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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ross-Smith, Viola Heather
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: embryonic structures, animal structures
The pecking response of the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus ) was investigated. This is a type of innate begging behaviour, whereby chicks peck at the red spot on the parent's bill to induce regurgitation of food. The pecking response in naive chicks was found to be released by a diverse range of stimuli, indicating an initial flexibility in this behaviour. However, chicks' reactions were swiftly adjusted with experience, which may be adaptive in rapidly learning the distinguishing features of their parents and the natal environment, as well as a variety of food items, such that chicks can feed effectively when in competition with siblings. Pecking behaviour was robust to predetermined variation between chicks, mediated by differences in egg and parental quality. Experiments were also conducted on the supernormal pecking response, which involves chicks pecking at a higher rate towards a long, thin, red rod with three terminal white stripes than they do towards the parental bill. Tinbergen and Perdeck (1950), who discovered this phenomenon, suggested that it was an adaptation to the angle at which a newly hatched chick crouching in the nest would first see the parental bill. This was addressed experimentally, along with the hypothesis that supernormal behaviour reflects chicks' innate feeding preferences. Little support was found for Tinbergen and Perdeck's (1950) hypothesis. There was some evidence that supernormal pecking is an adaptation to innate feeding preferences, with chicks choosing food items that shared properties with the supernormal stimulus (the white stripes, the red colour and the thinness). However, experimental evidence could not completely refute an alternative interpretation of supernormal behaviour as a non-adaptive byproduct of the chicks' nervous system (Ramachandran, 2004).
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    • Chapter 1: Gulls, evolution and the study of behaviour
    • 1.1 Introduction.........................................................................................
    • 1.2 Instinct...................................................................................................
    • 1.3 The role of gulls in the study of animal behaviour..........................
    • 1.4 The classification and evolution of gulls.........................................
    • 1.5 The Lesser Black-backed Gull.............................................................
    • E xperim ent 4.1 Testing Tinbergen and Perdeck's explanation of the supernormal pecking response.......................................
    • E xperim ent 4.2 The role of individual superstimulus features in the supernormal response.................................................... 4.2a Determining the optimum diameter of the superstimulus................................................................ 4.2b Assessing the effect of superstimulus stripe number and width...................................................................... 4.2bi Choice of three stripes or no stripes....................... 4.2bii Choice of multiple stripes or no stripes................. 4.2biii Choice of three stripes of different widths............. 4.2iv Choice of multiple stripes of different widths 4.2bv Choice of three stripes or multiple stripes............. 4.2c Isolating the effect of individual features of the superstimulus................................................................ 4.2d Deleting individual features of the superstimulus.
    • Experim ent 4.3 External and intrinsic effects on the supernormal pecking response.............................................................. 4.3a Effect of extrinsic factors on supernormal pecking 4.3b Supernormal pecking and stimulus experience 4.4 Discussion.............................................................................................. 4.4.1 The supernorm al e ffe ct............................................................. 4.4.2 Factors affecting the su p e rn o rm a l resp o n se......................... 4.4.3 The adaptive significance of th e supernorm al response A male Lesser Black-backed Gull provides his partner with courtship food............................................................................
    • Fig. 2.2 Breeding pair of Lesser Black-backed Gulls copulates Fig, 2.3 Breeding Lesser Black-backed Gulls fighting over territory..
    • Fig. 2.4 A 1:200,000 map of the inner Bristol Channel, showing Flat Holm Island................................................................................
    • Fig. 2.5 An aerial view of Flat Holm.......................................................
    • Fig. 2.6 The distribution of nests monitored in 2007 and 2008.......
    • Fig. 2.7 Lesser Blacked-backed Gulls on Flat Holm, April 2008..........
    • Fig. 2.8 Examples of nests on the five point classification scale Fig. 2.9 The experimental hatching of Lesser Black-backed Gull chicks..........................................................................................
    • Fig. 2.10 Chicks awaiting measurement, following participation in behavioural tests.......................................................................
    • Fig. 2.11 Seasonal variation in egg production in 2007 and 2008.......
    • Table 2.1 Clutch sizes and egg volumes for first clutches...................
    • Fig. 2.12 The relationship between laying date and egg volume Fig. 2.13 Effect of laying order on egg volume.......................................
    • Fig. 2.14 The relationship between hatching success and clutch size..
    • Fig. 2.15 The relationship between hatching success and week of laying..........................................................................................
    • Fig. 2.16 A kleptoparasitic Lesser Black-backed Gull............................
    • Fig. 2.17 Nest density in the monitored area of the Flat Holm Lesser Black-backed Gull colony in 2007 and 2008..........................
    • Fig. 4.13 Results of a sexing PCR.............................................................
    • Fig. 4.14 The relationship between chick age and supernormal pecking response in experiment 4.3b.....................................
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