LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Kind, David J
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
This research aimed to develop new fire retardant rubber formulations, by surveying the existing knowledge base for fire retardant approaches for polyisoprene rubber, characterising unmodified compounds, formulating and studying fire retarded compounds for use within suspension and anti-vibration mounting systems. Materials have been prepared on a bench scale and evaluated for physical properties. Thermal decomposition has been studied using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) in both air and nitrogen. Burning behaviour has been studied using a horizontal burning rate method, Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) and the cone calorimeter.\ud Basic rubber mixtures were prepared to investigate the interactions between the polymer and additives, under TGA conditions. Zinc oxide was found to have little effect on the polymer decomposition, while silica reduced thermal stability. When decomposed in air, increasing levels of carbon black reduce the rate of mass loss in the polymer. Comparing formulations with different cross-linking types, sulphur without cross-linking increases the heat release in a cone calorimeter; but when low levels of sulphur form efficient cross-links, heat release is suppressed, as also occurs with organic peroxide cross-linking.\ud The effect of carbon black on burning behaviour was compared with inorganic fillers. Within the cone calorimeter, material containing carbon black formed a char-like residue which provides some reduction in the rate heat release, and did not contribute to the fuel load. The use of inorganic fillers yielded more rapid burning behaviour. Any level of carbon black addition gives a reduction in the rates of heat, smoke, CO, and CO2 release, confirming that carbon black had a stabilising effect.\ud Intumescent formulations were prepared using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol and melamine, and separately using expandable graphite (EG). Within the cone calorimeter both systems yielded a significant reduction in the first peak of heat release rate, but a much higher second peak than for the unmodified compound. This second peak value is associated with the significant levels of intumescence observed. The use of EG gave a greater level of fire retardance compared to the APP formulation.\ud Hydrated fillers, and blends thereof, were investigated; an equal blend of aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) was found to yield the lowest peak release rate on the cone calorimeter. Hydrated fillers were investigated with synergists proposed in the literature. Little benefit was noted for these additives when used as partial replacements for the filler.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3. Billmeyer, F. W. The science of large molecules. In Textbook of polymer science, third ed.; Billmeyer, F. W., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1984; p 21.
    • 4. Nagdi, K. Basic Principles of Rubber Chemistry. In Rubber as an Engineering Material, Nagdi, K., Ed.; Hanser: Munich, 1993; pp 1-7.
    • 5. Billmeyer, F. W. Hydrocarbon Plastics and Elastomers. In Textbook of polymer science, third ed.; Billmeyer, F. W., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1984; pp 361- 382.
    • 6. BS ISO 1629:2007; Rubber and latices. Nomenclature; British Standard Institution, London, 07.
    • 8. Mathew, N. M.; . Natural rubber. In Rubber Technologists Handbook, White, J. R., De, S. K., Eds.; RAPRA Technology Ltd: 2001; pp 11-45.
    • 9. Fernando, M.; Hull, C.; Clark, J. Flame Retardant Natural Rubber Formulations. 176th Technical Meeting of the Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society: 2009.
    • 10. Bryant, C. L. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene (Nitrile) Rubbers - NBR. In Rubber Technology and Manufacture, Second ed.; Blow, C. M., Hepburn, C., Eds.; Butterworths: London, 1985; pp 130-136.
    • 11. Hoffman, W. Vulcanization and vulcanizing agents; MacLaren and Sons Ltd: London, 1967.
    • 12. Brydson, J. A. Rubbery materials and their compounds; Elsevier Applied Science: 1988.
    • 13. Mouseman, M.; Ingham, J. D. Smoke Properties of Highly FIlled EthylenePropylene-Diene Terpolymer Rubbers. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1978, 51 (5), 970-976.
    • 15. Polmanteer, K. E. Silicone rubber, its development and technological progress. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1988, 61 (3), 470-502.
    • 16. Horn, J. B. Materials for Compounding and Reinforcement. In Rubber Technology and Manufacture, second ed.; Blow, C. M., Hepburn, C., Eds.; Butterworths: London, 1982; pp 202-308.
    • 18. Dick, J. S.; Annicelli, R. A. Rubber technology: compounding and testing for perfomance; Hanser Publishers: 2001.
    • 19. Balthasar, M.; Mauss, F.; Knobel, A.; Kraft, M. Detailed modeling of soot formation in a partially stirred plug flow reactor. Combustion and Flame 2002, 128 (4), 395-409.
    • 20. Lockwood, F. C.; Van Niekerk, J. E. Parametric study of a carbon black oil furnace. Combustion and Flame 1995, 103 (1-2), 76-90.
    • 22. Precipitated silica used in 100 M tyres over the past 15 years. Focus on Pigments 2007, 2007 (5), 3.
    • 24. Zhao, Q.; Tannenbaum, R.; Jacob, K. I. Carbon nanotubes as Raman sensors of vulcanization in natural rubber. Carbon 2006, 44 (9), 1740-1745.
    • 25. Frogley, M. D.; Ravich, D.; Wagner, H. D. Mechanical properties of carbon nanoparticle-reinforced elastomers. Composites Science and Technology 2003, 63 (11), 1647-1654.
    • 26. Morrell, S. H. The Chemistry and Technology of Vulcanisation. In Rubber Technology and Manufacture, Second ed.; Blow, C. M., Hepburn, C., Eds.; Butterworths: London, 1985; pp 171-201.
    • 27. Datta, R. N.; Ingham, F. A. A.; . Rubber Additives - Compounding Ingredients. In Rubber Technologists Handbook, White, J. R., De, S. K., Eds.; RAPRA Technology Ltd: 2001; pp 167-208.
    • 28. Cataldo, F. On the ozone protection of polymers having non-conjugated unsaturation. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2001, 72 (2), 287-296.
    • 29. Crowther, B. G.; Lewis, P. M.; Metherell, C. Compounding. In Natural Rubber Science and Technology, Roberts, A. D., Ed.; Oxford University Press: 1998; pp 177-233.
    • 30. Drysdale, D. Fire Science and Combustion. In An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, second ed.; Drysdale, D., Ed.; Wiley: Chichester, 1998; pp 2-30.
    • 31. Cullis, C. F.; Hirschler, M. M. Polymer Combustion: Fundamental Studies. In The Combustion of Organic Polymers, Culls, C. F., Hirschler, M. M., Eds.; Clarenden Press: Oxford, 1981; pp 93-228.
    • 32. Billmeyer, F. W. Polymerization conditions and polymer reactions. In Textbook of polymer science, third ed.; Billmeyer, F. W., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1984; pp 126-148.
    • 33. Heal, G. R. Thermogravimetry and Derivative Thermogravimetry. In Principles of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, first ed.; Haines, P. J., Ed.; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2002; pp 10-54.
    • 34. Laye, P. G. Differential Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. In Principles of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Haines, P. J., Ed.; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2002; pp 55-93.
    • 35. Warrington, S. B. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis Techniques. In Principles of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Haines, P. J., Ed.; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2002; pp 166-189.
    • 36. Mastovsk K.; Lehotay, S. J. Practical approaches to fast gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2003, 1000 (1-2), 153-180.
    • 37. BS EN 60695-1-10:2010. Fire hazard testing. Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products. General guidelines; British Standard Institution, London. 2010.
    • 38. BS 2782-1: Method 140A:1992 ISO 1210:1992. Part 1: Thermal properties - Method 140A: Determination of the burning behaviour of horizontal and vertical specimens in contact with a small-flame ignition source; British Standard Institution, London. 1992.
    • 39. ISO 4589-2:1996. Plastics - Determination of burning behaviour by oxygen index - Part-2: Ambient temperature test. Geneva, Switzerland, ISO.
    • 40. BS 476-15:1993 ISO 5660-1:1993; British Standard Institution, London: Fire tests on building materials and structures - Part 15: Method for measuring the rate of heat release of products, 93.
    • 41. Huggett, C. Estimation of rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption measurements. Fire and Materials 1980, 4 (2), 61-65.
    • 42. ISO 5659-2:2006. Plastics - Smoke generation - Part 2: Determination of optical density by a single-chamber test. Geneva, Switzerland, ISO.
    • 48. van Krevelen, D. W. Product properties (II) Environmental behaviour and failure. In Properties of polymers, Third ed.; van Krevelen, D. W., Ed.; Elsevier: 1990; pp 725-744.
    • 49. Janowska, G.; Kucharska-Jastrz-├ábek, A.; Rybinski, P.; Wesotek, D.; Wojcik, I. Flammability of diene rubbers. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2010, 102 (3), 1043-1049.
    • 50. Johnson, P. R. A General Correlation of the Flammability of Natural and Synthetic Polymers. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1976, 49 (1), 158-169.
    • 51. Fabris, H. J.; Sommer, J. G. Flame Retardation of Natural and Synthetic Rubbers. In Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials, Kuryla, W. C., Papa, A. J., Eds.; Marcel Dekker: 1973; pp 135-199.
    • 64. Lawson, D. F.; Kay, E. L.; Roberts, D. T. Mechanism of Smoke Inhibition by Hydrated Fillers. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1975, 48 (1), 124-131.
    • 65. Khattab, M. A. Decabromobiphenyl oxide aluminum hydroxide system as a flame retardant for styrene butadiene rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2000, 78 (12), 2134-2139.
    • 66. Vinod, V. S.; Varghese, S.; Kuriakose, B. Aluminum powder filled nitrile rubber composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2004, 91 (5), 3156- 3161.
    • 68. Yang, L.; Hu, Y.; Lu, H.; Song, L. Morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of flame-retardant silicone rubber/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2006, 99 (6), 3275-3280.
    • 79. Sircar, A. K. Identification of elastomers by thermal analysis. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1972, 45 (1), 329-345.
    • 80. Sircar, A. K. Identification of natural and synthetic polyisoprene vulcanizates by thermal analysis. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1977, 50 (1), 71-82.
    • 81. Sircar, A. K. Analysis of Elastomer Vulcanizate Composition by Tg-Dtg Techniques. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1992, 65 (3), 503-526.
    • 93. Jincheng, W.; Yuehui, C. Synthesis of an Intumescent Flame Retardant (IFR) Agent and Application in a Natural Rubber (NR) System. Journal of Elastomers and Plastics 2007, 39 (1), 33-51.
    • 125. Castrovinci, A.; Camino, G.; Drevelle, C.; Duquesne, S.; Magniez, C.; Vouters, M. Ammonium polyphosphate-aluminum trihydroxide antagonism in fire retarded butadiene-styrene block copolymer. European Polymer Journal 2005, 41 (9), 2023-2033.
    • 136. Hollingbery, L. A.; Hull, T. R. The thermal decomposition of huntite and hydromagnesite--A review. Thermochimica Acta 2010, 509 (1-2), 1-11.
    • 167. ISO 11358:1997. Plastics -- Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers -- General principles. Geneva, Switzerland, ISO.
    • 168. BS ISO 9924-1:2000. Rubber and rubber products. Determination of the composition of vulcanizates and uncured compounds by thermogravimetry. Butadiene, ethylene-propylene copolymer and terpolymer, isobutene-isoprene, isoprene and styrene-butadiene rubbers. London, British Standard Institution.
    • 169. BS 476-15:1993 ISO 5660-1:1993. Fire tests on building materials and structures - Part 15: Method for measuring the rate of heat release of products. British Standard Institution, London.
    • 170. DD/CEN TS 45545-2. Railway Applications-Fire Protection of Railway Vehicles.
    • 2009. Brussels, Belgium, European Committee for Standardization
    • 171. Conesa, J. A.; Marcilla, A. Kinetic study of the thermogravimetric behavior of different rubbers. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 1996, 37 (1), 95-110.
    • 172. van Krevelen, D. W. Thermal Decomposition. In Properties of polymers, Third ed.; van Krevelen, D. W., Ed.; Elsevier: 1990; pp 641-653.
    • 173. Byers, J. T. Silane coupling agents for enhanced silica performance. Rubber World, 1998.
    • 174. Cusack, P. Novel coated fillers enhance flame-retardant properties. Plastics, Additives and Compounding 2007, (July/August), 26-29.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article