc's use of Avicenna's Philosophy.' Revue des Etudes Islamiques 57 (1989), pp. 274-75. robert Wisnovsky. 'one Aspect of the Avicennian turn in Sunnc theology.' Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (2004:14.1), pp. 65-100. Ibn rushd, al-Qapc Abe' l-Walcd. Kashf ManAhij al-adilla. Edited by Muqammad 'fbid al-Jabirc. 4th edi. Beirut: Markaz dirasat al-Waqda al-'Arabiyya: 2001, pp. 150-152.
    • 311 ulrika Mårtensson. 'through the Lens of Modern Hermeneutics: Authoral Intention in al-nabarc's and al-Ghazalc's Interpretation of Q. 24:35.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2009:2), pp. 20-48. See E.d. Hirsch. The Aims of Interpretation. chicago: the university of chicago Press, 1976. And his Validity in Interpretation. new Haven: Yale university Press, 1967. Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method. translation revised by Joel Weinsheimer and donald G. Marshall. London: continuum, 2006. Many of Mårtensson's observations are referenced to the historical origins of Ash'arism and the extent of its medieval in½uence.
    • 312 Kees Versteegh. 'the Linguistic Introduction to R AzC 's TafsCr.' Studies on Near East Languages and Literatures. Memorial Volume Karel Patracek. Edited by Petr Vavrousek and Petr Zemanek. Prague: Academy of Sciences of the czech republic, BcS Printing, 1996, pp. 589-603. cf. George Makdisi. 'the Juridical theology of Sha¼'c: origins and Signi¼cance of u REl al-¼qh.' Studia Islamica (1984:59), pp. 5-47; and r ichard Frank. 'Elements in the d evelopment of the t eaching of al-Ash'arc.' Le Muséon: Revue D'Études Orientales 104 (1991:104), pp. 141-190.
    • 313 Hartmut Bobzin. 'notes on the Importance of Variant readings and Grammar in the TafsCr al-GalAlayn.' Zeitschrift für arabische Linguistik ZAL (1985:15), 33-44. See the commentary on the text: Al-mawc, Aqmad ibn Muqammad. LAshiyat al-MAwC “alA TafsCr al-JalAlayn. 6 vols. Edited by Muqammad 'Abd al-Salam Shahcn. Beirut: dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyya, 2000. Musa, Sulaiman. the In½uence of TafsCr al-JalAlayn on Some notable nigerian MufassirEn in the twentiethcentury nigeria'. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs (2000:20.2), pp. 323-328.
    • 314 Jane dammen McAuliffe. 'Assessing the IsrA”CliyyA t: an Exegetical conundrum.' Story-telling in the Framework of Non-¼ctional Arabic Literature. Edited by Stefan Leder. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998, pp. 345-369.
    • 315 roberto tottoli. 'origin and use of the term IsrA”CliyyAt in Muslim Literature: Arabica (1999:46.2), pp. 193-210.
    • 316 Walid A. Saleh. 'A Fifteenth-century Muslim Hebraist: al-Biqa'c and his defense of using the Bible to Interpret the Qur'an.' Speculum: a Journal of Medieval Studies (2008:83.3), pp. 629-654. cf. his reference to the work of Eric ormsby. Theodicy in Islamic Thought: the Dispute over al-GhazAlC's Best of all Possible Worlds. Princeton: Princeton university Press, 1984.
    • 317 Andrew rippin. 'the designation of “Foreign” Languages in the Exegesis of the Qur'an.' In With Reverence for the Word: Medieval Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Pp. 437-443.
    • 318 Andrew rippin. 'the Function of “AsbA b al-nuzEl ” in Qur'anic Exegesis.' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (1988:51.1), pp. 1-20.
    • 319 david Powers 'the Exegetical Genre nAsikh al-Qur”An wa-mansEkhuhu'. In Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur”An. Andrew rippin. oxford: oxford university Press, 1988, pp. 117-138. the relevance of the early text attributed to al-Zuhrc has already been discussed above in the context of early literary texts. c hristopher Melchert. 'Qur'anic Abrogation Across the n inth century: Sha¼'c, Abe 'ubayd, Muqasibc, and Ibn Qutaybah.' Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Edited by Bernard G. Weiss. Studies in Islamic law and Society, 15. Leiden: Brill, 2002, pp. 75-98.
    • 320 Suleiman Ali Mourad. 'the revealed text and the Intended Subtext: notes on the Hermeneutics of the Qur'an in Mu'tazila discourse as re½ected in the TahdhCb of al-lakim al-Jishumc (d. 494/1101).' In Islamic Philosophy, Science, Culture, and Religion: Studies in Honor of Dimitri Gutas. Eds. Felicitas opwis & david reisman. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2012. Pp. 367-395. See also Fudge, The Craft, pp. 127-135.
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    • 322 Yusuf. rahman. 'Hermeneutics of al-Baypawc in his AnwAr al-tanzCl wa-asrAr al-ta”wCl.' Islamic Culture (1997:71.1), pp. 1-14. david S. Margoliouth. Chrestomathia Baidawiana: The Commentary of El-BaiPAwC on Sura 3. London: Luzac, 1894. See Alfred Beeston. BaiPawC's Commentary on SErah 12 of the Qur”An: Text, Accompanied by an Interpretative Rendering and Notes. oxford: oxford university Press, 1963. Andrew rippin points out that H. L. Fleischer's edition of al-Baypawc's AnwAr al-tanzCl was published between the years of 1846 and 1848, being the '¼rst complete text of a tafsCr to appear in a printed scholarly edition.' Andrew rippin, The Qur”An: Formative Interpretation, p. xi. Ibrahim Lutpi. 'Al-Bapawc's Life and Works.' Islamic Studies (1979:18), pp. 311-21.
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    • 324 Yeshayahu. Goldfeld. 'the TafsCr of 'Abdallah b. 'Abbas' Der Islam (1981:58), pp. 125-35, p. 126.
    • 325 Gregor Schwarb. 'capturing the Meanings of God's Speech - the relevance of uREl al-¼qh to an understanding of uREl al-tafsCr in Jewish and Muslim kalAm.' In A Word Fitly Spoken. Studies in Mediaeval Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'An presented to Haggai Ben-Shammai. Edited by M. M. Bar-Asher, B. chiesa, S. Hopkins, and S. Stroumsa, Jerusalem 2007, pp. 111-156. cf. david r. Vishanoff. The Formation of Islamic Hermeneutics. American oriental Series. American oriental Society, 2011.
    • 326 Peter Heath. 'creative Hermeneutics: A comparative Analysis of three Islamic Approaches.' Arabica, 36 (1989:36), pp. 173-210.
    • 327 Mehmet Akif Koç. 'A comparison of the references to Muqatil b. Sulayman (d. 150/767) in the Exegesis of al-tha'labc (d. 427/1036) with Muqatil's own Exegesis.' Journal of Semitic Studies (2008:53.1), pp. 69-101.
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    • 329 ulrika Mårtensson. ' “the Persuasive Proof ”: A Study of Aristotle's Politics and rhetoric in the Qur'an and in al-nabarc's commentary.' Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (2008:34), pp. 363-420. Interestingly, with regards to attributing the rhetorical structures in the Qur'an to Aristotelian analogues, the historical inconsistencies relating to the availability of Aristotle's work in such nascent periods appear insurmountable. Indeed, even tracing the impact of the Organon upon ¼elds of scholarship such as grammar, in which its in½uence was considered even more plausible, has been shown to be ½awed. See the various articles on the translation of Aristotle in ramzi Baalbaki (ed.). The Early Islamic Grammatical Tradition. Aldershot, uK and Burlington, Vt: Ashgate/Variorum, 2007.
    • 330 Walid A Saleh. 'the Last of the nishapuri School of tafsCr: Al-Waqidc (d. 468/1076) and his Signi¼cance in the History of Qur'anic Exegesis.' Journal of the American Oriental Society (2006:126.2), pp. 223-243.
    • 331 The Formation of the Classical tafsCr Tradition, pp. 4-5, pp. 18-25, and pp. 224-7.
    • 332 norman calder. 'TafsCr from nabarc to Ibn Kathcr: Problems in the description of a Genre, Illustrated with reference to the Story of Abraham'. Approaches to the Qur”An, pp. 101-40. For a collection of his work see norman calder. Interpretation and Jurisprudence in Medieval Islam. Edited by Jawid Mojaddedi and Andrew rippin Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006. Also see the notes by rippin in the introduction on the role of tafsCr. norman calder. 'From Midrash to Scripture: the Sacri¼ce of Abraham in Early Islamic tradition' in Le Muséon (1988:101), pp. 375-402. Idem. 'the ummc in Early Islamic Juristic Literature' Der Islam (1990:67.1), pp. 111-123. Idem. Studies in Early Muslim Jurisprudence. oxford: clarendon, 1993.
    • 333 Meir Bar-Asher. 'the Qur'An commentary Ascribed to Imam al-l asan al-'Askarc.' Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (2000:24), pp. 358-379.
    • 334 Azim nanji. 'Shi'c Isma'cl c Interpretations of the Qur'an.' International congress for the Study of the Qur'an, Australian national university, canberra, 8-13 May. canberra: Australian national university, pp. 39-49. Azim nanji. 'towards a Hermeneutic of Qur'anic and other narratives in Ismacilc thought.' In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies. Edited by r. c. Martin. tucson 1985, pp. 164-77.
    • 335 Kristin Sands. 'on the Popularity of Husayn Va'iz-I Khasha¼'s MavA lib-I “aliyya: A Persian commentary on the Qur'an. International Society for Iranian Studies (2003:36.4), pp. 269-83.
    • 336 Suleiman Mourad. 'the Survival of the Mu' tazila tradition of Qur'anic Exegesis in Sunnc and Shc'c tafAsCr'. Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2010:12), pp. 83-108. Suleiman Mourad. 'the Mu“tazila and their tafsCr tradition'. A comparative Study of Five Exegetical Glosses on Q. 3:178.' Part of a research paper from a monograph to be published by Mourad which studies the work of al-Jishumc.
    • 337 Manfred Götz. 'Maturcdc and his KitAb Ta”wClAt al-Qur”An', In Qur”An: Formative Interpretation edited by Andrew rippin, pp. 181-214. this is a translation by Michael Bonner of Manfred Gotz. 'Maturcdc und sein Kitab ta' wclat al-Qur'an', Der Islam (1965:41), pp. 27-70.
    • 338 Jacques Jomier. 'the Qur'anic commentary of Imam Fakhr al-dcn al-razc: Its Sources and Its originality'. International congress for the Study of the Qur'an, Australian national university, canberra, 8-13 May, 1981. canberra: Australian national university, pp. 93-111.
    • 339 See calder, TafsCr from NabarC, pp. 134-35.
    • 340 Gerhard Böwering. 'the Major Sources of Sulamc 's Minor Qur'an commentary.' Oriens, vol. 35, (1996), pp. 35-56.
    • 341 nicholas Heer. Abe lamid al-Ghazalc's Esoteric Exegesis of the Koran The heritage of Su¼sm. Volume I: classical Persian Su¼sm from its origins to remc (700-1300). Edited by Leonard Lewisohn. London: Khaniqahi nimatullahi Publications 1993, pp. 234 -257.
    • 342 Annabel Keeler. MEfC TafsCr as a Mirror: al-Qushayrc the murshid in his LaSA”if al-ishArAt. Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2006:8), pp. 1-21.
    • 343 Sajjad rizvi. 'the Existential Breath of al-raqman and the Muni¼cent Grace of al-raqcm: the TafsCr SErat al-FAtiQa of Jamc and the School of Ibn 'Arabc.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2006:8.1), pp. 58-87. cf. Seyyed Hossein nasr. the Qur'anic commentaries of Mulla Sadra, consciousness and reality: Studies in Memory of Toshihiko Izutsu. Edited by Sayyid Jalal al-din Ashtiyani, H. Matsubara, t. Iwami, A. Matsumoto. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2000. pp. 45-58.
    • 344 Jules Janssens. 'Al-Kindc: the Founder of Philosophical Exegesis of the Qur'an.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2007:9.2), pp. 1-21. And Idem. 'Avicenna and the Qur'an: A Survey of his Qur'anic commentaries'. In Mélanges de l'Institut Dominicain d'études orientales (MIDEO), 25-6 (2004:25-6), pp. 177-92. For a survey of his life see Peter Adamson. Al-KindC: Great Medieval Thinkers. oxford: oxford university Press, 2007. See also Jules Jannsens. 'Ibn Sına Ideas of ultimate realities. neoplatonism and the Qur'an as Problem Solving Paradigms in the Avicennian System.' Disiplinary Studies in the Philosophy of Understanding (1987:10.4), pp. 244-52.
    • 345 todd Lawson. 'Qur'an commentary as Sacred Performance.' In der Iran um 19 Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i religion. Edited by Johannchristoph Burgel & Isabel Schayani. Georg olms Verlag, Hildesheim, 1998, pp. 145-58. Idem. Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam: Qur”an, Exegesis, Messianism and the Literary Origins of the Babi Religion. London: routledge, 2009.
    • 346 Andrew rippin. 'the Muslim Samson: Medieval, Modern and Scholarly Interpretations.' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (2008:71.2), 239-253.
    • 347 Anthony Johns. 'Solomon and the Horses: the theology and Exegesis of Koranic Story, Sura 38 (Sad): 30-33.' Institut Dominicain d'Etudes Orientales du Caire: Melanges (MIDEO) (1997:23), pp. 259-82. See also Idem. 'david and Bathsheba: a case Study in the Exegesis of Qur'anic Story-telling.' MIDEO 19 (1989:19), pp. 225-266. Among Johns' other articles are 'on Qur'anic Exegetes and Exegesis: a case Study in the transmission of Islamic Learning.' In Islam: Essays on Scripture, Thought and Society: a Festschrift in Honour of Anthony H. Johns. Edited by P. G. riddell and tony Street. Leiden: Brill, 1997, pp. 3-49. Idem. 'Let my People Go! Sayyid Qutb and the Vocation of Moses.' Islam and ChristianMuslim Relations (1990:1.2), pp. 143-170. 'Exegesis as an Expression of Islamic Humanism: Approaches, concerns and Insights of al-Baypawc.' Hamdard Islamicus (1999:22.4), pp. 37-58, 1999. Idem. 'three Stories of a Prophet: al-nabarc's treatment of Job in Serah al-Anbiya', 83-4.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2001:3.2), pp. 39-61.
    • 348 Mahmoud M Ayoub. 'Literary Exegesis of the Qur”An: the case of al-Sharcf al-rapc. Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qur”An'. Ed. Issa J. Boullata. London: curzon, 2000, pp. 292-309.
    • 349 toby Mayer. 'Shahrastanc on the Arcana of the Qur'an: a Preliminary Evaluation.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2005:7.2), pp. 61-100.
    • 350 Andrew Lane. 'You can't tell a Book by its Author: A Study of Mu'tazilite theology in al-Zamakhsharc's (d. 538/1144) Kashshaf.' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (2012:75.1), pp. 47-86.
    • 352 Stefan Wild. 'the Self-referentiality of the Qur'an: Sera 3:7 as an Exegetical challenge'. In With reverence for the Word: Medieval Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, christianity, and Islam, pp. 422-36. Idem (ed). Self-referentiality in the Qur”An. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2006. Idem. 'We Have Sent down to thee the Book with the truth.' Edited by Stefan Wild. pp. 137-153. See also his 'Political Interpretation of the Qur'an'. Cambridge Companion to the Qur”An. pp. 273-289.
    • 353 Gerhard Böwering. 'the Light Verse: Qur'anic text and Sefc Interpretation.' Oriens, vol. 36 (2001), pp. 113-144.
    • 354 Brannon Wheeler. 'Moses or Alexander? Early Islamic Exegesis of Qur”An 18:60- 65.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies (1998:57.3), pp. 191-215. Idem. 'the Jewish origins of Qur'an 18:65-82? reexamining Arent Jan Wensinck's theory', Journal of the American Oriental Society (1998:118.2), pp. 153-171. Idem. Prophets of the Qur”An: An Introduction to the Qur”An and Muslim Exegesis. London and new York, continuum. 2002. Idem. Moses in the Qur”An and Islamic Exegesis. London, routledge curzon. 2002.
    • 355 Mohammed rustom. 'Forms of Gnosis in Sulamc's Su¼ Exegesis of the fAtiQa.' Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations (2005:6.4), pp. 327-44.
    • 356 Gordon nickel. 'Early Muslim Accusations of TaQrCf: Muqatil ibn Sulayman's commentary on Key Qur'anic Verses'. In The Bible in Arab Christianity. Edited by d avid t homas. Leiden: Brill, 2007, pp. 207-223. Idem. 'Muqatil b. Sulaiman on the Verses of 'tampering.' Islamic Culture (2002:76.3), pp. 1-25. A. Saeed, 'the charge of distortion of Jewish and christian Scriptures: tension between the Popular Muslim View and the Qur'anic/TafsCr View'. The Muslim World (2002:92.3/4), pp. 419-36. r. caspar. 'textes de la tradition musulmane con - cernant le taQrCf ( falsi¼cation) des écritures.' Islamochristiana (1980:6), pp. 61-104.
    • 357 Jane McAuliffe. 'christians in the Qur'an and tafsCr.' In Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions: a Historical Survey. Edited by J. Waardenburg. new York: oxford university Press, 1999, pp. 105-121. cf. neal. robinson Christ in Islam and Christianity. The Representation of Jesus in the Qur”An and the Classical Muslim Commentaries. Albany: State university of new York Press, 1991. Idem. 'creating Birds from clay: a Miracle of Jesus in the Qur'an and in classical Muslim Exegesis.' Muslim World (1989:79.1) pp. 1-13. Jane I. Smith. and Yvonne. Y. Haddad. 'the Virgin Mary in Islam's tradition and commentary.' The Muslim World (1989:79), pp. 161-87. See also McAuliffe. Qur”Anic Christians: An Analysis of Classical and Modern Exegesis. cambridge: cambridge university Press, 1991. Idem 'Exegetical Identi¼cation of the SAbi”En.' Muslim World (1982:72), pp. 95-106. Idem. 'Persian Exegetical of the ahl al-KitAb.' Muslim World (1983:73), pp. 87-105.
    • 358 thomas E. Burman. 'tafsc r and translation: traditional Arabic Qur'an Exegesis and the Latin Qur'ans of robert of Ketton and Mark of toledo.' (1998:73.3), pp. 703-732. See also travis Zadeh. The Vernacular Qur”An: Translation and the Rise of Persian Exegesis. oxford: oxford university Press, 2011. See also thomas Burman, E. Reading the Qur”An in Latin Christendom, 1140-1560. Philadelphia: university of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. James Morris. 'Qur'an translation and the challenges of communication: towards a “Literal” Study-Version of the Qur'an.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2000:2.2) pp. 53-67. travis Zadeh. 'From drops of Blood: charisma and Political Legitimacy in the translation of the 'uthmanic codex of al-Andalus.' Journal of Arabic Literature (2008:39.3), pp. 321-46. Arthur John Arberry, 1964. The Koran Interpreted. oxford, oxford university Press. 1955. Mamaduke Pickthall. The Meaning of the Glorious Koran. London: Mentor classics, 1972. Haleem, Abdel. The Qur”An: A New Translation. oxford: oxford university Press, 2004.
    • 359 robert Morrison. 'discussions of Astrology in Early TafsC r.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2009:11.2), pp. 49-71. See also his 'reasons for a Scienti¼c Portrayal of nature in Medieval commentaries on the Qur'an.' Arabica (2005:52.2), pp. 182-203.
    • 360 Karen Bauer. ' “I Have Seen the People's Antipathy to this Knowledge”: the Muslim Exegete And His Audience, 5th/11th-7th/13th centuries.' In The Islamic Scholarly Tradition: Studies in History, Law, and Thought in Honor of Professor Michael Allan Cook.' Edited by M. A. cook, Asad Q. Ahmed, Behnam Sadeghi, Michael Bonner, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2011, pp. 293-314.
    • 361 Farid Esack. 'Qur'anic Hermeneutics: Problems and Prospects' Muslim World (1993:83.2), pp. 118-141. Idem. The Qur”An: a Short Introduction (oxford: oneworld, 2002). cf. Andrew rippin, Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. 4th Edition. London and new York: routledge, 2012, pp. 235-262 and the chapter on 'the Qur'an and Modernity.' Johannes Baljon. Modern Muslim Koran Interpretation: 1880-1960. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1961. Asma Barlas. Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur”An. Austin, texas: university of texas Press, 2002. Idem. 'Women's readings of the Qur'an.' In Jane McAuliffe. Cambridge Companion to the Qur”An. cambridge: cambridge university Press, 2006, pp. 255-271. Laury Silvers. ' “In the Book We Have Left out nothing”: the Ethical Problem of the Existence of Verse 4:34 in the Qur'an.' Comparative Islamic Studies (2008:2.2), pp. 171-180. Karen Bauer. 'traditional Exegeses of Q 4:34.' Comparative Islamic Studies (2008:2.2), pp. 129-142.
    • 362 Abdullah Saeed. 'Some re½ections on the contextualist Approach to EthicoLegal texts of the Qur'an' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (2008:71.2), pp. 221-237. cf. Idem. 'rethinking “revelation” as a Precondition for reinterpreting the Qur'an: a Qur'anic perspective.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (1999:1.1), pp. 93-114. Ibid. Approaches to the Qur”An in Contemporary Indonesia. oxford: oxford university Press, in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2005. Idem. Interpreting the Qur”An: Towards a Contemporary Approach. Abingdon, oxford: routledge, 2006. Idem. Approaches to the Qur”An in Contemporary Indonesia. oxford: oxford university Press, in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2005.
    • 363 Erik ohlander. 'Modern Qur'anic Hermeneutics.' Religion Compass doI: 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00144.x 2009. Michael Mumisa. 'towards an African Qur”Anic Hermeneutics.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2002:4.1), pp. 61-76.
    • 364 Massimo campanini. 'Qur'a nic Hermeneutics and Political Hegemony: reformation of Islamic thought'. Muslim World (2009), pp. 124-133. cf. Yusuf rahman. 'the Qur'an in Egypt III: narr Abe Zayd's Literary Approach.' In Coming to Terms with the Qur”An: a Volume in Honor of Professor Issa Boullata, McGill university. Edited by Khaleel Mohammed and Andrew rippin: Islamic Publications International, north Haledon (uSA) pp. 227-265, 2008. narr lamid, Abe Zayd. 'the dilemma of the Literary Approach to the Qur'an.' Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics (2003:23), pp. 8-47. Idem. 'rethinking the Qur'an: towards a Humanistic Hermeneutics.' Islamochristiana (2004:30), pp. 25-45. Massimo campanini. The Qur”An: the Basics translated by oliver Leaman. London: routledge 2007.
    • 365 Johanna Pink. 'tradition, Authority and Innovation in contemporary SunnC tafsCr: towards a typology of Qur'an commentaries from the Arab World, Indonesia and turkey.' Journal of Qur”Anic Studies (2010:12), pp. 56-82. the article was based on her work: Idem. Sunnitischer TafsCr in der modernen islamischen Welt: akademische Traditionen, Popularisierung und nationalstaatliche. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2011. Pink does mention the fact that exegesis is male dominated. nasaruddin umar. 'Gender Biases in Qur'anic Exegesis: a Study of Scriptural Interpretation from a Gender Perspective.' Hawwa Journal of Women of the Middle East and Islamic World (2004:2.3), pp. 337-363. Amina Wadud, 'Alternative Qur'anic Interpretation and the Status of Muslim Women.' In Windows of Faith: Muslim Women Scholar-Activists in North America. Edited by G. Webb. Syracuse: Syracuse university Press, 2000, pp. 3-21. See also the work of Andreas christmann. 'the Form is Permanent, But the content Moves: the Qur'anic text and its Interpretation(s) in Muqammad Shaqrer's “Al-KitAb wa-'l-Qur”An.” ' Die Welt des Islams (2003:43.2), pp. 143-172. Idem. '73 Proofs of dilettantism': the construction of norm and deviancy in the responses to Mohamad Shahrour's Book al-KitAb wa'l-Qur”An: QirA”a Mu“ARira. Die Welt des Islams, new Series. (2005:45.1), pp. 20-73.
    • 366 See the introduction to narir al-dcn al-Baypawc 'Abd Allah ibn 'umar. AnwAr al-tanzCl wa-asrAr al-ta”wCl. 2 vols. Beirut, dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyya, 1988. comparable statements are found in the introductions to many of the seminal tafsCr works, underpinning the importance attached to the discipline and the desire to preserve the literary legacy of centuries of scholarship. See also al-tha'labc's Kashf wa'l-bayAn which describes tafsCr as the foundation of faith and head of the religious sciences. one comes across similar sentiments expressed in al-n abrisc, Majma“ al-BayAn fC tafsCr al-Qur”An. note the different view taken by Bruce Fudge in chapter Four of this collection in which he sees tafsCr as a largely derivative discipline and argues this is re½ected in the literature devoted to it. norman calder made the point that 'in the hands of a skilled and sensitive exegete any qur'anic verse might be found to have implications ranging across the scholastic disciplines.' norman calder, 'TafsCr from nabarc to Ibn Kathcr: Problems in the description of a Genre, Illustrated with reference to the Story of Abraham'. In Approaches to the Qur”An. Edited by G. r. Hawting and AbdulKader A. Shareef. Pp. 101-40, p. 101. Erik S. ohlander. Su¼sm in an Age of Transition: “Umar al-SuhrawardC and the Rise of the Islamic Mystical Brotherhoods. Leiden: Brill, 2008, and his discussion of the rain shower of knowledge. p. 143.
    • 367 Harris Birkeland's The Lord Guideth: Studies on Primitive Islam. Skrifter utgitt Av det norske Videnskaps-Akademi I oslo., II. Hist. Filos. Klasse 2. oslo: 1956. Pp. 136-7.
    • 368 For modern works see: Basheer na¼. 'Abe 'l-thana' al-Alesc: An Alim, ottoman Mufti, and Exegete of the Qur'an'. International Journal of Middle East Studies (2002:34.3), pp. 465-94. rashcd ripa, TafsCr al-Qur”An al-LakCm al-ShahCr biTafsCr al-ManAr. 12 Vols. Beirut: da r al-Ma'rifa, 1990. Al-Shawkanc, Muqammad ibn 'Alc. FatQ al-QadCr: al-JAmi“ bayn fannay al-riwAya wa'l-dirAya min “ilm altafsCr. Edited by Yesuf al-Ghesh. Beirut: dar al-Ma'rifa, 2007. Jomier, Jacques. Le commentaire coranique du ManAr; tendances modernes de l'éxegese coranique en Égypte. Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve. 1954. Katharina A. Ivanyi. 'God's custom concerning the rise and Fall of nations: the TafsCr al-ManAr on Q 8:53 and Q 13:11.' Maghreb Review (2007:32.1), pp. 91-103. Idem. A. 'Who's in charge? the TafsCr al-ManAr on Questions of religious and Political Authority.' Maghreb Review (2007:32.2/3), pp. 175-195. 'f'ishah 'Abd al-raqman Bint al-Shasc'. Al-TafsCr al-BayAnC lC'l-Qur”An al-KarCm. 2 vols. cairo: dar al-Ma'arif. 1962. Zafar Isqaq Anrarc, Towards Understanding the Qur”An, 7 vols. Leicester, the Islamic Foundation, 1988-1993. (a translation of Mawdedc's. TafhCm al-Qur”An.
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