Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Barker, CI; Germovsek, E; Sharland, M (2017)
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Languages: English
Types: Article
The penicillins remain the class of antibiotics most commonly prescribed to children worldwide. In an era when the risks posed by antimicrobial resistance are growing, an understanding of antibiotic pharmacology and how to apply these principles in clinical practice is increasingly important. This paper provides an overview of the pharmacology of penicillins, focusing on those aspects of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity that are clinically relevant in paediatric prescribing. Penicillin allergy is frequently reported but a detailed history of suspected adverse reactions is essential to identify whether a clinically relevant hypersensitivity reaction is likely or not. The importance of additional factors such as antibiotic palatability, concordance and stewardship are also discussed, highlighting their relevance to optimal prescribing of the penicillins for children.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Ahmed U, Spyridis N, Wong IC, et al. Dosing of oral penicillins in children: is big child=half an adult, small child=half a big child, baby=half a small child still the best we can do? BMJ 2011;343:d7803.
    • 2. Paediatric Formulary Committee. BNF for Children (online) London: BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press, and RCPCH Publications http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnfc/current [Last accessed November 2015].
    • 3. Pacifici GM, Labatia J, Mulla H, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of penicillins in the neonate: a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009;65(2):191-8.
    • 4. De Cock PA, Standing JF, Barker CI, et al. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin/clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015.
    • 5. Roberts JA, Abdul-Aziz MH, Lipman J, et al. Individualised antibiotic dosing for patients who are critically ill: challenges and potential solutions. Lancet Infect Dis 2014;14(6):498-509.
    • 6. Barker CI, Standing JF, Turner MA, et al. Antibiotic dosing in children in Europe: can we grade the evidence from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies - and when is enough data enough? Curr Opin Infect Dis 2012;25(3):235-42.
    • 7. Connors KP KJ, Nicolau DP. Optimizing Antibiotic Pharmacodynamics for Clinical Practice. Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta 2013;4(3).
    • 8. Bielicki J, Lundin R, Patel S, et al. Antimicrobial stewardship for neonates and children: a global approach. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015;34(3):311-3.
    • 9. Kuehn J, Ismael Z, Long PF, et al. Reported rates of diarrhea following oral penicillin therapy in pediatric clinical trials. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2015;20(2):90-104.
    • 10. Pichichero ME, Zagursky R. Penicillin and cephalosporin allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014;112(5):404-12.
    • 11. Bielicki JA, Barker CI, Saxena S, et al. Not too little, not too much: problems of selecting oral antibiotic dose for children. BMJ 2015;351:h5447.
    • 12. British National Formulary. April 2014 BNF e-newsletter. Available from http://www.pharmpress.com/mailouts/bnf/apr14/BNF_enewsletter.html. [Last accessed November 2015].
    • 13. Saxena S, Ismael Z, Murray ML, et al. Oral penicillin prescribing for children in the UK: a comparison with BNF for Children age-band recommendations. Br J Gen Pract 2014;64(621):e217-22.
    • 14. Baguley D, Lim E, Bevan A, et al. Prescribing for children - taste and palatability affect adherence to antibiotics: a review. Arch Dis Child 2012;97(3):293-7.
    • 15. Yin HS, Mendelsohn AL, Wolf MS, et al. Parents' medication administration errors: role of dosing instruments and health literacy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010;164(2):181-6.
    • 16. Principi N, Esposito S. Antibiotic administration and the development of obesity in children. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2016;47(3):171-7.
    • 17. Anderson BJ, Holford NH. Understanding dosing: children are small adults, neonates are immature children. Arch Dis Child 2013;98(9):737-44.
    • 18. Roberts JA, Lipman J, Blot S, et al. Better outcomes through continuous infusion of time-dependent antibiotics to critically ill patients? Curr Opin Crit Care 2008;14(4):390-6.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • EC | GRIP

Cite this article