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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Valbonesi, Samuel (2010)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: QH301, QK

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: food and beverages
The elemental defence hypothesis was first put forward by Boyd and Martens in 1992. It suggested that plants concentrate high levels of heavy metals into their biomass to act as a defence against herbivory. This thesis focused on testing this theory using zinc (Zn) as the accumulated element. Several plant species, including T. caerulescens, are known as hyperaccumulators of Zn and can contain concentrations greater than 10,000 mg kg-1. The research used a novel technique to assess the levels of Zn in this plant species in the field. Other plant species, which contain more than 2000 mg Zn kg-1 but less than hyperaccumulators, are known as accumulators. They have received increased amounts of attention because research has shown that these concentrations can still have a negative impact on herbivores (Coleman et al., 2005). One of these accumulators, B. juncea, is a fast growing species, well suited to test the defensive qualities of Zn against herbivores and so was the focus of the rest of the thesis. B. juncea was tested to see if the uptake of Zn was inducible by assessing if there was an increased uptake of Zn after plants were subjected to attack by the herbivore H. aspersa. Previous research (Hodge et al, 2000) has shown that many plants are capable of increasing their concentration of defence compounds following herbivore attack. However, damage did not increase Zn uptake in B. juncea, so this elemental defence does not appear to be inducible. The preference and performance of herbivores (juvenile and adult H. aspersa and larvae of P. brassicae) on leaves of B. juncea containing high and low concentrations of Zn was tested. It found that the growth rate of both juvenile snails and larvae of P. brassicae was reduced by a diet of leaves high in Zn concentration and both species selected leaves low in Zn in preference tests, suggesting that Zn is an effective defence. In the final experimental chapter, the thesis evaluates the defensive properties of Zn in B. juncea plants grown in the field. In contrast to the earlier experiments, this field experiment found that plants containing elevated concentrations of Zn were significantly more damaged than those that had been grown on a control treatment, a result which goes against the elemental defence hypothesis. The thesis concludes by suggesting that although increased concentrations of Zn may have an impact on the growth and behaviour of herbivores in the laboratory, these effects do not necessarily occur under field conditions.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3.3 AelsesmesesnintagltdheefesnuciteabhiylpitoythoefstihseuZndnehrygpreereanchcouumseulcaotonrdiTti.ocnase…rul…es…cen…s.t.o...t.e..s..t..t.h..e. 41 3.3.1 Materials and methods ……………………………………………………. 44 3.3.1.1 Experimental design ………………………………………………. 44 3.3.1.2 Seed germination and soil spiking ………………………………... 44 3.3.1.3 Plant harvest ………………………………………………………. 45 3.3.1.4 Preference experiment using the herbivore H. aspersa ………... 45 3.3.1.5 Chemical analysis of plant and soil samples ……………………… 45 3.3.1.6 Statistical analysis ………………………………………………… 46 3.3.2 Results …………………………………………………………………….. 47 3.4 Fwieillddosnurcvoenytatmoidneatteerdmliannedt…he…co…nc…en…tra…tio…n …of…Zn…i…nT…. …ca…eru…le…sce…ns...g..r.o..w...i.n..g. 57 6.4.7.2 Nitrogen content …………………………………………………... 150 6.5 Discussion ………………………………………………………………………. 153 1.1 Response of plants tolerant to heavy metals with increasing metal concentration in 5 soils……………………………………………………………………………….....
    • 1.2 Trade-off hypothesis ……………………………………………………………….. 11 1.3 T. caerulescens growing in the wild ……………………………………………….. 14 3.1 Diagram of the preference trial set-up, involving H. aspersa …………………........ 44 3.2 T. caerulescens plant survival when grown on three different Zn treatments ……... 46 3.3 Mean ± SE Zn concentration in the growth media treatments (A-C) ……………… 47 3.4 Mean ± SE Zn concentration in the above ground biomass of T. caerulescens …… 48 3.5 Mean ± SE Zn concentration factor in the above ground biomass of T. 49 caerulescens ………………………………………………………………………...
    • 3.6 Mean ± SE biomass production of T. caerulescens grown on the different Zn 50 treatments …………………………………………………………………………...
    • 3.7 Photograph of T. caerulescens grown on the three different Zn concentrations at 51 the end of experiment ……………………………………………………………….
    • 3.8 Mean ± SE root mass (DW) produced by T. caerulescens grown on three different 52 Zn treatments ………………………………………………………………………..
    • 3.9 Mean ± SE root: shoot ratio (DW) produced by T. caerulescens grown on three 51 different Zn treatments ……………………………………………………………...
    • 3.10 Mean ± SE percentage damage to leaves from the different Zn treatments in a 54 preference trial using the herbivore H. aspersa …………………………………..
    • 3.11 O/S map of the location of Black Rocks sample site in Derbyshire, UK ………… 56 3.12 Photograph of Black Rocks sample site …………………………………………... 57 3.13 O/S map of the location of Clough Wood sample site in Derbyshire, UK ……….. 58 3.14 Photograph of Clough Wood sample site ………………………………………… 59 3.15 T. caerulescens in the wild in the middle of May, from Black Rocks ……………. 60 3.17 Photograph of Spectrace TN 9000, P-XRF equipment …………………………… 3.18 Mean ± SE Zn concentration of the soil samples from the three sample sites in Derbyshire, analysed by F-AAS ………………………………………………….
    • 3.19 Mean ± SE Zn concentration of plant samples from the three sample sites in Derbyshire, analysed by F-AAS ………………………………………………….
    • 3.20 Mean ± SE Zn concentration factor of plants from the three different sites in Derbyshire, using the F-AAS ……………………………………………………..
    • 3.21 Regression analysis of the Zn concentration in soils by P-XRF and F-AAS ……..
    • 5.4 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing low and medium concentrations of Zn for a third time……………………………………………………………………….
    • 5.5 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing low and high concentrations of Zn ….
    • 5.6 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing low and high concentrations of Zn for a second time ………………………………………………………………………..
    • 5.7 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing low and high concentrations of Zn for a third time ………………………………………………………………………….
    • 5.8 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing medium and high concentrations of Zn …………………………………………………………………………………...
    • 5.9 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing medium and high concentrations of Zn for a second time ………………………………………………………………...
    • 5.10 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by adult H. aspersa when presented with a choice of leaves containing medium and high concentrations of Zn for a third time ………………………………………………………………...
    • 5.11 Mean ± SE percentage of B. juncea leaf consumed by P. brassicae from the two treatments containing either high or low concentrations of Zn ……………… 5.12 Experimental set-up of the growth performance of juvenile snails on a diet of B. juncea leaves containing either high or low concentrations of Zn ………………..
    • 5.13 Mean ± SE concentrations of Zn in B. juncea leaves that formed the diets for the performance trial of juvenile snails, from samples taken at the beginning of the experiment ………………………………………………………………………...
    • 5.14 Mean ± SE juvenile snails masses fed on the two different diets of B. juncea leaves, either containing high or low concentrations of Zn ……………………… 5.15 Mean ± SE adult snail masses fed on the two different diets of B. juncea leaves, either containing high or low concentrations of Zn ……………………………… 5.16 Experimental set-up of P. brassicae performance on a low and high Zn diet ...
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