Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Moores, Elisabeth; Andrade, Jackie
Languages: English
Types: Article
Dyslexia and attentional difficulty have often been linked, but little is known of the nature of the supposed attentional disorder. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART: Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley and Yiend, 1997) was designed as a measure of sustained attention and requires the withholding of responses to rare (one in nine) targets. To investigate the nature of the attentional disorder in dyslexia, this paper reports two studies which examined the performance of teenagers with dyslexia and their age-matched controls on the SART, the squiggle SART (a modification of the SART using novel and unlabellable stimuli rather than digits) and the go-gap-stop test of response inhibition (GGST). Teenagers with dyslexia made significantly more errors than controls on the original SART, but not the squiggle SART. There were no group differences on the GGST. After controlling for speed of reaction time in a sequential multiple regression predicting SART false alarms, false alarms on the GGST accounted for up to 22% extra variance in the control groups (although less on the squiggle SART) but negligible amounts of variance in the dyslexic groups. We interpret the results as reflecting a stimulus recognition automaticity deficit in dyslexia, rather than a sustained attention deficit. Furthermore, results suggest that response inhibition is an important component of performance on the standard SART when stimuli are recognised automatically.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, Revised. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    • Augur, J. (1985). Guidelines for teachers, parents and learners. In M.J. Snowling (Ed.), Children's written language difficulties: Assessment and management. London: Routledge. p147-169.
    • Badian, N.A. (1994). Preschool prediction: Orthographic and phonological skills and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 3-25.
    • Barkley, R.A. (1994). Delayed responding and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: toward a unified theory. In D.K. Routh (Ed.), Disruptive behavior disorders in children: Essays in honor of Herbert Quay (p11-57). New York: Plenum. Cited in Chapter 4 in Attention Memory and Executive Function, G.R.Lyon and N.A.Krasnegor (eds.), Paul Brookes Publishing Co., Maple Press Company, York: Pennsylvania.
    • Brannan, J.R. and Williams, M.C. (1987). Allocation of visual attention in good and poor readers. Perception and Psychophysics, 41, 23-28.
    • Cohen, J., MacWhinney, B., Flatt, M. and Provost, J. PsyScope: An interactive graphic system for designing and controlling experiments in the psychology laboratory using Macintosh computers. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 25, 257-271.
    • Denckla, M.B. and Rudel, R.G. (1976). Rapid 'Automatized' Naming (R.A.N.): Dyslexia differentiated from other learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia, 14, 471-479.
    • Dykman, R.A., Ackerman, P.T. and Oglesby, D.M. (1979). Selective and Sustained Attention in hyperactive, learning-disabled and normal boys. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167, 288-297.
    • Ellis, N. (1981). Visual and name encoding in dyslexic children. Psychological Research, 43, 201-18.
    • Fischer, B. and Weber, H. (1990). Saccadic reaction times of dyslexic and age-matched normal subjects. Perception, 19, 805-818.
    • Manly, T., Robertson, I.H., Galloway, M. and Hawkins, K. (1999). The absent mind: further investigations of sustained attention to response. Neuropsychologia, 37, 661-670.
    • Milberg, V.W., Whitman, R.D. and Galpin, R. (1981). Selective attention and laterality in good and poor readers. Cortex, 17, 571-82.
    • Nicolson, R.I. and Fawcett, A.J. (1990). Automaticity: A new framework for dyslexia research? Cognition, 35, 159-182.
    • Nicolson, R.I. and Fawcett, A.J. (1994). Reaction times and dyslexia. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47A, 29-48.
    • Pardo, J.V., Fox, P.T. and Raichle, M.E. (1991). Localization of a human system for sustained attention by positron emission tomography. Nature, 349, 61-64.
    • Pearson, D.A. and Lane, D.M. (1990). Reorientation in hyperactive and non-hyperactive children: Evidence for developmentally immature attention? In J.T.Enns (Ed.) The Development of Attention: Research and Theory. Elsevier Science: Holland.
    • Rabbitt, P.M. (1979). How old and young subjects monitor and control responses for accuracy and speed. British Journal of Psychology, 70, 305-311.
    • Robertson, I.H., Manly, T., Andrade, J., Baddeley, B.T. and Yiend, J. (1997). 'Oops!': Performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 35, 747-758.
    • Schacher, R., Logan, G., Wachsmuth, R. and Chajcyzk, D. (1988). Attaining and maintaining preparation: A comparison of attention in hyperactive, normal and disturbed control children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 361-378.
    • Schneider, W. and Shiffrin, R.M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing:1. Detection, search and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1-66.
    • Shaywitz, S.E., Fletcher, J.M. and Shaywitz, B.A. (1994). Issues in the definition and classification of attention deficit disorder. Topics in Language Disorders, 14, 1-25.
    • Snowling, M. (1987). Dyslexia: A Cognitive Developmental Perspective. Blackwell, Oxford.
    • Stanovich, K.E. (1988). Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the garden variety poor reader: The phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 590-612.
    • Sykes, D.H., Douglas, V.I., and Morgenstern, G. (1973). Sustained attention in hyperactive children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14, 213-220.
    • Tarver, J.G., Hallahan, D.P., Kauffman, J.M. and Ball, D.W. (1976). Verbal rehearsal and selective attention in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 22, 375-385.
    • Vellutino, F.R. (1979). Dyslexia: Theory and Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Wechsler, D. (1976). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - 3rd edition(WISC III). Sidcup, UK; The Psychological Corporation, Europe.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article