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Woodacre, Ellie (2016)
Publisher: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: V150, V224, V220
Family relationships were the\ud foundation of dynastic monarchy and\ud provided a crucial basis for the support\ud of the rule of a reigning queen, who was\ud arguably in a far more vulnerable position\ud than that of her male counterparts. This\ud article will examine the situation of the\ud queens regnant of Navarre, between 1274\ud and 1517 with particular regard to their\ud relationship with their natal and marital\ud families. It will highlight various examples\ud which demonstrate the key support\ud that reigning queens received from their\ud family members, which was especially\ud vital in times of crisis. While the paper\ud will also discuss episodes of confl ict and\ud tension within the queens’ family over the\ud succession, it will ultimately argue that\ud support from within the dynasty and from\ud her ruling partner, the king consort, played\ud a vital role in securing and maintaining\ud the rule of a reigning queen.
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    • 16 On Gaston's ambition, see Reglà 1951, passim.
    • 17 Woodacre 2013, pp. 104-105. This will also be discussed later in this article.
    • 18 On the reign of Blanca's father, Carlos III, see Castro 1967 or Ramírez Vaquero's more recent evaluation (2007).
    • 19 A formal complaint from the Buenas Villas was sent to Juana and her husband in 1294 to protest at the administration of the French governor, Hugh de Conflans; AGN Comptos, caj. 4, no. 98 dated 29 May 1294.
    • 20 For examples of her coinage see Poey d'Avant 1961, p. 176 and pictorial example on plate LXXI. Examples of Occitan documents which refer to Juana only can be found in García 1990, p. 203 (Original provenance AGN Irache, leg. 8, no. 230, dated April 1, 1303) and p. 166 (original provenance AHN San Juan, leg. 720-21, no. 46, dated February 7, 1299).
    • 21 Segura 2005, p. 266. The episode is documented in AGN Reg. 8, f. 10v. (1304).
    • 22 For further details on the suits of Juan Principe de Asturias and Juan d'Albret for Catalina's hand, see Woodacre 2013, pp. 136-139.
    • 23 For examples of contemporaries who discuss how Juan's French style of rule and behaviour jarred with the expectations of his subject see Moret 1891, vol.7, pp. 157-158 and Favyn 1612, p. 677.
    • 24 AGN Comptos, Caj. 166, no. 25, dated 15 December 1496 at Pau. Original text is “seguir los grandes y arduos negosios ...en este nuestro Senorio de Bearne y en los otros Senorios y tierra nuestras ...y sobrebiene se requeriria …de aquellos nuestra presencia Real”.
    • 25 Moret 1891, vol. 7, p. 134.
    • 26 The fame of this quotation may be due in part to its inclusion in Diderot's famous Enlightenment work the Encyclopédie; Diderot, le Rond d'Alembert 1761, p. 48.
    • 31 Álvaro Adot Lerga's excellent recent article traces the development of the position of viceroy in Navarre and compares it to the position of governorship and lieutenancy which had been used by earlier Navarrese rulers, see Adot 2013. For a comparative discussion of the lieutenancy in Aragon, which also influenced the Navarrese situation, see Lalinde Abadía 1960.
    • 32 Adot 2013, pp. 617-618.
    • 33 Ibidem, p. 618.
    • 34 For the official appointment of Alain d'Albret as governor and lieutenant general of Navarre, see AGN Comptos, caj. 176, no. 13 dated 24 September 1486 at Saint Juan Pied-de-Port. The document is also reprinted in Adot 2013, pp. 626-627.
    • 35 For an example of his consultation with Catalina and Juan, see a document from 1489 which asks for their consent for an alternative programme of compensation for clerical staff due to constrained funds; AGN Comptos, Caj. 193, no. 31, 2 dated 1 October 1489 at Olite.
    • 36 For more discussion of Alain d'Albret's governorship, see Woodacre 2013, pp. 141-143. 41 Blanca's personal secretary, Simon de Leoz and her confessor Pedro Beraiz, Archbishop of Tiro, were compensated for a series of trips to Castile in 1430 in the efforts to secure the Truce of Majano; see AGN Comptos, Caj. 111, no. 3, 33 dated 8 February 1430; Caj. 111, no. 3, 4 dated 17 August 1430; Caj. 111, no. 3, 5 dated 22 August 1430 and Caj. 111, no. 12, 36 dated 22 December 1430. There is also evidence of a messenger compensated for delivering secret letters to the King of Castile later in 1430; AGN Comptos, Caj. 111, no. 3, 2 dated 8 September 1430. With regard to the involvement of Alfonso V of Aragon, see Ryder 1990, p. 168.
    • 42 AGN Comptos, Caj. 129, no. 32 dated 25 July 1430 at Majano.
    • 43 For more detail on the marriage see Castro 1947, passim.
    • 44 For the negotiations see AGN Comptos, Caj. 7, no. 35. Other related documents are AGN Comptos, Caj. 7, nos. 36-7 and 47 dated between April 1332 and April 1333. The text of the agreement is also printed in full in Castro 1947, pp. 121-144.
    • 45 AGN Comptos, caj. 11, no. 35, dated 27 August 1349 at Conflans. Also printed in Barragán 1997, document 180.
    • 46 Document XXXVIII, dated 10 May 1349 in Brutais 1890, pp. 48-52.
    • 47 For an extended discussion of this suit see Woodacre 2013, pp. 136-139.
    • 52 For more detail on the life of the young princess see López de Meneses 1965, pp. 5-11.
    • 53 For further discussion, see Woodacre 2015b, passim.
    • 54 Adot 2012, pp. 70-71. Juan d'Albret undertook several important missions including one to the Reyes Católicos in 1500 and another to the court of France in 1502.
    • 55 Anne and Catalina frequently addressed the Reyes Católicos as aunt and uncle, as Ferdinand was their half-great uncle through their grandmother Leonor of Navarre. Ferdinand and Isabel would respond in kind, for example Ferdinand's letter of 17 February 1506 to Catalina and Juan d'Albret addresses them as “los muy ilustres Rey y Reyna de Navarra, nuestros muy caros y muy amados sobrinos”; printed in Boissonade 1893, p. 621.
    • 56 For an example of this type of language, see Missive from the King and Queen of Navarre to Ferdinand of Aragon (instructions to the ambassadors Rada and Mauleon), Appendix 16, Doussinague 1944, p. 274. Catalina instructed her ambassadors to remind Ferdinand that she and her husband had always “obedescer y honorar como a proprio padre”.
    • 57 There has been a significant amount of scholarship on Salic Law, both generally and in respect to Juana II's failed succession to the French throne. A few particularly relevant pieces include Hanley 1998; Peyrebonne 2002; Taylor 2001; Viennot, 2006.
    • 58 There are several accounts of the scandal in contemporary chronicles including; Paris 1956 and the anonymous chronicles E Chronico Sanctae Catharinae de Monte Rotomagi and Ex Anonymo Regum Franciae Chronico.
    • 59 In the chronicle attributed to Johanne Parisiensis (John of Paris), it notes “quam rex Ludovicus, dum viveret, pro filia legitima recognovit”; Parisiensis 1855, p. 663. 66 For more on the programme of compensation of the female Capetian cousins see Cazelles 1958, p. 50; Baleztena 1978, document no. 52, p. 34.
    • 71 Ramírez 1993, p. 102-103.
    • 72 Moret noted that Juan de Narbonne “wanted to imagine that the Salic Law was observed in Navarre, which excluded daughters from the inheritance of the kingdom of France”, Moret 1891, vol.7, p. 91. For more on Basque inheritance customs, see Frank, Laxalt, Vosburg 1976 and an extended discussion in Woodacre 2013, pp. 22-23.
    • 73 The letter dated from Montargis on 2 October 1484 can be found in Tucoo-Chala 1961, pp. 175-176.
    • 74 Cadier 1886, p. 183.
    • 75 Bourret 1998, p. 87.
    • 76 AGN Comptos, Caj.177, no. 20, dated September 7, 1497 at Tarbes. The treaty is also reprinted Boissonade 1893, pp. 590-595 (ADPA E547).
    • 77 Boissonade 1893, p. 595.
    • 87 Protesta de la Princesa Blanca, pts. 1 & 2. Full transcribed text available at http://www. euskomedia.org/PDFAnlt/cmn/1922191195.pdf [accessed: 16/10/2014] Original document AGS, Patronato Real, ES.47161.AGS/3.2.48/PTR, Leg. 12, Doc.12, dated 23 April 1462.
    • 88 This passage is significantly repeated in both the original protest and the document which willed her rights to Navarre to Enrique IV. Note: my emphasis above.
    • 89 Original document AGS Patronato Real ES.47161.AGS/3.2.48/PTR, Leg. 12, Doc.11, dated April 30, 1462. Also available online at Euskomedia, see note 86 above.
    • 94 Ibidem, pp. 378-379.
    • 95 Leseur 1893, dated 9 August 1470 at Saint-Martin-de Candes, pp. 383-384.
    • 96 Leseur 1893, dated 27 September 1470 at Corella, pp. 384-386.
    • 97 Zurita 1980-1990, vol.7, 645.
    • 98 Leseur 1893, p. 256.
    • 99 A transcription of the Conventions can be found in Moret 1891, vol. 7, pp. 10-11.
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