Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Kafouri, Salomi
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
The brain undergoes rapid structural and functional changes during gestation and in the first two years of life. But brain development also continues throughout childhood and adolescence with cognitive abilities getting improved. Threats to the vulnerable Central Nervous System can have long-lasting effects throughout the foetal and neonatal periods and beyond infancy, on all aspects of development. This thesis investigates the long-term associations of prenatal tobacco exposure, as well as the long-term associations of breastfeeding with brain and cognitive development of adolescents. Further, it investigates the short-term effects of omega-3 supplementation on brain and cognition of school-aged children. These will be examined in order to identify solutions for optimal development, both at brain and cognitive level, for the new generation. The first study is entirely based on maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy association with cognitive development of adolescents. This study found no differences on cognitive development of exposed and non-exposed adolescents when maternal education was held constant in the two groups. The two subsequently studies examined long-term associations of breastfeeding duration with brain and cognition of adolescents. These studies found that breastfeeding duration was positively linked to intelligence and brain structures, such as caudate nucleus, which is vulnerable to environmental influences during critical periods of brain development. Lastly, the omega-3 supplementation study found no differences between active and placebo group on cognition but found associations between omega-3 fatty acids and brain microstructure thus hypothesizing that higher intake of ω-3 fatty acids can alter concentrations of specific ω-6 fatty acids thus influencing membrane fluidity. As such, our findings suggest that in order to obtain optimal brain and cognitive development, we do not only need to discard toxins or employ nutrients during critical periods of rapid brain development but also take into account other environmental and genetic factors that play vital role in children‘s development.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Makrides M., Neumann M.A., Byard R.W., Simmer K., & Gibson R.A. (1994) Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast and formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 189-94.
    • Makrides M., Neumann M., Simmer K., & Gibson R. (1995) Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with longchain polyunsaturates. Lipids 30(10), 941-948.
    • Maldonado-Devincii A.M., Badanich K.A., & Kirstein C.L. (2010) Alcohol during adolescence selectively alters immediate and long-term behaviour and neurochemistry. Alcohol 44, 57-66.
    • Mann, V. A., Sasanuma, S., Sakuma, N., & Masaki S. (1990) Sex differences in cognitive abilities: a cross-cultural perspective. Neuropsychologia, 28 (10), 1063-1077.
    • Marangell L.B., Martinez J.M., Zboyan H.A., Kertz B., Kim H.F. & Puryear L.J. (2003) A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 160, 996-998.
    • Marshall, W. A. & Tanner, J. M. (1969) Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 44, 291-303.
    • Marshall, W. A. & Tanner, J. M. (1970) Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 45, 13-23.
    • Marszalek J.R., Kitidis C., Dirusso C.C., Lodish H.F. (2005) Long-chain acyl CoA synthetase 6 preferentially promotes DHA metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 10817-26.
    • Marszalek J.R. & Lodish H.F. (2005) Docosahexaenoic acid, fatty acid-interacting proteins, and neuronal function: breast milk and fish are good for you. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 21:633-57.
    • Marteinsdottir I., Horrobin D.F., Stenfors C., Theodorsson E. & Mathe A.A. (1998) Changes in dietary fatty acids alter phospholipid fatty acid composition in selected regions of rat brain. Prog. Neuro-Psychopharm. Biol. Psych. 22(6), 1007-1021.
    • Martin J.A., Hamilton B.E., Sutton P.D., Ventura S.J., Menacker F. & Munson M.L. (2005) Births: final data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Report, 54 (2), 1-116.
    • Martínez M. (1992) Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. J. Pediatr. 120, S129-S138.
    • Mascola M.A., Vunakis H.V., Tager I.B., Speizer F.E., & Hanrahan J.P. (1998) Exposure of young infants to environmental tobacco smoke: breast­feeding among smoking mothers. Am J Public Health 88, 893­6.
    • Masunaga H., Kawashima R., Horn J.L., Sassa Y. & Sekiguchi A. (2008) Neural substrates of the Topology test to measure fluid reasoning: an fMRI study. Intelligence, 36, 607-615.
    • McAlonan G.M., Cheung V., Cheung C., Cua S.E., Murphy D.G.M., Suckling J., Tai K-S., Yip L.K.C., Leung P. & Ho T.P. (2007) Mapping brain structure in attention deficithyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based MRI study of regional grey and white matter volume. Psychiatric Research, 154, 171-180.
    • McCall R.B. (1977) Childhood IQ's as predictors of adult educational and occupational status. Science, 197, 482-483.
    • McGee, R., & Stanton W. R. (1994) Smoking in pregnancy and child development to age 9 years. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 30 (3), 263-8.
    • McGowan J.C. (1999) The physical basis of magnetization transfer imaging. Neurology, 53(5 Suppl. 3), S3-S7.
    • McNamara R.K., Able J., Jandacek R., Rider T., Tso P., Eliassen J.C., Alfieri D., Weber W., Jarvis K., DelBello M.P., Strakowski S.M. & Adler C.M. (2010) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation increases prefrontal cortex activation during sustained attention in healthy boys: a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Clin Nutr 91 (4), 1060-1067.
    • McNamara R.K. & Carlson S.E. (2006) Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function: Potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 74, 329-49.
    • Melrose R.J., Poulin R.M., & Stern C.E. (2007) An fMRI investigation of the role of the basal ganglia in reasoning. Brain Research, 1142, 146-158.
    • Michaelsen K.F., Lauritzen L., & Mortensen E.L. (2009) Effects of breast-feeding on cognitive function. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 639, 199-215.
    • Michel A., & Garey L. (1984) The development of dendritic spines in the human visual cortex. Human Neurobiology, 3, 223-227.
    • Newton N. (1971) Psychological differences between breast and bottle feeding. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24, 993-1004.
    • Northstone K., Emmett P. & Rogers I. (2008) Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 471-9.
    • O'Banion M.K. (1999) Cyclooxygenase-2: molecular biology, pharmacology, and neurobiology. Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 13, 45-82.
    • Obata T., Nagakura T., Masaki T., Maekawa K. & Yamashita K. (1999) Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits prostaglandin D2 generation by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase-2 in cultured human mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy 29, 1129-1135.
    • O'Brien J.S. & Sampson E.E. (1965) Fatty acids and fatty aldehyde composition of the major brain lipids in normal gray matter, white matter and myelin. J. Lipid Res. 6, 645-651.
    • Oddy W.H., Kendall G.E., Blair E., de Klerk N.H., Stanley F.J., Landau L.I., Silburn S., & Zubrick S. (2003) Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 17, 81-90.
    • Okuda Y., Ezure M., Tsukahara K., Sawada T., Mizutani M., Katori T., Bannai C. & Yamashita K. (1994) Eicosapentaenoic acid enhances intracellular free calcium in cultured human endothelial cells. Biochem Med Metab Biol 51, 166-168.
    • Oloyede O.B., Folayan A.T., & Odutuga A.A. (1992) Effects of low-iron status and deficiency of essential fatty acids on some biochemical constituents of rat brain. Biochem. Int. 27, 913-922.
    • ONS. Statistics on smoking: England 2006. 2006.
    • Osborne J.W. & Overbay A. (2004) The power of outliers (and why researchers should always check for them). Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation (9).
    • Osendarp S.J., Baqhurst K., Bryan J., Calvaresi E., Hughes D., Hussaini M., Karyadi E., Van-Klinden J-W., Van Der Knaap H., Lukito W., Mikasa H., Transler C., Wilson C, The NEMO study group (2007) Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory in well-nourished and marginally nourished school-aged children: 2 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in Australia and Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr. 86, 1082- 1093.
    • Paus T. (2005) Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9, 60-68.
    • Paus T. (2010) Growth of white matter in the adolescent brain: Myelin or axon? Brain and Cognition 72(1), 26-35.
    • Paus T., Keshavan M. & Giedd J.N., (2008) Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 947-957.
    • Paus, T., Nawazkham, I., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, G. B., Pitiot, A., Richer, L., Veillette, S., & Pausova, Z. (2008) Corpus callosum in adolescent offspring exposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking. NeuroImage, 40, 435-441.
    • Paus T., Zijdenbos A., Worsley K., Collins D.L., Blumenthal J., Giedd J.N., Rapoport J.L. & Evans A.C. (1999) Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. Science 19(5409), 1908-1911.
    • Pausova, Z., Paus, T., Abrahamowicz, M., Almerigi, J., Arbour, N., Bernard, M. et al. (2007) Genes, maternal smoking and the offspring brain and body during adolescence: design of The Saguenay Youth Study. Human Brain Mapping, 28, 502-518.
    • Peet M., Brind J., Ramchand C.N., Shah S. & Vankar G.K. (2001) Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 49, 243-251.
    • Pfefferbaum A., Mathalon D.H., Sullivan E.V., Rawles J.M., Zipursky R.B. & Lim K.O. (1994) A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood. Arch Neurol 51, 874--887.
    • Picciano M.F. (2001) Nutrient composition of human milk. Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(1), 53-67.
    • Pizzagalli D.A., Holmes A.J., Dillon D.G., Goetz E.L., Birk J.L., Bogdan R., Dougherty D.D., Iosifescu D.V., Rauch S.L. & Maurizio F. (2010) Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 702-710.
    • Pointer G. (2005) The UK's major urban are a.sFocus on people and migration: 2005, Sherman D.L., & Brophy P.J. (2005) Mechanisms of axon ensheathment and myelin growth. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6(9), 683-690.
    • Sexton, M., Fox, N. L., & Hebel, J. R. (1990) Prenatal exposure to tobacco. II. Effects on cognitive functioning at age three. International Journal of Epidemiology, 19, 72-77.
    • Simmer K., Patole S.K., & Rao S.C. (2008) Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 23 (1), 1-69.
    • Simmer K., Schulzke S.M. & Patole S. (2008) Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 23(1).
    • Simopoulos A.P. (2002) The importance of the ratio of ω-6/ω-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56, 365-379.
    • Sled J.G., Zijdenbos A.P. & Evans A.C. (1998) A non-parametric method for automatic correction of intensity non-uniformity in MRI data. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 17, 87-97.
    • Song M., Zhou Y., Li Y., Liu Y., Tian L., Yu C. & Jiang T. (2008) Brain spontaneous functional connectivity and intelligence. Neuroimage 41, 1168-1176.
    • Sowell E.R., Jernigan T.L., Mattson S.N., Riley E.P., Sobel D.F. & Jones K.L. (1996) Abnormal development of the cerebellar vermis in children prenatally exposed to alcohol: size reduction in lobules I-V. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 20(1), 31-34.
    • Sowell E.R., Thompson P.M., Leonard C.M., Welcome S.E., Kan E. & Toga A.W. (2004) Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and brain growth in normal children. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(38), 8223- 8231.
    • Sowell E.R., Peterson B.S., Kan E., Woods R.P., Yoshii J., Bansal R., Xu D., Zhu H., Thompson P.M., Toga A.W. (2007) Sex differences in cortical thickness mapped in 176 healthy individuals between 7 and 87 years of age. Cereb Cortex 17, 1550-1560.
    • Spearman C. (1904) General intelligence, objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology 15, 201-293.
    • Stevens L.J., Zentall S.S., Deck J.L., Abate M.L., Watkins B.A., Lipp S.R. & Burgess J.R. (1995) Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism in Boys with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 761-768.
    • Stroop, J. R. (1935) Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662.
    • Stumpf, H., & Jackson, D. N. (1994) Gender-related differences in cognitive abilities: evidence from a medical school admissions testing program. Personality and individual differences, 17 (3), 335-344.
    • Su K.P., Huang S.Y., Chiu C.C. & Shen W.W. (2003) Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13, 267-271.
    • Valentine R.C. & Valentine D.L. (2004) Omega-3 fatty acids in cellular membranes: a unified concept. Prog. Lipid Res. 43, 383-402.
    • Waber, D. P., De Moor, C., Forbes, P. W., Almli, R., Botteron, K. N., Leonard, G., Milovan, D., Paus, T., Rumsey, J. & The Brain Development Cooperative Group. (2007) The NIH MRI study of normal brain development: Performance of a population based sample of healthy children aged 6 to 18 years on a neuropsychological battery. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 1-18.
    • Zimmer I., Hembert S., Dward G., Breton P., Guilloteau D., Besnard J-C. & Chalon S. (1998) Chronic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet-deficiency acts on dopamine metabolism in the rat frontal cortex: a microdialysis study. Neuroscience Letters 240, 177-181.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article