Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Blake Damer P; Vrba Vladimir; Pocock Rebecca L; Barkway Christopher P (2011)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC Veterinary Research
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Issue 96, Infection, Research Article, LAMP, Field tools, SF600-1100, Chickens, Diagnostics, Coccidiosis, veterinary(all), Veterinary medicine, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification, Eimeria



Eimeria parasites can cause the disease coccidiosis in poultry and even subclinical infection can incur economic loss. Diagnosis of infection predominantly relies on traditional techniques including lesion scoring and faecal microscopy despite the availability of sensitive molecular assays, largely due to cost and the requirement for specialist equipment. Despite longstanding proven efficacy these traditional techniques demand time and expertise, can be highly subjective and may under-diagnose subclinical disease. Recognition of the tight economic margins prevailing in modern poultry production and the impact of avian coccidiosis on poverty in many parts of the world has highlighted a requirement for a panel of straightforward and sensitive, but cost-effective, Eimeria species-specific diagnostic assays.


Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an uncomplicated, quick and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool. In this study we have developed a panel of species-specific LAMP assays targeting the seven Eimeria species that infect the chicken. Each assay has been shown to be genuinely species-specific with the capacity to detect between one and ten eimerian genomes, equivalent to less than a single mature schizont. Development of a simple protocol for template DNA preparation from tissue collected post mortem with no requirement for specialist laboratory equipment supports the use of these assays in routine diagnosis of eimerian infection. Preliminary field testing supports this hypothesis.


Development of a panel of sensitive species-specific LAMP assays introduces a valuable new cost-effective tool for use in poultry husbandry.

  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Chapman, H. D., et al. A selective review of advances in coccidiosis research. Adv Parasitol. 83, 93-171 (2013).
    • 2. Shirley, M. W., Smith, A. L., Tomley, F. M. The biology of avian Eimeria with an emphasis on their control by vaccination. Adv Parasitol. 60, 285-330 (2005).
    • 3. Fornace, K. M., et al. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability. PLoS ONE. 8, (12), e84254 (2013).
    • 4. Schwarz, R. S., Jenkins, M. C., Klopp, S., Miska, K. B. Genomic analysis of Eimeria spp. populations in relation to performance levels of broiler chicken farms in Arkansas and North Carolina. J Parasitol. 95, (4), 871-880 (2009).
    • 5. Peek, H. W., Landman, W. J. Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies. Vet Q. 31, (3), 143-161 (2011).
    • 6. Johnson, J., Reid, W. M. Anticoccidial drugs: lesion scoring techniques in battery and floor-pen experiments with chickens. Exp Parasitol. 28, (1), 30-36 (1970).
    • 7. Haug, A., Gjevre, A. G., Skjerve, E., Kaldhusdal, M. A survey of the economic impact of subclinical Eimeria infections in broiler chickens in Norway. Avian Pathol. 37, (3), 333-341 (2008).
    • 8. Procunier, J., Fernando, M., Barta, J. Species and strain differentiation of Eimeria spp. of the domestic fowl using DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers. Parasitology Research. 79, (2), 98-102 (1993).
    • 9. Schnitzler, B. E., Thebo, P. L., Mattsson, J. G., Tomley, F. M., Shirley, M. W. Development of a diagnostic PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of four pathogenic Eimeria species of the chicken. Avian Pathol. 27, (5), 490-497 (1998).
    • 10. Vrba, V., Blake, D. P., Poplstein, M. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of all seven Eimeria species that infect the chicken. Vet Parasitol. 174, (3-4), 183-190 (2010).
    • 11. Morris, G. M., Gasser, R. B. Biotechnological advances in the diagnosis of avian coccidiosis and the analysis of genetic variation in Eimeria. Biotechnol Adv. 24, (6), 590-603 (2006).
    • 12. Perry, B., Randolph, T., McDermott, J., Sones, K., Thornton, P. Investing in animal health research to alleviate poverty. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) Nairobi, Kenya (2002).
    • 13. Nagamine, K., Hase, T., Notomi, T. Accelerated reaction by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using loop primers). Mol Cell Probes. 16, (3), 223-229 (2002).
    • 14. Notomi, T., et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 28, (12), E63 (2000).
    • 15. Kaneko, I., et al. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat samples by using molecular methods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77, (21), 7526-7532 (2011).
    • 16. Karanis, P., et al. Development and preliminary evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure for sensitive detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal and water samples. Appl Environ Microbiol. 73, (17), 5660-5662 (2007).
    • 17. Xue, C., et al. Rapid detection of Infectious bursal disease virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. J Vet Diagn Invest. 21, (6), 841-843 (2009).
    • 18. Barkway, C. P., Pocock, R. L., Vrba, V., Blake, D. P. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens. BMC Vet Res. 7, (1), 67 (2011).
    • 19. Long, P., Joyner, L., Millard, B., Norton, C. A guide to laboratory techniques used in the study and diagnosis of avian coccidiosis. Folia Veterinaria Latina. 6, (3), 201-217 (1976).
    • 20. Goto, M., Honda, E., Ogura, A., Nomoto, A., Hanaki, K. Colorimetric detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by using hydroxy naphthol blue. BioTechniques. 46, (3), 167-172 (2009).
    • 21. Arakawa, A., Baba, E., Fukata, T. Eimeria tenella infection enhances Salmonella typhimurium infection in chickens. Poult Sci. 60, (10), 2203-2209 (1981).
    • 22. Blake, D. P., Smith, A. L., Shirley, M. W. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses of Eimeria spp.: an improved process for genetic studies of recombinant parasites. Parasitol Res. 90, (6), 473-475 (2003).
    • 23. Lund, M., Nordentoft, S., Pedersen, K., Madsen, M. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 42, (11), 5125-5132 (2004).
    • 24. Raj, G. D., et al. Real-time PCR-based quantification of Eimeria genomes: a method to outweigh underestimation of genome numbers due to PCR inhibition. Avian Pathol. 42, (4), 304-308 (2013).
    • 25. Blake, D. P., Hesketh, P., Archer, A., Shirley, M. W., Smith, A. L. Eimeria maxima: the influence of host genotype on parasite reproduction as revealed by quantitative real-time PCR. Int J Parasitol. 36, (1), 97-105 (2006).
    • 26. Beck, H. P., et al. Molecular approaches to diversity of populations of apicomplexan parasites. Int J Parasitol. 39, (2), 175-189 (2009).
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • RCUK | Anticoccidial vaccine deve...

Cite this article