Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Lane, D.M.; Hill, S.A.; Huntingford, J.L.; Lafuente, P.; Wall, R.; Jones, K.A. (2015)
Publisher: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli and Libyan Authority for Research, Science and Technology
Journal: Open Veterinary Journal
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Original Article, Subjective, Diagnosis, QL1-991, Canine, Lameness, Video, Zoology
Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman’s rho, Cramer’s V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters’ SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Agostinho, F.S., Rahal, S.C., Miqueleto, N.S.M., Verdugo, M.R., Inamassu, L.R. and El-Warrak, A.O. 2011. Kinematic analysis of Labrador Retrievers and Rottweilers trotting on a treadmill. Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol. 24, 185-191.
    • Böddeker, J., Drüen, S., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Fehr, M., Nolte, I. and Wefstaedt, P. 2012. Computerassisted gait analysis of the dog: Comparison of two surgical techniques for the ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. J. Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol. 25, 11-21.
    • Brown, D.C., Boston, R.C. and Farrar, J.T. 2013. Comparison of Force Plate Gait Analysis and Owner Assessment of Pain Using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory in Dogs with Osteoarthritis. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 27, 22-30.
    • Colborne, G.R. 2004. Gait analysis: Technology looking for a place to happen?. Vet. J. 168, 112-113.
    • Evans, R., Horstman, C. and Conzemius, M. 2005. Accuracy and optimization of force platform gain analysis in Labradors with cranial cruciate disease evaluated at a walking gait. Vet. Surg. 34, 445-449.
    • Gillette, R.L. and Angle, T.C. 2008. Recent developments in canine locomotory analysis: A review. Vet. J. 178, 165-176.
    • Griffon, D.J. 2008. Canine gait analysis: A decade of computer assisted technology. Vet. J. 178, 159-160.
    • Gustås, P., Pettersson, K., Honkavaara, S., Lagerstedt, A.S. and Byström, A. 2013. Kinematic and temporospatial assessment of habituation of Labrador retrievers to treadmill trotting. Vet. J. 198, 114-119.
    • Holton, L.L., Scott, E.M., Nolan, A.M., Reid, J., Welsh, E. and Flaherty, D. 1998. Comparison of three methods used for assessment of pain in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 212, 61-66.
    • Hudson, J.T., Slater, M.R., Taylor, L., Morgan, S.H. and Kerwin, S.C. 2004. Assessing repeatability and validity of a visual analogue scale questionnaire for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 65, 1634-1643.
    • Kapatkin, A.S., Kim, J.Y.W., Garcia-Nolan, T.C., Kim, S.Y., Hayashi, K., Hitchens, P.L. and Stover, S.M. 2014. Modification of the contact area of a standard force platform and runway for small breed dogs. Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol. 27, 257-262.
    • Katic, N., Bockstahler, B.A., Mueller, M. and Peham, C. 2009. Fourier analysis of vertical ground reaction forces in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative disease of the hip joint and in dogs without lameness. Am. J. Vet. Res. 70, 118-126.
    • Keegan, K.G., Dent, E.V., Wilson, D.A., Janicek, J., Kramer, J., Lacarrubba, A., Walsh, D.M., Cassells, M.W., Esther, T.M., Schiltz, P., Frees, K.E., Wilhite, C.L., Clark, J.M., Pollitt, C.C., Shaw, R. and Norris, T. 2010. Repeatability of subjective evaluation of lameness in horses. Equine Vet. J. 42, 92-97.
    • Kim, S.Y., Kim, J.Y., Hayashi, K. and Kapatkin, A.S. 2011. Skin movement during the kinematic analysis of the canine pelvic limb. Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol. 24, 326-332.
    • Lascelles, B.D.X., Roe, S.C., Smith, E., Reynolds, L., Markham J., Marcellin-Little, D., Bergh, M.S. and Budsberg, S.C. 2006. Evaluation of a pressure walkway system for measurement of vertical limb forces in clinically normal dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 67, 277-282.
    • Malikides, N., McGowan, T. and Pead, M. 2007. Equine and canine lameness. In Animal physiotherapy. Eds., McGowan C, Goff L, Stubbs N. Oxford UK: Wiley Blackwell Publishers, pp: 73-101.
    • Millis, D.L. and Levine, D. 2014. Assessing and measuring outcomes. Eds., Millis DL, Levine D. Philadelphia USA: Elsevier Publishers, pp: 220-242.
    • Millis, D.L. and Mankin, J. 2014. Orthopedic and neurologic evaluation. Eds., Millis DL, Levine D. Philadelphia USA: Elsevier Publishers, pp: 180-200.
    • Miqueleto, N.S., Rahal, S.C., Agostinho, F.S., Siqueira, E.G., Araújo, F.A. and El-Warrak, A.O. 2013. Kinematic analysis in healthy and hipdysplastic German Shepherd dogs. Vet. J. 195, 210-215.
    • Oosterlinck, M., Bosmans, T., Gasthuvs, F., Polis, I., Van Ryssen, B., Dewulf, J. and Pille, F. 2011. Accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices and their correlation with visual gait assessment scores in lame and nonlame dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 72, 820-825.
    • Quinn, M.M., Keuler, N.S., Lu, Y., Faria, M.L., Muir, P. and Markel, M.D. 2007. Evaluation of agreement between NRSs, visual analogue scoring scales and force plate gain analysis in dogs. Vet. Surg. 36, 360-367.
    • Rutherford, K.M. 2002. Assessing pain in animals. Anim. Welf. 11, 31-53.
    • Student. 1908. The probable error of a mean. Biometrika 6, 1-25.
    • Viñuela-Fernández, I., Jones, E., Chase-Topping, M.E. and Price, J. 2011. Comparison of subjective scoring systems used to evaluate equine laminitis. Vet. J. 188, 171-177.
    • Waxman, A.S., Robinson, D.A., Evans, R.B., Hulse, D.A., Innes, J.F. and Conzemius, M.G. 2008. Relationship between objective and subjective assessment of limb function in normal dogs with an experimentally induced lameness. Vet. Surg. 37, 241-246.
    • Zink, C.M. 2013. Locomotion and athletic performance, In Canine sports medicine and rehabilitation, Eds., Zink CM, Van Dyke JB. Oxford UK: Wiley Blackwell Publisher, pp: 19-31.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok