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Myers, S. D.
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
This thesis is concerned with the hydrology of the River Walbrook and its influence on Roman London. The Walbrook had a small catchment (4.7 km2), most of which was rural in the Roman period, and flowed to the Thames through urban Roman London. The research is based upon data abstracted from reports, plans and sections of seventy archaeological investigations in the urban Roman Walbrook Valley, supplemented by archaeological literature, maps, boreholes and modern data. A methodology specifically developed for the research is described and hydrological descriptors of the Roman Walbrook and catchment are recreated, as they would have been 2,000 years ago, for a river that has not flowed for at least 400 years.\ud A mean base flow rate of the river in the Roman period of 87 litres/sec is derived by means of a surrogate river analysis. An analysis of geoarchaeological data using GIS (Geographic Information System) is used to re-create the pre-Roman and late Roman land surfaces and to define the course and bed slopes of the river through urban Roman London and hence its flow-full capacity. A storm flow regime is derived and used to assess flood frequency for key areas within urban Roman London for a range of 36 channel conditions. In the flat northern urban area, flooding would have occurred more than once a year and somewhat less frequently in the other areas. The effectiveness of Roman land-raising activity and river management to reduce flooding is assessed and indicates limited success until completion of the town wall in 220 CE that acted as a flood control device.\ud The counter-intuitive siting of industry in the northern suburbs, in spite of marshy conditions and frequent flooding, is examined. The beneficial use of the Walbrook, by industry, including milling, farming and for water supply and rituals, is also discussed in the context of its hydrology.
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    • 1.1 Research Context, Aims and Objectives and Report Structure ....................................................... 1
    • 1.1.1 Research context ................................................................................................................. 1
    • 1.1.2 Water, Rivers and Society - The Historical Context ............................................................. 4
    • 1.1.3 The Walbrook in Literature .................................................................................................. 6
    • 1.1.4 Research terminology relating to the Walbrook and its valley .......................................... 16
    • 1.1.5 The Need for the Study and its Broader Application.......................................................... 17
    • 1.2 Research Aims and Objectives ...................................................................................................... 19
    • 1.2.2 Principal research objectives and questions ...................................................................... 20
    • 1.3 Research Components and Report Structure ............................................................................... 21
    • 4.5.1 Depictions of palaeo-stratigraphy - 2D and 3D ............................................................... 101
    • 4.5.2 Riverbed slopes - Urban Roman Walbrook Valley (URWV) ............................................. 110
    • 4.6 Geomorphology of the Urban Roman Walbrook Valley (URWV)................................................ 119 4.6.2.1 Zone E - Moorfields to Finsbury Circus/Blomfield Street .......................................... 125 4.6.2.2 Zone D - Finsbury Circus/Blomfield Street to Lothbury ............................................ 127 4.6.2.3 Zone C - Lothbury to Bucklersbury ........................................................................... 129 4.6.2.4 Zone B - Bucklersbury to Cannon Street (the Bloomberg Development) ................. 130 4.6.2.5 Zone A - Cannon Street to Upper Thames Street. .................................................... 131
    • 4.6.3 Areas most at risk of flooding .......................................................................................... 132
    • 4.6.4 Walbrook Valley geomorphology and the potential for water-derived power ................ 133
    • 4.7 Sedimentology of the Urban Roman Walbrook Valley (URWV) .................................................. 134
    • 4.8 Environmental Archaeological Evidence ..................................................................................... 145
    • 4.8.1 Bloomberg Development (BZY10) (Scaife, 2014, 123-130) (Stewart and Smith, 2014,
    • 4.8.2 No. 1 Poultry and vicinity (ONE94) (Hill et al., 1998) (Hill and Rowsome, 2011) (Scaife, 2011,
    • 4.8.3 6-8 Tokenhouse Yard (THY01) (Branch et al., 2012, 60-75)............................................ 149
    • 4.8.4 Moorgate Telephone Exchange, EC2Y (MTX11)............................................................... 151
    • 4.8.5 17-31 Moorfields, Moorgate Station, EC2 (XSP10) & Finsbury Circus (Crossrail), EC2 (XRZ10)
    • 4.8.6 Environmental archaeological evidence - synthesis and summary ................................. 152
    • Chapter 6 Flood Frequency Analysis - Urban Roman Walbrook ..................................................225
    • 6.4 Flood Frequency Assessment - Urban Roman Walbrook - Combined Western and Eastern Streams
    • 6.4.1 Flood frequency assessment - Zone D (north) - Blomfield Street to Lothbury ................ 229
    • 6.4.2 Flood frequency assessment - Zone C - Lothbury to Bucklersbury.................................. 236
    • 6.4.3 Flood frequency assessment - Zone B - Bucklersbury to Cannon Street (Bloomberg
    • Development) ........................................................................................................................... 239
    • 6.4.4 Flood frequency assessment - Zone A - Cannon Street to the Thames ........................... 243
    • 6.5 Influence of Curve Number on Flood Frequency Analysis .......................................................... 247
    • 6.6 Flood frequency - Eastern Stream Only...................................................................................... 250
    • 6.7 Sediment Transport Potential of the Walbrook .......................................................................... 254
    • Chapter 7 Flood Mitigation and River Management...................................................................260
    • 7.1 Research Questions .................................................................................................................... 260
    • 7.2 Data - Flood frequency Mitigation and River Management ....................................................... 261
    • 7.3 Flood Protection and River Management - Case Studies ........................................................... 274
    • 7.3.2 Land raising and constructed land drainage .................................................................... 281
    • Figure 5-20 Storm flows at Draper's Gardens/Kings Arms Yard - immediate pre-Roman period - AMC 2 and 3 .....................................................................................................................221
    • Figure 5-21 Storm flows at Draper's Gardens/Kings Arms Yard - Roman period - AMC 2 and 3 ... ..........................................................................................................................221
    • Figure 5-22 Comparison of storm flows and their return periods for the complete Walbrook river system and the eastern stream only at Blomfield Street.....................................................224
    • Figure 5-23 Comparison of storm flows and their return periods for the complete Walbrook river system and the eastern stream only at Draper's Gardens/Tokenhouse Yard .......................224
    • Figure 6-1 Bed width of ancient Walbrook - archaeological investigations where the complete width of riverbed has been found (for locations of these sites, see Section 3.4.9, Figure 3-12, “7 metre-wide stream channel uncovered on 3 archaeological sites”).................................230
    • Figure 6-2 Blomfield Street to Draper's Gardens/Tokenhouse Yard (Zone D north) - Walbrook flow-full capacities, storm return periods and consequent flood frequency ........................231
    • Figure 6-3 Draper's Gardens/Tokenhouse Yard to Lothbury (Zone D south) - Walbrook flowfull capacities, storm return periods and consequent flood frequency ................................232
    • Figure 6-4 Comparison of flood frequency at Blomfield Street to Draper's Gardens/Tokenhouse Yard and Draper's Gardens/Tokenhouse Yard to Lothbury .................................................233
    • Figure 6-5 Lothbury to Bucklersbury (Zone C) - Walbrook flow-full capacities, storm return periods and consequent flood frequency ...........................................................................237
    • Figure 6-6 Flood frequency along Lothbury to Bucklersbury stretch of Walbrook compared with Draper's Gardens to Lothbury (Roman period) ...................................................................238
    • Figure 6-7 Bucklersbury to Cannon Street (Bloomberg Development - Zone B) - Walbrook flowfull capacities, storm return periods and consequent flood frequency ................................241
    • Figure 6-8 Flood frequency across the Bloomberg Development stretch of Walbrook compared with Draper's Gardens to Lothbury (Roman period) ...........................................................242
    • Figure 6-9 Cannon Street to the Thames (Zone A) - Walbrook flow-full capacities, storm return periods and consequent flood frequency ...........................................................................245
    • Figure 6-10 Flood frequency along the Cannon Street to the Thames stretch of Walbrook compared with Draper's Gardens to Lothbury (Roman period) ...........................................246
    • Figure 6-11 Graph of storm flows generated by Varying CN ...................................................248
    • Table 2-1 Use of archaeological site investigation data in the research (page 1 of 4) .................37
    • Table 3-1 Lengths of the three constituent main stream watercourses .....................................71
    • Table 4-1 Reference and location details of LAARC archaeological site records from which palaeo-stratigraphic data has been acquired........................................................................92
    • Table 4-2 Reference and location details of GLHER and DGLA archaeological site records from which palaeo-stratigraphic data has been acquired..............................................................95
    • Table 4-3 Reference and location details of BGS borehole records from which palaeostratigraphic data has been acquired ...................................................................................97
    • Table 4-4 Number of palaeo-stratigraphy data-points for which horizon elevation values are as measured on-site or have had to be estimated ..................................................................100
    • Table 4-5 Table of Stratigraphic Data Compiled from MoLAS, GLHER, BGS and DGLA records .....103
    • Table 4-6 The Walbrook through urban Roman London from Blomfield Street to Upper Thames Street. Riverbed slopes calculated at 20 metre, 60 metre and 100 metre intervals ............113
    • Table 4-7 Calculation of urban Roman Walbrook bed slopes over four of its constituent stretches ..............................................................................................................................116
    • Table 4-8 Thickness of pre-Roman waterlain deposits and ground-raising deposits .................141
    • Table 4-9 Number of sites with dumped deposits within specified ranges of thickness............143
    • Table 5-1 Rainfall intensity, duration and return data for the Greater Walbrook Valley...........170
    • Table 5-2 Average Monthly rainfall statistics (source: Meteorological Office - Greenwich Park weather station) ...............................................................................................................172
    • Table 5-3 Greater Walbrook Valley - Riverbed Slopes Upstream of Blomfield Street...............182
    • Table 5-4 Soil groupings and their permeability ratings (HydroCAD, 2011; 149).......................183
    • Table 5-5 Runoff Curve Numbers appropriate to the types of cover attributed to the Greater Walbrook Valley immediately prior to and during the Roman Period..................................196
    • Table 5-6 Estimates of MHWS and MLWS in the Roman period (after Brigham, 1990, 99-183).200
    • Table 5-7 Bed levels at points along Walbrook from Thames ..................................................201
    • Table 5-8 Five modern Thames Region gauging stations selected for use in the surrogate river analysis (Marsh, 2008; 99-112) ..........................................................................................203
    • Table 5-9 Hydrological statistics for the 5 chosen Thames Region gauging stations .................204
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