Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Fine, M; Glendinning, C (2005)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Research and theory on 'dependency' and 'care-giving' have to date proceeded along largely separate lines, with little sense that they are exploring and explaining different aspects of the same phenomenon. Research on 'care', initially linked to feminism during the early 1980s, has revealed and exposed to public gaze what was hitherto assumed to be a 'natural' female activity. Conversely, disability activists and writers who have promoted a social model of disability have seen the language of and the policy focus upon 'care' as oppressive and objectifying. 'Dependency' is an equally contested concept: sociologists have scrutinised the social construction of dependency, politicians have ascribed negative connotations of passivity, while medical and social policy discourse employs the term in a positivist sense as a measure of physical need for professional intervention. Autonomy and independence, in contrast, are promoted as universal and largely unproblematic goals. These contrasting perspectives have led social theory, research and policies to separate and segregate the worlds of 'carers' from those for whom they 'care'. Drawing on the work of Kittay and others, this paper explores the ways in which sociological perspectives can develop new understanding of the social contexts of 'care' and 'dependence'.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Arber, S., Gilbert, N. and Evandrou, M. 1988. Gender, household composition and receipt of domiciliary services by the elderly disabled. Journal of Social Policy, 17, 2, 153-76.
    • Arber, S. and Gilbert, N. 1989. Men : the forgotten carers. Sociology, 23, 1, 111-8.
    • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1999. Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia 1998 : Summary of Findings. Publication 4430.0, ABS, Canberra.
    • Baldock, J. 1997. Social care in old age : more than a funding problem. Social Policy and Administration, 31, 1, 73-89.
    • Baldock, J. and Ungerson, C. 1996. Money, care and consumption : families in the new mixed economy of social care. In Jones, H. and Millar, J. (eds), The Politics of the Family. Avebury, Aldershot, Hampshire, 167-87.
    • Baldwin, S. and Twigg, J. 1991. Women and community care. In Maclean, M. and Groves, D. (eds), Women's Issues in Social Policy. Routledge, London, 117-35.
    • Baltes, M. 1996. The Many Faces of Dependency in Old Age. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Bowden, P. 1997. Caring : Gender-Sensitive Ethics. Routledge, London.
    • Braithwaite, V. A. 1989. Bound to Care. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.
    • Brisenden, S. 1989. A charter for personal care. Progress, Disablement Income Group, London, 9-10.
    • Brody, E. 1981. Women in the middle and family help to older people. The Gerontologist, 26, 373-81.
    • Bytheway, B. and Johnson, J. 1998. The social construction of carers. In Symonds, A. and Kelly, A. (eds), The Social Construction of Community Care. Macmillan, London, 241-53.
    • Chamberlayne, P. and King, A. 2000. Cultures of Care : Biographies of Carers in Britain and the Two Germanies. Policy, Bristol.
    • Chappell, N., Penning, M. and Behie, G. 1996. Primary and secondary caregivers : different experiences, different meanings ? In Minichiello, V., Chappell, N., Kendig, H. and Walker, A. (eds), Sociology of Aging : International Perspectives. Research Committee on Aging, International Sociological Association, Melbourne, 161-75.
    • Charlesworth, A., Wilkin, D. and Durie, A. 1984. Carers and Services : A Comparison of Men and Women Caring for Dependent Elderly People. Equal Opportunities Commission, Manchester.
    • Clegg, S. 1989. Frameworks of Power. Sage, London.
    • Collopy, B. J. 1995. Power, paternalism and the ambiguities of autonomy. In Gamroth, L. M., Semradek, J. and Torquist, E. M. (eds), Enhancing Autonomy in Long-Term Care. Concepts and Strategies. Springer Publishing Company, New York, 3-14.
    • Durkheim, E. 1984. The Division of Labor in Society. Translator W.D. Hall, Free Press, New York.
    • Finch, J. and Groves, D. 1980. Community care and the family : a case for equal opportunities ? Journal of Social Policy, 9, 4, 487-514.
    • Finch, J. and Groves, D. (eds) 1983. A Labour of Love. Women, Work and Caring. Routledge, London.
    • Finch, J. and Mason, J. 1993. Negotiating Family Responsibilities. Routledge, London.
    • Fineman, M. A. 1995. The Neutered Mother, the Sexual Tragedy and other Twentieth Century Tragedies. Routledge, London.
    • Fraser, N. and Gordon, L. 1994. A genealogy of dependency : tracing a keyword of the US welfare state. Signs, 19, 2, 309-34.
    • Gerstel, N. 1991. The Third Shift : Gender, Difference and Women's Care-Giving. Unpublished lecture delivered to Women's Studies Colloquium, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York.
    • Gibson, D. 1998. Aged Care : Old Policies, New Solutions. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
    • Giddens, A. 1984. The Constitution of Society : Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Polity, Cambridge.
    • Gilligan, C. 1984. In a Different Voice : Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    • Glendinning, C. 1989. The Costs of Informal Care : Looking Inside the Household. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
    • Graham, H. 1983. Caring : a labour of love. In Finch, J. and Groves, D. (eds), A Labour of Love : Women, Work and Caring. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 13-30.
    • Henderson, J. and Forbat, L. 2002. Relationship-based social policy : personal and policy constructions of ' care '. Critical Social Policy, 22, 4, 669-87.
    • Heron, C. 1998. Working with Carers. Jessica Kingsley, London.
    • Hirst, M. 2001. Trends in informal care in Britain. Health and Social Care in the Community, 9, 6, 348-57.
    • Keith, L. and Morris, J. 1995. Easy targets : a disability rights perspective on the ' children as carers ' debate. Critical Social Policy, 15, 2/3, 36-57.
    • Kendig, H. L. (ed.) 1986. Ageing and Families : A Social Networks Perspective. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.
    • Kittay, E. F. 1999. Love's Labor : Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency. Routledge, New York.
    • Land, H. 1978. Who cares for the family ? Journal of Social Policy, 3, 7, 357-84.
    • Lewis, J. and Meredith, B. 1988. Daughters Who Care. Routledge, London.
    • Lloyd, L. 2000. Caring about carers : only half the picture ? Critical Social Policy, 20, 1, 136-50.
    • Lloyd, L. 2003. Caring relationships ; beyond ' carers ' and ' service users '. In Stalker, K. (eds), Reconceptualising Work with Carers : New Directions for Policy and Practice. Research Highlights 43, Jessica Kingsley, London, 37-55.
    • Mackenzie, C. and Stoljar, N. (eds) 2000. Relational Autonomy : Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy, Agency and the Social Self. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Martin, J. 1989. Transforming moral education. In Brabeck, M. (ed.), Who Cares ? Theory, Research and Educational Implications of the Ethic of Care. Praeger, New York, 183-96.
    • Melzer, D., Hopkins, S., Pencheon, D., Brayne, C. and Williams, R. 1994. Dementia, Section 16. In Stevens, A. and Raftery, J. (eds), Health Care Needs Assessment. Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford, 5-16.
    • Mendus, S. 1991. Human nature and the culture of enterprise. In Hutton, J. (ed.), Dependency to Enterprise. Routledge, London, 21-33.
    • Milne, A. 2001. Caring in Later Life : Reviewing the Role of Older Carers. Help the Aged, London and Tizard Centre, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent.
    • Moore, J. 1987. Speech published by Conservative Political Centre, quoted in Hutton, J., Dependency to Enterprise. Routledge, London, 21.
    • Morris, J. 1991. Pride Against Prejudice. Women's Press, London.
    • Morris, J. 1993. Independent Lives ? Community Care and Disabled People. Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
    • Morris, J. 1994. Community care or independent living ? Critical Social Policy, 40, 1, 24-45.
    • Nissel, M. and Bonnerjea, L. 1982. Family Care of the Handicapped Elderly : Who Pays ? Policy Studies Institute, London.
    • Noddings, N. 1984. Caring : A Feminist Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. University of California Press, Berkeley.
    • Oldman, C. 2002. Later life and the social model of disability. Ageing & Society, 22, 6, 791-806.
    • Office of National Statistics 2003. Census 2001 : National Report for England and Wales. Stationery Office, London.
    • Orme, J. 2001. Gender and Community Care. Palgrave, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
    • Parker, G. 1990. With Due Care and Attention : A Review of Research on Informal Care (Second Edition). Occasional Paper 2, Family Policy Studies Centre, London.
    • Parker, G. 1993. With This Body : Caring and Disability in Marriage. Open University Press, Buckingham.
    • Parker, R. A. 1981. Tending and social policy. In Goldberg, E. M. and Hatch, S. (eds), A New Look at the Personal Social Services. Discussion Paper 4, Policy Studies Institute, London.
    • Phillipson, C., Bernard, M., Phillips, J. and Ogg, J. 1998. The family and community life of older people : household composition and social networks in three urban areas. Ageing & Society, 18, 3, 259-89.
    • Pickard, L., Wittenberg, R., Comas-Herrera, A., Darton, R. and Davies, B. 2000. Relying on informal care in the new century ? Informal care for elderly people in England to 2031. Ageing & Society, 20, 6, 745-72.
    • Rønning, R. 2002. In defence of care : the importance of care as a positive concept. Quality in Ageing : Policy, Practice and Research, 3, 4, 34-43.
    • Royal Commission on Long-Term Care 1998. With Respect to Old Age : Long-term Care - Rights and Responsibilities. Stationery Office, London.
    • Sennett, R. 2003. Respect : The Formation of Character in a World of Inequality. Allen Lane, London.
    • Sevenhuijsen, S. 1993. Paradoxes of gender : ethical and epistemological perspectives on care in feminist political theory. Acta Politica, 28, 2, 131-49.
    • Sevenhuisen, S. 1998. Citizenship and the Ethics of Care : Feminist Considerations on Justice, Morality and Politics. Routledge, London.
    • Shakespeare, T. 2000 a. The social relations of care. In Lewis, G., Gewirtz, S. and Clarke, J. (eds), Rethinking Social Policy. Sage, London, 52-65.
    • Shakespeare, T. 2000 b. Help. Venture, Birmingham, England.
    • Shaver, S. and Fine, M. 1996. Social policy and personal life : changes in state, family and community in the support of informal care. In Department of Human Services and Health, Towards a National Agenda for Carers. Aged and Community Care Service Development and Evaluation Report 22, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 19-36.
    • Stephenson, C. 1976. Dedication. New South Wales Council on Ageing, Sydney.
    • Townsend, P. 1963. The Family Life of Old People. Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middlesex.
    • Townsend, P. 1981. The structured dependency of the elderly : a creation of social policy in the twentieth century. Ageing & Society, 1, 1, 5-28.
    • Tronto, J. C. 1993. Moral Boundaries : A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care. Routledge, London.
    • Ungerson, C. 1987. Policy is Personal. Tavistock, London.
    • Ungerson, C. 1997. Give them money : is cash a route to empowerment ? Social Policy and Administration, 31, 1, 45-53.
    • Ungerson, C. 2000. Thinking about the production and consumption of long-term care in Britain : does gender still matter ? Journal of Social Policy, 29, 4, 623-43.
    • Walker, A. 1982. Dependency and old age. Social Policy and Administration, 16, 115-35.
    • Watson, E. and Mears, J. 1995. ' I Go to Work for a Holiday ' : Women, Work and Care of the Elderly. Department of Social Policy and Research Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Western Sydney, Sydney.
    • Watson, E. and Mears, J. 1999. Women, Work and Care of the Elderly. Ashgate, Aldershot, Hampshire.
    • Wenger, G. C. 1986. What do dependency measures measure ? In Phillipson, C., Bernard, M. and Strang, P. (eds), Dependency and Interdependency in Old Age : Theoretical Perspectives and Policy Alternatives. Croom Helm for the British Society of Gerontology, Beckenham, Kent, 69-84.
    • Wenger, C. 1994. Understanding Support Networks and Community Care. Avebury, Aldershot, Hampshire.
    • Wilkin, D. 1987. Conceptual problems in dependency research. Social Science and Medicine, 24, 10, 867-73.
    • Williams, F. 2001. In and beyond New Labour : towards a new political ethics of care. Critical Social Policy, 21, 4, 467-93.
    • Wright, F. 1986. Left to Care Alone. Gower, Aldershot, Hampshire.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article