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Cottrell, S.J. (2010)
Publisher: Cambridge
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: M1

Classified by OpenAIRE into

ACM Ref: GeneralLiterature_REFERENCE(e.g.,dictionaries,encyclopedias,glossaries)
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    • 1. For more on the role of recording technology in the evolution of ethnomusicology see John Baily this volume, and also Kay Kaufman Shelemay, 'Recording Technology, the Record Industry, and Ethnomusicological Scholarship', in Bruno Nettl and Philip V. Bohlman (eds.), Comparative Musicology and the Anthropology of Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 277-92.
    • 2. Bruno Nettl, The Study of Ethnomusicology: 29 Issues and Concepts (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), p. 67.
    • 3. See for example Steven Feld, 'Pygmy POP: a Genealogy of Schizophonic Mimesis', Yearbook for Traditional Music 28 (1996), pp. 1-35; Hugo Zemp, 'The/An Ethnomusicologist and the Record Business', Yearbook for Traditional Music 28 (1996), pp. 36-56; or Caroline Bithell, 'Polyphonic Voices: National Identity, World Music and the Recording of Traditional Music in Corsica', British Journal of Ethnomusicology 5 (1996), pp. 39-65.
    • 4. Percy Grainger, 'Collecting with the Phonograph', Journal of the Folk Song Society 3 (1909), p. 165.
    • 5. Tom S. Caw, 'Popular Music Studies Information Needs: You Just Might Find …', Popular Music and Society 27/1 (2004), p. 50.
    • 6. Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin (eds.), On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word (London: Routledge, 1990).
    • 7. Scott DeVeaux, 'Bebop and the Recording Industry: the 1942 AFM Recording Ban Reconsidered', Journal of the American Musicological Society 41/1 (1988), p. 126. See also the essays by Peter Elsdon and Catherine Tackley in this volume for more detailed consideration of jazz recordings and their role in defining the history of jazz.
    • 8. For a concise overview of the arguments relating to the study of music as performance rather than text see Nicholas Cook, 'Music as Performance', in Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (eds.), The Cultural Study of Music (London: Routledge, 2003), pp. 204-14.
    • 9. Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, 'Using Recordings to Study Musical Performance', in Andy Linehan (ed.), Aural History (London: The British Library, 2001), p. 1.
    • 10. By way of examples, Robert Philip has shown how recordings can evidence general changes in performance practice in Early Recordings and Musical Style: Changing Tastes in Instrumental Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992); Nicholas Cook has considered specific interpretative characteristics of an individual conductor: 'The Conductor and the Theorist: Furtwängler, Schenker, and the First Movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony', in John Rink (ed.), The Practice of Performance: Studies in Musical Interpretation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 105-25; and José A. Bowen has examined the relationship between studying recordings and individual interpretation: 'Finding the Music in Musicology: Performance History and Musical Works', in Nicholas Cook and Mark Everist (eds.), Rethinking Music (Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 424-51.
    • 11. Eric W. Rothenbuhler and John Durham Peters, 'Defining Phonography: an Experiment in Theory', The Musical Quarterly 81/2 (1997), p. 243.
    • 12. John Abercromby, 'The International Congress of Folklore in Paris', Folklore 11/4 (1900), p. 428.
    • 13. For more on the use of the phonograph by early jazz musicians see Mark Katz, Capturing Sound: How Technology has Changed Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), pp. 77-81.
    • 14. Such a perspective is consonant with, for example, Howard Becker's idea of 'Art Worlds'. See Howard S. Becker, Art Worlds (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982).
    • 15. Thomas Porcello, '“Tails out”: Social Phenomenology and the Ethnographic Representation of Technology in Music-making', Ethnomusicology 42/3 (1998), p. 496.
    • 16. A variety of approaches in popular and 'non-Western' contexts are demonstrated by the contributors to Paul D. Greene and Thomas Porcello (eds.), Wired for Sound: Engineering and Technologies in Sonic Cultures (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2005). John Baily's contribution to the present volume provides further case studies.
    • 17. There is of course no recording where the technology does not materially affect in some way our perception of the musical performance.
    • 18. Thomas Porcello, 'Afterword', in Wired for Sound, p. 271.
    • 19. For more on the distinction between performance and recordings see Eric Clarke, 'Listening to Performance', in John Rink (ed.), Musical Performance: a Guide to Understanding (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 185-96.
    • 20. For a discussion on the extensive use of editing in the production of Western art music recordings see Robert Philip, Performing Music in the Age of Recording (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 50-62.
    • 21. Gerry Farrell, 'The Early Days of the Gramophone Industry in India: Historical, Social and Musical Perspectives', British Journal of Ethnomusicology 2 (1993), pp. 47-51.
    • 22. See for example Philip, Performing Music, pp. 27-30. On a related point, Erika Brady notes her astonishment when a respected ethnomusicologist was prepared to conclude, on listening to archive wax cylinder recordings, that American Indian songs at the turn of the century averaged four to six minutes in length - precisely the available recording duration of most cylinders, in fact. See Erika Brady, A Spiral Way: How the Phonograph Changed Ethnography (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999), p. 6.
    • 23. This argument runs through much of Frith's writings. See for example Simon Frith, The Sociology of Rock (London: Constable and Company, 1978), pp. 203-9; or Simon Frith, 'Critical Response', in Deanna Campbell Robinson, Elizabeth B. Buck and Marlene Cuthbert (eds.), Music at the Margins: Popular Music and Global Cultural Diversity (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991), pp. 280-7.
    • 24. This is the opening line of Leslie P. Hartley's novel The Go-Between (London: H. Hamilton, 1953), p. 1.
    • 25. Philip, Performing Music, p. 121.
    • 26. Mantle Hood, 'The Challenge of Bi-Musicality', Ethnomusicology 4/2 (1960), p. 56.
    • 27. Bimusicality was a term coined by Hood to describe the process of acquiring musical performance skills in a culture other than one's own. For more details, see ibid.
    • 28. Don Michael Randel, 'The Canons in the Musicological Toolbox', in Katherine Bergeron and Philip V. Bohlman (eds.), Disciplining Music: Musicology and its Canons (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), p. 13.
    • 29. Because transcriptions are inevitably subjective interpretations they are also fraught with difficulties. Martin Clayton has illustrated some of the dangers of transcribing music out of context in his article on transcriptions undertaken by the British scholar Fox Strangways, whose book The Music of Hindostan was highly regarded at the time of its publication in 1914. Clayton points out that Fox Strangways appears to have made mistakes in his notation of Indian music because of his lack of understanding of the principles by which the music is structured. See Martin Clayton, 'A. H. Fox Strangways and The Music of Hindostan: Revisiting Historical Field Recordings', Journal of the Royal Musical Association 124/1 (1999), pp. 86-118.
    • 30. A machine called the melograph - which appears to have been some kind of didactic transcription tool - was invented in Paris as early as 1850 (see Malou Haine, Les Facteurs d'instruments de musique á Paris au xixe siècle (Brussels: Éditions de l'université de Bruxelles, 1985), p. 89). The same term was used in 1880 for an invention which punched holes into paper strips; these could then be fed back into a specially adapted harmonium which would recreate the performance; later player pianos worked on similar principles, while other mechanical musical instruments utilised different technologies (see Alexander Buchner, Mechanical Musical Instruments, trans. Iris Unwin (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978), p. 34). While such machines may be regarded as peripheral to the main focus of phonomusicology, many do provide records of performance practice, albeit confined to the Western art tradition, and we can infer from them a great deal about how certain types of music were performed even prior to phonographic recording (see for example Philip, Performing Music, pp. 30-4). For more on the range of different audio and visual technologies that ethnomusicologists have employed to transcribe musical sound see Ter Ellingson, 'Transcription', in Helen Myers (ed.), Ethnomusicology: an Introduction (London: Macmillan, 1992), pp. 132-3.
    • 31. Ibid., p. 170.
    • 32. Thomas Owens, Bebop: the Music and its Players (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 29.
    • 33. Charles Seeger, 'Toward a Universal Music Sound-Writing for Musicology', Journal of the International Folk Music Council 9 (1957), pp. 63-6.
    • 34. Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, 'The “Objective” and Subjective View in Music Transcription', Ethnomusicology 21 (1977), p. 270.
    • 35. Charles Seeger argues for the distinction to be made between prescriptive notation - that from which a musical performance may be generated - and descriptive notation - that which describes how a performance was actually executed. See Charles Seeger, 'Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing', Musical Quarterly 44/2 (1958), pp. 184-95.
    • 36. See for example Theodor W. Adorno, 'The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception', in Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment (London: Verso, 1997); or Walter Benjamin's well-known paper on 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', in Illuminations, Hannah Arendt (ed.), Hamy Zohn (trans.), (London: Fontana, 1973 (1936)).
    • 37. Keith Negus, Producing Pop: Culture and Conflict in the Popular Music Industry (London: Edward Arnold, 1992), p. 153.
    • 38. For more on the relationship between musicians and the recordings they make, in a variety of contexts, see Stephen Cottrell, Professional Music-Making in London: Ethnography and Experience (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), p. 96; Kay Kaufman Shelemay, 'Toward an Ethnomusicology of the Early Music Movement: Thoughts on Bridging Disciplines and Musical Worlds', Ethnomusicology, 45 (2001), pp. 17-18; and Caroline Bithell, 'Polyphonic Voices: National Identity, World Music and the Recording of Traditional Music in Corsica', British Journal of Ethnomusicology 5 (1996), pp. 39-65.
    • 39. See Peter Manuel, Cassette Culture: Popular Music and Technology in North India (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
    • 40. Nicholas Cook, 'The Domestic Gesamtkunstwerk, or Record Sleeves and Reception', in Wyndham Thomas (ed.), Composition, Performance, Reception: Studies in the Creative Process in Music (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), pp. 105-17.
    • 41. Colin Symes, Setting the Record Straight: a Material History of Classical Recording (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004), pp. 88-123.
    • 42. See for example Lydia Goehr, The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works: an Essay in the Philosophy of Music (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).
    • 43. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan (London: Allen Lane, 1977), p. 135.
    • 44. See Anahid Kassabian, 'Introduction', in David Schwarz, Anahid Kassabian and Lawrence Siegel (eds.), Keeping Score: Music, Disciplinarity, Culture (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997), p. 1, and Joseph Kerman, Contemplating Music: Challenges to Musicology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985).
    • 45. An essential overview of these new directions is provided by Nicholas Cook and Mark Everist (eds.), Rethinking Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
    • 46. Stuart Hall, 'Cultural Studies and its Theoretical Legacies', in Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler (eds.), Cultural Studies (New York and London: Routledge, 1992), p. 278.
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