Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Killcross, Andrew Simon; Nelson, Andrew John Dudley (2006)
Publisher: Society for Neuroscience
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF
Performance of instrumental actions in rats is initially sensitive to postconditioning changes in reward value, but after more extended training, behavior comes to be controlled by stimulus–response (S-R) habits that are no longer goal directed. To examine whether sensitization of dopaminergic systems leads to a more rapid transition from action–outcome processes to S-R habits, we examined performance of amphetamine-sensitized rats in an instrumental devaluation task. Animals were either sensitized (7 d, 2 mg/kg/d) before training (experiment 1) or sensitized between training and testing (experiment 2). Rats were trained to press a lever for a reward (three sessions) and were then given a test of goal sensitivity by devaluation of the instrumental outcome before testing in extinction. Control animals showed selective sensitivity to devaluation of the instrumental outcome. However, amphetamine sensitization administered before training caused the animals’ responding to persist despite the changed value of the reinforcer. This deficit resulted from an inability to use representations of the outcome to guide behavior, because a reacquisition test confirmed that all of the animals had acquired an aversion to the reinforcer. In experiment 2, post-training sensitization did not disrupt normal goal-directed behavior. These findings indicate that amphetamine sensitization leads to a rapid progression from goal-directed to habit-based responding but does not affect the performance of established goal-directed actions.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adams CD (1982) Variations in the sensitivity of instrumental responding to reinforcer devaluation. Q J Exp Psychol Comp Physiol Psychol 34B:77-98.
    • Adams CD, Dickinson A (1981) Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation. Q J Exp Psychol Comp Physiol Psychol 33B:109 -121.
    • Balleine BW (1992) The role of incentive learning in instrumental performance following shifts in primary motivation. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 18:236 -250.
    • Balleine BW, Dickinson A (1998) Goal-directed instrumental action: contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropharmacology 37:407- 419.
    • Balleine BW, Garner C, Gonzalez F, Dickinson A (1995) Motivational control of heterogenous instrumental chains. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 21:203-217.
    • Balleine BW, Killcross AS, Dickinson A (2003) The effect of lesions of the basolateral amygdala on instrumental conditioning. J Neurosci 23:666 - 675.
    • Barrot M, Marinelli M, Abrous DN, Rouge-Pont F, Le Moal M, Piazza PV (1999) Functional heterogeneity in dopamine release and in the expression of Fos-like proteins within the rat striatal complex. Eur J Neurosci 11:1155-1166.
    • Berridge KC, Robinson TE (1998) What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Rev 28:309 -369.
    • Canales JJ (2005) Stimulant-induced adaptations in neostriatal matrix and striosome systems: transiting from instrumental responding to habitual behavior in drug addiction. Neurobiol Learn Mem 83:93-103.
    • Canales JJ, Graybiel AM (2000) A measure of striatal function predicts motor stereotypy. Nat Neurosci 3:377-383.
    • Canales JJ, Capper-Loup C, Hu D, Choe ES, Upadhyay U, Graybiel AM (2002) Shifts in striatal responsivity evoked by chronic stimulation of dopamine and glutamate systems. Brain 125:2353-2363.
    • Choi WY, Balsam PD, Hovitz JC (2005) Extended habit training reduces dopamine mediation of appetitive response expression. J Neurosci 25:6729 - 6733.
    • Colwill RM, Rescorla RA (1985) Postconditioning devaluation of a reinforcer affects instrumental responding. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 11:120 -132.
    • Corbit LH, Muir JL, Balleine BW (2001) The role of the nucleus accumbens in instrumental conditioning: evidence of a functional dissociation between accumbens core and shell. J Neurosci 21:3251-3260.
    • Corbit LH, Muir JL, Balleine BW (2003) Lesions of mediodorsal thalamus and anterior thalamic nuclei produce dissociable effects on instrumental conditioning in rats. Eur J Neurosci 18:1286 -1294.
    • Coutureau E, Killcross S (2003) Inactivation of the infralimbic prefrontal cortex reinstates goal-directed responding in overtrained rats. Behav Brain Res 146:167-174.
    • Di Chiara GD, Imperato A (1988) Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:5274 -5278.
    • Dickinson A (1985) Actions and habits: the development of behavioral autonomy Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 308:67-78.
    • Dickinson A, Balleine BW (1993) Actions and responses: the dual psychology of behaviour. In: Spatial representation (Eilan N, McCarthy R, Brewer MW, eds), pp 277-293. Oxford: Blackwell.
    • Dickinson A, Balleine B (1994) Motivational control of goal-directed action. Anim Learn Behav 22:1-18.
    • Dickinson A, Nicholas DJ, Adams CD (1983) The effect of the instrumental training contingency on susceptibility to reinforcer devaluation. Q J Exp Psychol Comp Physiol Psychol 35B:35-51.
    • Dickinson A, Balleine B, Watt A, Gonzalez F, Boakes RA (1995) Motivational control after extended instrumental training. Anim Learn Behav 23:197-206.
    • Dickinson A, Smith J, Mirenowicz J (2000) Dissociation of pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning under dopamine antagonists. Behav Neurosci 114:468 - 483.
    • Everitt BJ, Wolf ME (2002) Psychomotor stimulant addiction: a neural systems perspective. J Neurosci 22:3312-3320.
    • Everitt BJ, Dickinson A, Robbins TW (2001) The neuropsychological basis of addictive behaviour. Brain Res Rev 36:129 -138.
    • Faure A, Haberland U, Conde F, El Massioui N (2005) Lesion to the nigrostriatal dopamine system disrupts stimulus-response habit formation. J Neurosci 25:2771-2780.
    • Fletcher PJ (1995) Effects of D-fenfluramine and metergoline on responding for conditioned reward and the response potentiating effect of nucleusaccumbens D-amphetamine. Psychopharmacology 118:155-163.
    • Fletcher PJ (1996) Injection of 5-HT into the nucleus accumbens reduces the effects of D-amphetamine on responding for conditioned reward. Psychopharmacology 126:62- 69.
    • Foltin RW (2004) Effects of amphetamine, dexfenfluramine, and diazepam on responding during extinction in nonhuman primates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:325-330.
    • Gray T, Wise RA (1980) Effects of pimozide on lever pressing behavior maintained on an intermittent reinforcement schedule. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 12:931-935.
    • Graybiel AM, Rauch SL (2000) Toward a neurobiology of obsessivecompulsive disorder. Neuron 28:343-347.
    • Holland PC (1979) Differential effects of omission contingencies on various components of Pavlovian appetitive responding in rats. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 5:178 -193.
    • Holland PC (1998) Amount of training affects associatively-activated event representation. Neuropharmacology 37:461- 469.
    • Howell DC (2002) Statistical methods for psychology. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury.
    • Ito R, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2002) Dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during cocaine-seeking behavior under the control of a drug-associated cue. J Neurosci 22:6247- 6253.
    • Jog MS, Kubota Y, Connolly CI, Hillegaart V, Graybiel AM (1999) Building neural representations of habits. Science 286:1745-1749.
    • Killcross AS, Blundell P (2002) Associative representations of emotionally significant outcomes. In: Emotional cognition (advances in consciousness research) (Moore S, Oaksford M, eds), pp 35-73. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    • Killcross S, Coutureau E (2003) Coordination of actions and habits in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. Cereb Cortex 13:400 - 408.
    • Knowlton BJ, Mangels JA, Squire LR (1996) A neostriatal habit learning system in humans. Science 273:1399 -1402.
    • Kurylo DD, Tanguay S (2003) Effects of quinpirole on behavioral extinction. Physiol Behav 80:1-7.
    • Leckman JF, Riddle MA (2000) Tourette's syndrome: when habit-forming systems form habits of their own? Neuron 28:349 -354.
    • Mishkin M, Malamut B, Bachevalier J (1984) Memories and habits: two neural systems. In: Neurobiology of learning and memory (Lynch G, McGaugh J, Weinberger NM, eds), pp 65-77. New York: Guildford.
    • Packard MG, Knowlton BJ (2002) Learning and memory functions of the basal ganglia. Ann Rev Neurosci 25:563-593.
    • Packard MG, White NM (1991) Dissociation of hippocampus and caudatenucleus memory-systems by posttraining intracerebral injection of dopamine agonists. Behav Neurosci 105:295-306.
    • Phillips AG, Fibiger HC (1979) Decreased resistance to extinction after haloperidol: implications for the role of dopamine in reinforcement. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 10:751-760.
    • Reading PJ, Dunnett SB, Robbins TW (1991) Dissociable roles of the ventral, medial and lateral striatum on the acquisition and performance of a complex visual stimulus-response habit. Behav Brain Res 45:147-161.
    • Reynolds JN, Hyland BI, Wickens JR (2001) A cellular mechanism of reward-related learning. Nature 413:67-70.
    • Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (1999) Drug addiction: bad habits add up. Nature 398:567-570.
    • Robbins TW, Giardini V, Jones GH, Reading P, Sahakian BJ (1990) Effects of dopamine depletion from the caudate-putamen and nucleusaccumbens-septi on the acquisition and performance of a conditional discrimination task. Behav Brain Res 38:243-261.
    • Robinson TE, Kolb B (2004) Structural plasticity associated with exposure to drugs of abuse. Neuropharmacology 47:33- 46.
    • Schoenbaum G, Setlow B (2005) Cocaine makes actions insensitive to outcomes but not extinction: implications for altered orbitofrontalamygdalar function. Cereb Cortex 15:1162-1169.
    • Stewart J, Badiani A (1993) Tolerance and sensitization to the behavioral effects of drugs. Behav Pharmacol 4:289 -312.
    • Vanderschuren L, Kalivas PW (2000) Alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization: a critical review of preclinical studies. Psychopharmacology 151:99 -120.
    • Waelti P, Dickinson A, Schultz W (2001) Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature 412:43- 48.
    • Wise RA (2004) Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483- 494.
    • Wyvell CL, Berridge KC (2001) Incentive sensitization by previous amphetamine exposure: increased cue-trigged “wanting” for sucrose reward. J Neurosci 21:7831-7840.
    • Yin HH, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW (2004) Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning. Eur J Neurosci 19:181-189.
    • Yin HH, Ostlund SB, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW (2005) The role of the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning. Eur J Neurosci 22: 513-523.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article