Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Zhang, Yanling; Ou, Yurong; Yu, Donghong; Yong, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Lei; Cai, Zhaogen; Cheng, Zenong (2015)
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal: BMC Cancer
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Basal-like, Research Article, Breast tumor, Genetics, Necrosis, Immunological classification, Cancer, Prognosis, Cancer Research, Oncology, R1
BACKGROUND: Centrally necrotizing carcinoma of the breast (CNC) represents a newly-identified subset of breast cancer. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this breast cancer subtype are not yet completely understood. METHODS: We assessed the clinicopathological characteristics of 73 cases of CNC and 30 control cases of high-grade infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) with focal necrosis based on light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Cerb-B2/HER2, Ki-67, epidermal growth factor receptor, cytokeratin 5/6, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein, p63 and CD10. RESULTS: All the tumors showed extensive central necrotic or acellular zones with different degrees of fibrotic or hyaline material surrounded by ring-like or ribbon-like residual tumour tissue which were usually high-grade IDCs. The central necrotic zone accounted for at least 30% of the cross-sectional area of the tumor. Thirty-six cases (49.3%) showed a component of ductal carcinoma in situ. The tumorous stroma around the central necrotic zone was accompanied by myxoid matrix formation in 28 cases (40%). Lymphocytic infiltration was present in 53 cases (72.6%). Granulomatous reactions were detected at the periphery of the tumors in 49 cases (67.1%). Immunohistochemistry showed greater expression of basal-like markers (72.2%, 52 cases) than myoepithelial markers (60.6%, 43 cases), both of which were significantly higher than in controls (26.7%, 8 cases) (P < 0.001). According to molecular typing, most CNCs were basal-like subtype (37 cases, 50.7%). Follow-up data were available for 28 patients. Disease progression occurred in 11 patients. The combined rate of recurrence, distant metastasis or death was significantly higher in CNC patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CNC was associated with distinctive clinicopathologic features mostly characterized as basal-like type. Its high proliferative activity, highly-aggressive biological behavior, and high rates of recurrence and metastasis, suggest that CNC should be classified as a new type of breast carcinoma.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Hasebe T, Tsuda H, Tsubono Y, Imoto S, Mukai K. Fibrotic focus in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: a histopathological prognostic parameter for tumor recurrence and tumor death within three years after the initial operation. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88(6):590-9.
    • 2. Tsuda H, Takarabe T, Hasegawa T, Murata T, Hirohashi S. Myoepithelial differentiation in high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas with large central acellular zones. Hum Pathol. 1999;30(10):1134-9.
    • 3. Tsuda H, Takarabe T, Hasegawa F, Fukutomi T, Hirohashi S. Large,central acellular zones indicating myoepithelial tumor diferentiation in high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas as markers of predisposition to lung and brain metastases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(2):197-2O2.
    • 4. Jimenez RE, Wallis T, Visscher DW. Centrally necrotizing carcinomas of the breast: a distinct histologic subtype with aggressive clinical behavior. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(3):331-7.
    • 5. Hemanz F, Alonso-Bartolomé P, González-Rodilla I. Centrally necrotizing breast carcinoma: a rare histological subtype, which was cause of misdiagnosis in an evident clinical local recurrence.World J Surg. Oncology. 2012;10:156.
    • 6. Yu L, Yang W, Cai X, Shi D, Fan Y, Lu H. Centrally necrotizing carcinoma of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of 33 cases indicating its basal-like phenotype and poor prognosis. Histopathology. 2010;57(2):193-201.
    • 7. Oda K, Satake H, Nishio A, Ichihara S, Shimoyama Y, Imai T, et al. Radiologic-pathologic conferences of the Nagoya University Hospital: centrally necrotizing carcinoma of the breast. AJR Am J Roentqenol. 2008;190(4):W237-9.
    • 8. Elston CW, Ellis IO. Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer:experience from a large study with long-term follow-up. Histopathology. 1991;19(5):403-10.
    • 9. Nielsen TO, HSU FD, Jensen K, Cheang M, Karaca G, Hu Z, et al. Immunohistochemical and clinical characterization of the basal-1ike subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(16):5367-74.
    • 10. Guideline Recommendations for HER2 Detection in Breast Cancer Group. Guidelines for HER2 detection in breast cancer, the 2014 version. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2014;43(4):262-7.
    • 11. Carey LA, Perou CM, Livasy CA, Dressler LG, Cowan D, Conway K, et al. Race, Breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA. 2006;295(21):2492-502.
    • 12. Hamperl H. The myoepithelia (myoepithelial cells): normal state; regressive changes; hyperplasia; tumors. Curr Top Pathol. 1970;53:1612-20.
    • 13. Allen AC. So-called mixed rumors of the mammary gland of dog and man, with special reference to the general problem of cartilage and bone formation. Arch Pathol. 1940;29:589-624.
    • 14. Gilchrist KW, Gray R, Fowble B, Tormey DC, Taylor 4th SG. Tumor necrosis is a prognostic predictor for early recurrence and death in lymph node positive breast cancer: a 10-year follow-up study of 728 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group patients. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1929-35.
    • 15. Georgescu R, Coroş MF, Stolnicu S, Podeanu D, Sorlea S, Roşca A, et al. Prognostic factors in breast cancer. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2012;116(1):262-7.
    • 16. Xu Z, Marko NF, Angelov L, Barnett GH, Chao ST, Vogelbaum MA, et al. Impact of preexisting tumor necrosis on the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of brain metastases in women with breast cancer. Cancer. 2012;118(5):1323-33.
    • 17. Yenidunya S, Bayrak R, Haltas H. Predictive value of pathological and immunohistochemical parameters for axillary lymph node metastasis in breast carcinoma. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:18.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article