LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Middleton, Timothy A.; Elliott, John R.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Sherlock, Sarah; Walker, Richard T.; Wang, Weitao; Yu, Jingxing; Zhou, Yu (2017)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Discrepancies between geological, seismic and geodetic rates of strain can indicate that rates of crustal deformation, and hence seismic hazard, are varying through time. Previous studies in the northern Shanxi Grabens, at the northeastern corner of the Ordos Plateau in northern China, have found extension rates of anywhere between 0 and 6 mm a−1 at an azimuth of between 95° and 180°. In this paper we determine extension rates across the northern Shanxi Grabens from offset geomorphological features and a variety of Quaternary dating techniques (including new IRSL and Ar-Ar ages), a Kostrov summation using a 700 yr catalogue of historical earthquakes, and recent campaign GPS measurements. We observe good agreement between Quaternary, seismic and geodetic rates of strain, and we find that the northern Shanxi Grabens are extending at around 1–2 mm a−1 at an azimuth of ≈151°. The azimuth of extension is particularly well constrained and can be reliably inferred from catalogues of small earthquakes. We do not find evidence for any substantial variations in extension rate through time, though there is a notable seismic moment rate deficit since 1750. This deficit could indicate complex fault interactions across large regions, aseismic accommodation of deformation, or that we are quite late in the earthquake cycle with the potential for larger earthquakes in the relatively near future.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • m 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 01 01 01 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 in ro f
    • Cheng et al. (1995); Pavlides et al. (1999) Cheng et al. (1995); Pavlides et al. (1999) Cheng et al. (1995); Pavlides et al. (1999) Cheng et al. (1995); Pavlides et al. (1999) Cheng et al. (1995); Pavlides et al. (1999) Yu (2004); Deng et al. (2007) Deng et al. (2007)
    • Shen et al. (2000) Bird, P. & Piper, K., 1980. Plane-stress finite-element models of tectonic flow in southern California, Phys. Earth planet. Inter., 21, 158-175.
    • Cheng, S. & Yang, G., 1998. Fault growth, displacement transfer, and evolution of the Jiugongkou fault overlap zone in Weixian, Hebei, Seismol. Geol., 20(1), 1-8 (in Chinese).
    • Cheng, S., Fang, Z., Yang, G. & Yang, Z., 1995. On segmentation of the fault zone along the northern margin of the Yanqing Basin and earthquake prediction, Seismol. Geol., 17(3), 231-240 (in Chinese).
    • Craig, T.J. & Calais, E., 2014. Strain accumulation in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones from 14 years of continuous GPS observation, J. geophys. Res., 119(12), 9110-9129.
    • Deng, Q., Ran, Y., Yang, X., Min, W. & Chu, Q., 2007. Map of Active Tectonics in China (in Chinese), Seismological Press.
    • Ding, R., Ren, J. & Zhang, S., 2009. Late Quaternary activity and paleoearthquakes along the Nanyukou segment of the northern piedmont fault of the Wutai Mountain, Earthq. Res. China, 25(1), 41-53 (in Chinese).
    • Ekstro¨m, G. & England, P., 1989. Seismic strain rates in regions of distributed continental deformation, J. geophys. Res., 94, 10 231-10 257.
    • Ekstro¨m, G., Nettles, M. & Dziewonski, A., 2012. The global CMT project 2004-2010: Centroid-moment tensors for 13,017 earthquakes, Phys. Earth planet. Inter., 200-201, 1-9.
    • England, P. & McKenzie, D., 1982. A thin viscous sheet model for continental deformation, Geophys. J. Int., 70(2), 295-321.
    • England, P. & Molnar, P., 2005. Late Quaternary to decadal velocity fields in Asia, J. geophys. Res., 110, 1-27.
    • Farr, T.G. et al., 2007. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, Rev. Geophys., 45(2), 1-33.
    • Floyd, M.A. et al., 2010. A new velocity field for Greece: implications for the kinematics and dynamics of the Aegean, J. geophys. Res., 115(B10), 1-25.
    • Gan, W., Zhang, P., Shen, Z.-K., Niu, Z., Wang, M., Wan, Y., Zhou, D. & Cheng, J., 2007. Present-day crustal motion within the Tibetan Plateau inferred from GPS measurements, J. geophys. Res., 112(B8), 1-14.
    • He, J., Liu, M. & Li, Y., 2003. Is the Shanxi rift of northern China extending?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(23), 1-4.
    • He, J., Cai, D., Li, Y. & Gong, Z., 2004. Active extension of the Shanxi rift, north China: does it result from anticlockwise block rotations?, Terra Nova, 16(1), 38-42.
    • He, J., Vernant, P., Che´ry, J., Wang, W., Lu, S., Ku, W., Xia, W. & Bilham, R., 2013. Nailing down the slip rate of the Altyn Tagh fault, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40(October), 5382-5386.
    • Huang, W., Li, W. & Cao, X., 1994. Research on the completeness of earthquake data in the Chinese mainland (I) - North China, Acta Seismol. Sin., 7(3), 351-359.
    • Jackson, J. & McKenzie, D., 1988. The relationship between plate motions and seismic moment tensors, and the rates of active deformation in the Mediterranean and Middle East, Geophys. J. Int., 93(1), 45-73.
    • Jiang, W., Xie, X., Wang, H. & Feng, X., 2003. Holocene palaeoseismic activities along the northern piedmont fault of Hengshan Mountain, Datong Basin, Shanxi Province, Earthq. Res. China, 19(1), 8-19 (in Chinese).
    • Jolivet, R. et al., 2012. Shallow creep on the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) revealed by SAR interferometry, J. geophys. Res., 117(6), 1-18.
    • Kanamori, H., 1983. Magnitude scale and quantification of earthquakes, Tectonophysics, 93, 185-199.
    • Kostrov, V., 1974. Seismic moment and energy of earthquakes, and seismic flow of rock, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Solid Earth, 1, 23-40.
    • Lee, W.H.K., Wu, F.T. & Jacobsen, C., 1976. A catalog of historical earthquakes in China compiled from recent Chinese publications, Bull, seism. Soc. Am., 66(6), 2003-2016.
    • Lee, W.H.K., Wu, F.T. & Wang, S.C., 1978. A catalog of instrumentally determined earthquakes in China (magnitude greater than 6) compiled from various sources, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 68(2), 383-398.
    • Li, B., Atakan, K., Sørensen, M.B. & Havskov, J., 2015a. Stress pattern of the Shanxi rift system, North China, inferred from the inversion of new focal mechanisms, Geophys. J. Int., 201(2), 505-527.
    • Li, B., Havskov, J., Ottemo¨ller, L. & Sørensen, M.B., 2015b. New magnitude scales ML and spectrum-based Mw for the area around Shanxi Rift System, North China, J. Seismol., 19(1), 141-158.
    • Li, B., Sørensen, M.B. & Atakan, K., 2015c. Coulomb stress evolution in the Shanxi rift system, North China, since 1303 associated with coseismic, post-seismic and interseismic deformation, Geophys. J. Int., 203(3), 1642-1664.
    • Li, Q., You, X., Yang, S., Du, R., Qiao, X., Zou, R. & Wang, Q., 2012. A precise velocity field of tectonic deformation in China as inferred from intensive GPS observations, Sci. China Earth Sci., 55(5), 695-698.
    • Li, Y., Yang, J., Xia, Z. & Mo, D., 1998. Tectonic geomorphology in the Shanxi Graben System, northern China, Geomorphology, 23, 77-89.
    • Liu, M., Yang, Y., Shen, Z., Wang, S., Wang, M. & Wan, Y., 2007. Active tectonics and intracontinental earthquakes in China: The kinematics and geodynamics, in Continental Intraplate Earthquakes: Science, Hazard, and Policy Issues, vol. 425, pp. 299-318, Geological Society of America.
    • Liu, M., Stein, S. & Wang, H., 2011. 2000 years of migrating earthquakes in North China: How earthquakes in midcontinents differ from those at plate boundaries, Lithosphere, 3(2), 128-132.
    • Middleton, T.A., Walker, R.T., Parsons, B., Lei, Q., Zhou, Y. & Ren, Z., 2016. A major, intraplate, normal-faulting earthquake: the 1739 Yinchuan event in northern China, J. geophys. Res., 121(1), 293-320.
    • Milliner, C.W.D., Dolan, J.F., Hollingsworth, J., Leprince, S., Ayoub, F. & Sammis, C.G., 2015. Quantifying near-field and off-fault deformation patterns of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 16(5), 1577-1598.
    • Pavlides, S.B., Zouros, N.C., Fang, Z., Cheng, S., Tranos, M.D. & Chatzipetros, A.A., 1999. Geometry, kinematics and morphotectonics of the Yanqing-Huailai active faults (northern China), Tectonophysics, 308, 99-118.
    • Qu, W., Lu, Z., Zhang, Q., Li, Z., Peng, J., Wang, Q., Drummond, J. & Zhang, M., 2014. Kinematic model of crustal deformation of Fenwei basin, China based on GPS observations, J. Geodyn., 75, 1-8.
    • Searle, M.P., Elliott, J.R., Phillips, R.J. & Chung, S.-L., 2011. Crustallithospheric structure and continental extrusion of Tibet, J. Geol. Soc., 168, 633-672.
    • Shen, Z., Zhao, C., Yin, A., Li, Y., Jackson, D.D., Fang, P. & Dong, D., 2000. Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements, J. geophys. Res., 105, 5721-5734.
    • Shen, Z.-K., Jackson, D.D. & Ge, B.X., 1996. Crustal deformation across and beyond the Los Angeles basin from geodetic measurements, J. geophys. Res., 101(B12), 27 927-27 957.
    • Stein, S., Liu, M., Calais, E. & Li, Q., 2009. Mid-continent earthquakes as a complex system, Seismol. Res. Lett., 80(4), 551-553.
    • Storchak, D.A., Di Giacomo, D., Bonda´r, I., Engdahl, E.R., Harris, J., Lee, W.H.K., Villasen˜or, A. & Bormann, P., 2013. Public Release of the ISCGEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009), Seism. Res. Lett., 84(5), 810-815.
    • Tadono, T., Ishida, H., Oda, F., Naito, S., Minakawa, K. & Iwamoto, H., 2014. Precise Global DEM Generation by ALOS PRISM, ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Information Sciences, II-4(May), 71-76.
    • Takaku, J., Tadono, T. & Tsutsui, K., 2014. Generation of high resolution global DSM from ALOS PRISM, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Inf. Sci., 40(4), 243-248.
    • Tapponnier, P. & Molnar, P., 1977. Active faulting and tectonics in China, J. geophys. Res., 82(20), 2905-2930.
    • Thatcher, W., 2009. How the Continents Deform: The Evidence From Tectonic Geodesy, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 37, 237-262.
    • Tong, X., Smith-Konter, B. & Sandwell, D.T., 2014. Is there a discrepancy between geological and geodetic slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System?, J. geophys. Res., 119(3), 2518-2538.
    • Wang, M., 2009. Analysis of GPS data with high precision and study on present-day crustal deformation in China, PhD thesis, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing.
    • Wang, L., 2012. Research of basin marginal active normal faults through multi-scale tectonic geomorphology - a case study on the Yuguang Basin south margin fault, PhD thesis, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing (in Chinese).
    • Wang, K., Ma, J. & Diao, G., 2012. Present day stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt, Geodyn. Tectonophys., 3(3), 195-202.
    • Wang, L., Tian, Q., Li, D. & Zhang, X., 2011. The growth of the south margin fault of the Yuxian-Guangling basin in northwest Beijing area, Seismol. Geol., 33(4), 828-838 (in Chinese).
    • Wang, Q. et al., 2001. Present-day crustal deformation in China constrained by global positioning system measurements, Science, 294, 574-7.
    • Wesnousky, S.G., Jones, L.M., Scholz, C.H. & Deng, Q., 1984. Historical seismicity and rates of crustal deformation along the margins of the Ordos block, North China, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 74(5), 1767-1783.
    • Wessel, P., Smith, W. H.F., Scharroo, R., Luis, J. & Wobbe, F., 2013. Generic Mapping Tools: improved version released, EOS, Trans. Am. geophys. Un., 94(45), 409-410.
    • Xu, X. & Ma, X., 1992. Geodynamics of the Shanxi Rift system, China, Tectonophysics, 208(1-l3), 325-340.
    • Xu, X. & Deng, Q., 1996. Nonlinear characteristics of paleoseismicity in China, J. geophys. Res., 101(B3), 6209-6231.
    • Xu, X., Ma, X. & Deng, Q., 1993. Neotectonic activity along the Shanxi rift system, China, Tectonophysics, 219(4), 305-325.
    • Xu, X., Cheng, G., Ma, X., Sun, Y. & Han, Z., 1994. Rotation model and dynamics of blocks in north China and its adjacent areas, Earth Sci. J. China Univ. Geosci., 19(2), 129-138 (in Chinese).
    • Xu, X., Deng, Q., Wang, Y., Nobuyuki, Y. & Suzuki, Y., 1997. Geomorphic evidence for irregular faulting along the north piedmont of Liulengshan range, Shanxi rift system, China, in Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress Volume 5 - Contemporary Lithospheric Motion Seismic Geology, pp. 87-99, ed. Ye, H., VSP BV, The Netherlands.
    • Xu, X., Wu, W. & Zhang, X., 2002. Latest Crust Movement and Earthquakes in and around Capital Region, pp. 43-104 (in Chinese), Science Press.
    • Xue, H. & Yan, J., 1984. The contemporary crustal stress field around the Ordos block, Acta Geophys. Sin., 27(2), 144-152 (in Chinese).
    • Ye, H., Zhang, B. & Mao, F., 1987. The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Great North China: two types of rifting and crustal necking in the Great North China and their tectonic implications, Tectonophysics, 133(3-4), 217-227.
    • Yu, S., 2004. A study on characteristics of tectonic block motion and tectonic setting of strong earthquakes in northern part of the Shanxi fault depression zone, Acta Seismol. Sin., 17(4), 417-425.
    • Zhang, P. & Gan, W., 2008. Combined model of rigid-block motion with continuous deformation: patterns of present-day deformation in continental China, in Investigations into the Tectonics of the Tibetan Plateau, GSA Special Paper 444, pp. 59-71, eds Burchfiel, B. & Wang, E., Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.
    • Zhang, S., Ren, J. & Nie, G., 2007. Paragenesia of Quaternary pediments and river terraces on the north piedmont of Wutai Mountains, Chin. Sci. Bull., 52(4), 521-530.
    • Zhang, Y., Mercier, J.L. & Verge`ly, P., 1998. Extension in the graben systems around the Ordos (China), and its contribution to the extrusion tectonics of south China with respect to Gobi-Mongolia, Tectonophysics, 285, 41-75.
    • Zhang, Y., Ma, Y., Yang, N., Shi, W. & Dong, S., 2003. Cenozoic extensional stress evolution in North China, J. Geodyn., 36(5), 591-613.
    • Zhao, B., Huang, Y., Zhang, C., Wang, W., Tan, K. & Du, R., 2015. Crustal deformation on the Chinese mainland during 1998-2014 based on GPS data, Geod. Geodyn., 6(1), 7-15.
    • Zhou, Y., 2016. Investigating past and present continental earthquakes with high-resolution optical imagery, D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.
    • Zhu, R. et al., 2001. Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia, Nature, 413(6854), 413-417.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Published in

Cite this article